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of Holy Saint George, not Sileese." Then I returned again to the Klephts, "Demetri, it must be Sileese," he re- who were drinking the wine that my plied, “for she is small, and I am a poor father had brought to them, and I man. It must be Sileese,” he said again. begged them for the good God's sake to “Sileese, Visla, Karvoon, and Lala; but, spare to me my little friend ,Sileese. hush! the Klephts are here.”

There were tears in my eyes, there was When the goad is pressed into the ox, grief in my heart; but I–I was a boy, the flesh creeps to the pain, the flesh and they mocked me as they drank their gathers itself up like a man's hand when wine. I took off my crimson fez; I knelt it closes. It was so now with my heart, at their feet, but they mocked me. The as I thought of Sileese, my little loving devils! And when they had finished the Sileese. And when I looked at the wine, they pushed me to one side, sayKlephts who had come to us, I felt that ing, “As pame" (Let us go). But Sileese I was very little and weak. But they would not be persuaded from me like they took no notice of me; I was only a the other goats. She ran hither and boy.

thither-she ran till they caught her, “Make haste, Stavros”—they said to and tied a rope about her soft neck. my father-“make haste, for our cap- Then they dragged her away after tain is waiting on the mountain; the them, and I saw them going further and goats—where are they ??

further from me. I could hear Sileese “They shall be yours directly, noble crying to me; I could see them walking men,” answered my father. Then he betwixt the trees, over the patches of turned to me and said, “Quick Demetri, white snow. They were growing small fetch them out of the fold.” And as I with distance; I could scarcely hear went to the door of the fold I heard him Sileese. I could not bear it; I ran after say, Kathesate(sit you down), "I will them. Again I begged them with humbring you wine from the hut-good wine ble words to spare to me Sileese, but and strong.” For my father was a poor they struck me, and I fell with hot tears man, and had great fear of the Klephts. into a bush. Many times I ran to them, He wished them to call him friend. and many times they struck me. They

When I entered the fold Sileese ran were angry that I should follow them, with bleats to meet me. Her voice was and their blows stained my white shirt very small, but it filled my ears, it with blood. But I followed them, stirred my blood. And I would have through and out of the wood, up and wished for some white powder to place over the little hills, on and beyond to in the wine of the Klephts. But I had the great mountain, for I loved Sileese.. it not. I could only drive Visla, Kar- At length they, and I following after voon, and Lala out of the fold, and, with -we came where the river comes from Sileese following at my heels, return to the great mountain. It was very full, the Klephts. When Sileese saw the and its white and angry water was strangers she ran a little to one side, and running hastily betwixt tall black rocks. gazed at them with timid eyes. To walk by its side was difficult, for, “Sileese,” I said; "come, Sileese.” And though there was a path, it was steep and with the sound of my voice she lost her rough. For the goats it was no trouble, terror, and came to me again. The but for us others it was difficult. We Klephts, they laughed at this, and in went more slowly. My breath came their laughter I found hope. “Sileese," quicker. And now the path was narI said again. "Come, pretty one.” row, and now the path was broad; and Then she did what I had taught her to now it ran straight, and now it do. She stood upon her hind legs, and crooked, as if afraid of the great rocks rested her front feet against my white that leant towards the stream. It was a foustanella. I stroked her soft neck, wild place, and they were wild men who she bleated with joy. I pretended to were carrying Sileese away from me. run away; she followed me here, there- It was thus with us, and in this place, everywhere.

when I said to myself, “I will go a little

further, but only a little further." For, 1 Arsenic.

Afendi, my hope of helping Sileese was LIVING AGE.

788

ran

VOL. XV.

dying, and I feared the captain on the get you gone; we will not take you get mountain. He was a bad man, and if to prison." he saw me, who knows but that he To call me a little Klepht, it was silly! would kill me? "I will go," I said to Gian, the tallest of the soldiers—he myself; "yes, I will go as far as that knew me, he had beaten my father till great rock yonder, which the Klephts my father had given him a chicken. are just about to pass; then I will make And he-he to call me a little Klepht! haste to them, and once more, and for But they would not listen when I told the last time, beg for Sileese."

them of Sileese, that she was my friend. When the Klephts came to the base of “Little fool,” they said; “we will eat the great rock they hurried round it, and her!" I-I was a boy, they said, as they I was making haste to follow them, drank their wine; and Sileese-Sileese when a crash like thunder came to me, was a goat, who was small and fat. and passed away with the waters that Then their words passed by me, and were hurrying betwixt the black rocks. they tied Sileese and the other goats to Then I saw them running, stumbling a bush. back towards me, but without Sileese. I was tired, I was hungry, but I would In a minute they were by my side; in not ask of their bread. I was sad, I another they were passing beyond and was angry, but I would not speak. It round another rocky corner. I was was thus with me and the soldiers till alone.

they rose to their feet and set out for the But it was not thunder that I had village of Piltsa, where was their heard—and that I knew, I who have axiomatikos (officer). heard the soldiers' guns speak upon the As I saw them going from me with mountains. And when I went on to the Sileese and the goats, there came to me rock, and, turning it, saw blue-coated a longing for help, a wish that I was ones with rifles in their hands, I was not strong enough to cast them down upon surprised, and ran to Sileese, and took the white snow, and beat them with the cord from about her neck. Bah!" 1 their guns. But when I heard them one of them said, “look at the little urge on the goats with cruel words, Klepht! But he is brave-braver than when I heard them laugh, I was those others.” And with this he pointed water that runs it knows not why, I was his rifle at me as if to shoot me. “I-I as a weak sheep that follows its herd. am no Klepht like those others," I an- Each step that I took brought sobs to swered. “And this is Sileese, who is my throat, each bush that I passed was mine.” Den peirazei,” they answered, veiled in the mist of my tears, yet I foland, driving the goats before them, they lowed the stratiotais. I followed them followed gently after the Klephts. For over the little hills. I paused when they they were in no hurry to catch them, paused, and I heard their bullets fly they had not had the order.

buzzingly over the hills to a distant And as they went they talked of many mark. Some of the bullets hit the tree things-of how they had met the that they were firing at, and I saw white Klephts by chance, of how some day splinters fly from its trunk; but the they would shoot them when they others—where did

they go? Who wished their bullets to go straight. And knows? And they—they did not go to then, when we arrived at the little bills, the village beyond to ask, but continued tney stopped and had food. It was then their way. that I said to them, “I will take the They were very happy, those soldiers; goats to my father. Adio!" So saying, they began to sing—to sing a tragoudo I called to Sileese to come close to me, about Ali Pacha. They were coming and prepared to drive Visla, Karvoon, close to their home at Piltsa, those solana Lala towards our wood. But I had diers, and they sang. But of me, who not money, and the soldiers have was far behind them, they took no nopower. "Not so fast, little Klepht,” tice, for their eyes were upon the blue they said, “the goats are ours. But you, smoke that rose from the cottages of

Piltsa. In a little while I could see 1 Bah! here an exclamation of astonishment. ? Soldiers, or military police.

them pass beneath leafless trees, to go,

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From The Contemporary Review. side of grey trunks. In a little while I,

THE NEW SAYINGS OF CHRIST. too, was passing beneath these trees, and could see the pink and white walls

Mr. Grenfell and Mr. Hunt have preof the cottages of Piltsa. The door of sented the world in general with a docone of these cottages was closing, but ument of the greatest interest; while to not so quickly that I could not see the theological scholars they have given blue-coated one who was shutting it.

one of the prettiest problems conceiv“Pig!" I muttered to myself, as I saw able, in the writing which they have him; "I have been to Piltsa before. I christened “ Abyia Inooû.” Egypt is conwill go to your officer at the big house." stantly yielding up fragments which

When I came to him, that officer, he excite and tantalize us almost unbeartook me by the shoulder and asked me ably; and now she has surpassed herof the blood that was upon my shirt. self. Here we have what purport to be

were kind, though they fresh sayings of the most important laughed. His voice was stern, but his

verson who ever lived; and these are ears were ready to listen. And I told preserved to us on a single leaf of to him that which I have told to you, papyrus, badly mutilated, and, as Afendi. And I begged him for the good glance at the facsimile will show, exGod's sake to save Sileese from his tremely hard to read. soldiers, who had robbed me of her. My

During the next few months we may words came quicker than my sobs, my expect edition after edition of these tzarouchia (shoes), my fez, I took them "Logia” from England, France, and off and waited.

“Come,” said he, as he took up his Germany. We shall have conjectures glittering sword. "Come, you shall good, bad, and worse than bad, on the have your Sileese.” And with that he text, and we shall be told what the quitted his beautiful house, and I fol- fragment is, when and where it was lowed him. He walked with long composed, what the lost portions constrides, his sword it went jingle-jangle tained, what the surviving portions over the rough stones — he was

mean, and what the relation of it all is officer, and he was going to save my

to our four Gospels. But though we Sileese.

shall certainly learn a good deal, and When he came to the door of the probably be enabled to fill up the gaps soldier's cottage he pushed it open-my in the second page of the text, I doubt heart was with his strong arm. As he whether we shall get any work that is entered I pressed close to him, and my on the whole more cautious and sensieyes sought eagerly for Sileese. She ble than the editio princeps. was lying upon her side on the mud

It is not the purpose of this article to floor, there was crimson blood coming answer any of the great questions in from a great gash in her throat. There

Christian "origins” which are sure to was a blue-coated devil by her side with be raised in connection with this fraga knife in his hand; her blood was drip

ment. The time is not ripe for that. ping from the point of the cold steel. I The process of assimilation of new docsprang at him; I would have gripped uments is always a long one; and a dochis knife, I would have buried it in his

ument so new as the “Logia” deinands heart. But the cunning one was too quick for me. I turned to Sileese, her years rather than weeks or months for

its proper appreciation. That which on yellow eyes were dimming with the dews of death. Her bleat came to me as

a first reading seems so unlike anything

we have seen-which stands out so from the summit of some lofty rock. She stretched her little limbs out, she sharply from the background of known was dead, and never again should

Christian literature-will eventually, Sileese and wander over the bills to

no doubt, find its context and its ('ngether. Never again

vironment, and drop into them nat

urally; but that will not be for some NEIL WYNN WILLIAMS.

time to come.

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It is, however, already possible to heretics-for example, Basilides and point out what the fragment is not, and Marcion. Marcion's Gospel, however, to indicate the directions in which the is well known to have been a mutilated nearest parallel to it may be found; and form of St. Luke, while the attribution that is what I shall attempt to do in the to Basilides of anything purporting to following pages.

be a Gospel is in all probability a mistake.

All this goes to show that the books In the first place, then, this document known as Gospels were of a systematic is not a leaf of a Gospel-not, at least, and coherent character, and were either of such a gospel as we know anything lives of Christ or continuous reports of about.

His teaching, not collections of sayings A great many kinds of books have which had no internal bond of connecbeen called Gospels at different times, tion with each other. but no extant recension or fragment of If one were forced to fix on some one any of these leads us to suppose that of the spurious Gospels whose names they had room for such a collection of are known to us as the source of the detached sayings as is contained in the “Logia,” I think I should suggest the leaf from Oxyrhynchus. Of the “Gos- “Traditions” or “Gospel of Matthias” pel of the Egyptians," a book which as the most likely. We have three has been mentioned in connection with short quotations from it, all of which this fragment, we possess

certain are ethical precepts; and almost all the scraps, the chief one being a dialogue writers who speak of it are connected of our Lord with Salome; and from with Egypt. Yet I do not think it Hippolytus and Epiphanius we learn really probable that our sayings are a that it contained esoteric utterances of part of this book. The formula “Jesus Christ to the Apostles. The “Gospel of saith,” which serves to introduce each Philip,” of which we have one frag- saying in our fragment, is not very ment, seems to have been a "Gnostic” suitable to an apostle recording his writing, very much like the "Pistis So- reminiscences of his Master's words. phia,” an extant work which repre. There are, besides, indications that sents Philip as the special recorder of Matthias, in company with Philip and the teaching of Jesus after the Resur- Thomas, was represented by the Egyprection. The very title of the “Gospel tian Gnostics as a special recipient of of Eve," again, transports us into a Christ's esoteric teachings after the visionary sphere totally unconnected Resurrection, a fact which makes it with the earthly life of our Lord; and probable that, if we had the “Gospel of the solitary quotation from it, pre- Matthias,” we should find it to be a served by Epiphanius, confirms the im- book of the same general character as pression we derive from the title. the “Pistis Sophia.” Furthermore, we know enough of the In the next place, this fragment does Gospels called of the "Hebrews,” of the not belong to the work which people "Twelve,” of the “Ebonites," of often describe as the “Logia of Papias.” Peter," to see that in form at least It should be remembered that the they resembled our canonical Gospels; work of Papias was not called “Logia," while those of James" and of but "Expositions of Logia of the Lord”. "Thomas" we actually possess-the λογιών κυριακών εξηγήσεις and both the first, perhaps, in its original shape, the title and the remains of the book inlatter in a shortened form-and we dicate that the proportion of “exposiknow that they dealt with the parent- tions” which it contained must have age and infancy of Christ by way of di- been largely in excess of “Logia.” Its . rect narrative, with little of direct doc- form, too, must have been more elabtrinal utterance.

orate than that of the new fragment. Another class of Gospels was

that However small in intelligence Papias connected with the names of individual may have been (and Eusebius thought

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him very small), he had some preten- Lord made at a time when Gospels sions to graces of style. It is difficult were only beginning, or had not yet beto imagine that he would have incor- gun, to be written. It may be a collecporated in his book a section so very tion of extracts from one or more writunliterary and so miscellaneous in char- ten Gospels. Does the form of it help acter as this is without diluting it with us to a conclusion? some measure of exposition. However, The leaf which we have is marked it is wasting time to prove that this with the number eleven; and if it be at fragment cannot be from Papias. One all fair to build anything on such has but to read the specimens we have meagre data, I would say that it seems of his work to be convinced that it was likely that all the ten preceding leaves of a widely different complexion. And contained matter similar to this; beif we may extend our purview to the cause ten leaves of the size of ours fragments quoted from “the Presby- would not contain any important writters” by Irenæus, some of which are ing to which this could be an appendix. pretty certainly from the “Expositions” Then, again, if we look at the strucof Papias, we shall probably realize ture of the document, it is very difficult that the question is hardly worth de- to make it fit into any class of sacred bating.

writings of which we have any speciWhat, then, is this fragment? It mens. The repeated formula, “Jesus may be a collection of sayings of our saith,” is so bare, so jejune, that one

cannot conceive its occurring in any 1 Shall we ever recover a copy of the five books book which contained anywhere porof Papias ? Egypt has seemingly unlimited pos- tions of narrative. It would not, howsibilities, and may yet give them up. Syria, too,

ever, be inappropriate either to a series is not entirely exhausted ; and there may have been a Syriac version of the work, though I do

of extracts from a larger book, or to a not know that any mention of such a thing has

collection of sayings which contained been brought to light. But in the West, what are sayings and nothing else. our chances? We know that in or about 1218 the

Now I suppose it to be true that church of Nîmes possessed a " thick volume,” books composed exclusively of precepts containing “Librum Popiæ, Librum de Verbis Domini.” To be sure,

or "gnomic" utterances are distincthis

have been a copy

may of the Lexicon of the Paplas who lived in the tively Oriental in character. Certain it eleventh century, bound up with a copy of Au- is that in looking for parallels to the gustine “ De Verbis Domini.” Still, it is not very “Logia,” so far as form is concerned, likely that these two books would be bound up

we find the most striking general re- ' along with other tracts in one volume; and, after all, the Latin version of Iranæus comes to us

semblances in writings like the Jewish from the South of France, and the second century“Pirke Aboth,” or “Sayings of the dialogue of Jason and Papiscus was translated Fathers.” If we turn over the pages into Latin by a cleric in that part of the world. of this, we are constantly met by the So that, on the whole, it is most probable that

simple formulæ, “Abtalion said”; that was a true Papias in Latin at Nimes, though “Shammai said”; “Rabbi said;” “He it is not there now. I am not at all sure that there may not have

used to say.” The Greek collections, been a copy in England also in the fifteenth cen

such as Plutarch's “Apophthegmata tury. John Boston, the Bury monk and biblio- Laconica,” are not of the same kind. grapher, includes Papias of Hierapolis in the list They consist of a series of short anecof writers whose works he had seen in monastic dotes, which specify the circumstances libraries. But not all Boston's work is in print, and, until it is, we shall not know whether he ac

that gave rise to the saying. tually did see the book, or whether he merely It is probable enough that the literaput down the name because it occurred in Je. ture of Persia and India would supply rome's catalogue of ecclesiastical writers, which striking resemblances alike in form and is one of his chief sources.

substance to the document we are disAlmost every considerable monastic library catalogue contains two or three mentions of cussing. These, if they exist, will be Papias ; but in all these cases it is fairly cer- produced in due time. At present I tain that the author of the dictionary is meant. merely wish to indicate that it is a pos

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