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Colors is of as much value as interest country and America will give a new remains, of course, to be proved. It is and fierce energy to those who preach considered by the experts who have the more extreme forms of Sabbataristudied the page, so violently probable anism. Nothing can be stronger than as to be nearly certain that it was writ

the utterance on that subject attributed ten between 150 A. D. and 300 A. D.,

in the "Logia” to Christ. “Except ye that is, it is older than any manuscript keep the Sabbath,” he says in the secGospel in possession. It ond Logion, "ye shall not

the yields, therefore, irrefutable evidence Father.” Those are words which, if that before the end of the second cen- they were really his, the Sabbatarians tury, perhaps much before it, Sayings will certainly not permit to be attributed to Jesus were in circulation plained away. They may have a mysamong his disciples, and were held in tical meaning, as the translators, such reverence as to be carefully pre- see, are already inclined to suggest, served. That is a most interesting fact, “Sabbathing the Sabbath,” the though we must warn the unlearned and Greek has it, being held to refer to devout that in no way proves that the some change of heart, or some revereat sayings were certainly uttered by our mode of using the day of rest; but orLord. It is much more probable that dinary men are impatient of such they are inventions added to authentic meanings, the words are far more detitraditions. There is, and probably can

nite and absolute than those in which be, no external evidence other than our Lord, as we think, rejected the similarity to the Sayings recorded in Jewish belief, and lowered the Sabbath the Gospels which the Church has by to an institution intended for man's unbroken tradition accepted as genuine use, and we almost expect to records, and the internal evidence re- Church founded in which the distincquires to be weighed with a care which tive tenet, possibly superseding all as yet it has been impossible to ibestow. other ceremonial observance, is a sarWeighing of the most hesitating kind age repudiation of St. Paul's idea that is clearly wanted here. The "public,” one day need not be holier than which settles all things, is incompetent other. Its members will quote the to judge, and if we were members of “Saying," as Roman Catholics quote the Lambeth Conference we should be the Saying about the body and blood, a little startled at the apparent readi

as one that is above reason and bindness to believe that because a Saying is ing upon mankind forevermore; and undoubtedly extremely interesting and where, for literal minds at all events, antique, it may therefore be divine. if the Logion is held to be as divine as Additions to the accepted record, and the Gospels-and it is so if the report is especially words attributed to Christ accurate—is the reply? himself, are of extreme importance,

There is danger, therefore, in

too and must not be made, if made at all, ready an acceptance without evidence, without the gravest caution. We can of Sayings attributed to Christ, howconceive of new sects, and even new

ever ancient may be the report of them, creeds, growing up based upon the evi- and the danger is not diminished by a dence of sentences discovered in an au- consideration of the other and less deficient papyrus, and, because they are nite utterances recorded on the same attributed to Jesus, held to be-as, :f papyrus. If the fifth “Logion," they were rightly so ascribed, they “Saying,” is accepted as actually utwould be laws to his followers for- tered by Christ, libraries will be writevermore. Christians hold that what ten to explain its meaning. The words, Christ has said, if only accurately re- in the first part of which there ported, terminates controversy except blanks, run as follows: Jesus saith, as to his precise meaning. We do not Wherever there are and there is doubt, for example, that even now the

1 The Sayings of Our Lord. London: Henry Sayings this week published in this Frowde.

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... alone, I am with him. Raise perverted by some mind filled with the the stone and there thou shalt find me,

Asiatic philosophy, which we know cleave the wood and there am

from other sources began so speedily What do those words mean? It is per- to remould Christianity after more fectly conceivable, indeed it seems to ancient and less trustworthy model. us most probable, that Jesus, if he ut- We ought to want very good evidence tered those words, meant only the great indeed before we add anything to the truth that work done to the Lord was record of the teaching of Christ hithblessed by the Lord, that even while erto accepted as final. the mason was raising the stone, or the It is a curious, though perhaps a usecarpenter cleaving the wood, his spirit, less, speculation, but it would not be an if those works were done with the mo- unparalleled occurrence if the twentitive which should influence all work, eth century, which so many expect will would be present with the worker. be governed by “pure reason,” that is, That promise is in entire accord with will calmly and without violence reject the whole spirit of his teaching, as de- the supernatural, should be torn by scribed in the accepted record, and is new theological controversies based only reduced in the papyrus to a singu- upon what sections of mankind believe larly beautiful, or, in modern phrase, to be new Revelations. It is improbepigrammatic, form; but just think able, but the new couches sociales rising what also the words may mean, and, ils so rapidly into power neither are nor we see from the printed comments will be learned, the instinct of belief is upon them, are at once accepted by very strong in them, and we can colimany minds as meaning. Besides im- ceive of additions to Scripture, early plying in the extremest sense of that

exaggerations of what is called the So theological phrase that Jesus is Goi, cialistic element in Christ's teaching, they contain the very essence of Pan. which, if they were believed to be his, theism, and would, if fully accepted, or were even linked by a discovery like completely modify in the Hindoo direc- the present one into very early tradıtion our whole conception of the uni- tion, would greatly move the world. verse. If God is in inanimate nature

Jesus is made to say in another of in any sense except that he created it, these Logia that he found the world why should we not, as the Hindoo drunken, yet with no one in it athirst; argues, worship him there, and draw

that is, he found all men satisfied with this further deduction, that God being their convictions and no one thirsty for in everything, everything is in some truth; but were he here now he would sense equally holy,-a doctrine with tre

not say that. Western man almost unimendous practical results? Pantheism

versally is athirst, and as Anarchism, does not necessarily exclude, though it Socialism, etc., prove, is by no means so seldom includes, the idea of a sen- particular as to the quality of his liquor tient and separate Creator, but that is so it be but strong enough. We can certainly not Christianity it has conceive of Revelations based on rechitherto been expounded and believed; ords assumed to be Christian being acand though, as we have said, the words cepted by whole communities, and for do not necessarily bear that meaning, them creating a new world. Wisdom, still they will bear it with much less held to be divine, has before now develstraining than has been frequent in

oped instead of restraining earthly theological controversy.

We have folly-witness the repeated misapplicatherefore to beware of being betrayed tions of the story of the Canaanites and by pure antiquarianism into new doc

their extirpation-and it would need trines, and of receiving as words of

only a perversion of the teaching of Christ words which the Evangelists did Christ to pulverize modern civilization not accept as his, and which read very and set Europe and America afloat much, in the fifth Saying at all events, upon a voyage to the land where corn as if they had passed through and been

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man sweat. There is a capacity for tions that have produced a "strain” credulity abroad as deep as the capac- more or less carefully and successfully ity for doubting, and those who are re- concealed. It has been at least necessponsible for teaching the faith will sary to be most cautious and moderate need much caution, as well much over the Russian "invasion" of

the learning, if they are to be inundated Pamirs, the French pretensions in with documents,-certainly old, genuine Siam and the French Soudan, the Ger. as far as they go, and professing 10 man interference in South Africa, and contain fresh utterances from the lips the American claim to protect Veneof him whose Sayings, as they appear zuela, and, indeed, all the States in in the Canon, are still the ultimate law the two Americas except the Canadian of the white world. Very few, unfortu. Dominion. Moreover, we have been innately, fully obey Christ's teaching; volved in an extraordinary succession but the number to whom his com- of little wars. Without counting the. mands, when they approve them, are Raid, wbich was unauthorized, and the final law, is nearly coextensive with small campaign in Rhodesia, which is civilization. A Saying really believed classed as a rebellion, though it was to have been uttered by Christ which really the termination of a savage war, condemned private property would we have been engaged within three change the European Socialists from a years in no less than seven military exfaction into the devotees of creel peditions, of which two at least would which millions would hold as devoutly be counted by any continental general as Mussulmans hold the very few clear among rather serious wars of the seccommands of the Koran.

ond grade of importance. We sent more than a thousand men to dethrone the horrible despot of Ashantee. We employed six thousand troops, really

though not nominally in our service, in From The Economist. the reconquest of Dongola from the A GREAT COUNTRY'S LITTLE WARS.

Dervishes, and thirteen thousand in This country has just been declaring, the really difficult revindication of through the Jubilee demonstrations, Chitral, which excited some anxiety, if that it is proud of its extensive Empire, not suspicion, even in Cabul. We have and its pride is no doubt justifiable, but conquered the African State of Benin it is as well not to forget the risks and by direct and formal invasion, and have the exertions which the greatness of possessed ourselves of an immense terthat Empire and its extraordinary va- ritory by the forcible annexation of the riety involves. Great Britain rules pos- region upon the Niger, vaguely desessions in all continents, and her do scribed as Nupé. And not to mention minion impinges upon all frontiers, three "affairs” in South Africa, each of and, consequently, few years elapse in which involves some loss of life, we are which she is not implicated in

now getting ready ten thousand men serious difficulty with some first-class for the seizure of Berber, or it may be State. Now it is Russia, and again of Khartoum, and sending thirty-five America, then it is Germany, and ever hundred of our best auxiliary troops to since we occupied Egypt, it is always punish the treachery of the Pathan France, with which there is some ques- tribes known collectively the tion that occupies diplomatists, rouses Wuzeerees. In each of these expedithe newspapers, and makes the govern- tions we have risked, or are risking, dement justifiably anxious lest the dis- feats, which if they occurred would be pute should unexpectedly slip beyond most serious, because they could not be the range of quiet negotiation. Within accepted quietly, but must be avenged the past ten years we have been four by further expeditions, which would times upon the verge of war with a constitute drafts upon our small regfirst-class State, without counting ques. ular army and expenditure upon a very

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considerable scale. If we had not suc- pen, to station troops and steamers to ceeded in Ashantee, Benin, and Nupé, the best advantage, or even to make we should have lost all

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sure that an official competent to control African possessions; if we had been de. the region, and with authority to do it, feated in Dongola we should have had shall be within immediate hail. There to fight for Egypt; while if had

was a most curious instance of this very been repulsed from Chitral we should recently, when, serious riots occurring have had the entire Himalaya to re

in Calcutta, it was found that, owing conquer, and perhaps have had to de- to a series of accidental circumstances, fend Peshawur from the Afghans. We there was no one with full authority to

move troops within four hundred miles may add that there was not long since danger for a moment of a collision with of that great capital. Wars and rebel

lions may be, and are, as it were sprung the Negus of Abyssinia, now happily averted through his own perception of upon the British government, and but

that they do not often occur in numbers his own interests, and there perhaps is

at once might almost bewilder the restill risk of a conflict with the sultan of

sponsible chiefs, who as it is must Sokoto, the most formidable potentate

glance over the telegrams published remaining in West Africa.

every morning with a feeling somewhat We do not know that any of these different from that of ordinary readers. campaigns could well have been

If there could be such an officer as a avoided, and should certainly deny that commissioner for the moderation of any of them were deliberately planned. earthquakes, he would be, we fancy, They were not arranged, they only hap- rather a bothered man. There is not pened, and as soon as possible they that we know of any practical remedy, were brought to a conclusion. Parlia- except a limitation of empire, which noment was never consulted about them, body suggests, or, indeed, will hear of our people knew nothing of them till the just now; but it is wise to remember the decision has been made, and except in facts, if only to keep down jingoism, the case of Dongola, it is not too much and wise also to take the only precauto say that but for the enterprise of the tions which are of much avail. One of daily newspapers they would have al

these is to take extreme care in the most escaped general attention. Some selection of the governors and other Department, it may be presumed, gives ruling officials whom we send abroad, a formal sanction before any war can be

a care which is apt at present to become actually declared, and, of course, the

a little intermittent, depending as it heads of the Admiralty and the War does to a great extent upon the compeOffice are carefully consulted, while tence and clearsightedness of permathere is reason to believe that the nent under-secretaries, and the other is Court is very early and very carefully to devote a continuous attention to the informed. The nation, however, as a

mobility of every kind of force that we whole, scarcely knows of what is pass- possess. This, we may rely upon it, is ing when an expedition is being dis

our weak place. The country can decussed, gives no order, and makes no pend upon its soldiers and sailors and sacrifice, and unless there is a calamity, civil agents, and its resources have is less moved than it would be by a vil- scarcely any limit, but it is strangely lage riot at home or a murder in one of apt in the face of perpetual occurrences the great cities. That fact, however, such as we have recorded above to be though it testifies to the singular calm- absurdly unready. Things of imporness of our people, which is of itself one

tance are done in a hurry, which ought element in their strength, is by no means to be done on a system, the departments entirely satisfactory. The spontaneous- are not always harmonious, officers and ness, so to speak, of these little fires

men are pitchforked together, and dangreatly increases the difficulty both of gerous delays are sometimes only insurance and of arranging the fire averted by an exhibition of something brigade. It is nearly impossible in such which a great administrator would conan Empire to anticipate what will hap- demn as recklessness. British recklessness and British dash are not easily to always be separated, to the great advanbe distinguished from each other, but tage of the State, which while loaded still they are separate, and if there with empire must run risks, but need were a little more system they would not quite so often risk defeat.

If we

moon on

The Moon's Influence on the Earth.– the same and that the temperature and Every one knows the great part played the sky should be invariable in all cliby the moon in rural affairs. It is the mates. The problem has been badly moon that causes everything, good and understood, and therefore it is that we bad, in the stable, in the house, and in have remained so long without reaching the fields. Of course, the rôle of our its solution. We wish to examine tosatellite on earth is exaggerated a little; day another side of the question—the but, these exaggerations aside, it still influence of the moon on vegetation, exerts a sufficiently great influence on which has been made the subject of our planet. Regarding the action of the very numerous controversies.

the weather and on earth- must speak with a certain reserve of quakes, everybody knows the opinion the lunar influence on tree-growth, we that I have maintained for more than a should add that no one has shown that quarter of a century, and that is now such influence does not exist. beginning to have weight in the scien- M. Rousset, in his critical study, calls tific world, but not without efforts. to mind an experiment that I made a The problem is quite complex, and, so long time ago in the tropics, by planting far as the weather is concerned, the side by side ten seeds in the wane of the proof is difficult to present clearly. moon and ten others at full moon. The But, on the other hand, prejudices are plants sowed at new moon grew noticedeeply rooted, even with scientists. ably more rapidly than those at full We may simply remark that the mech- moon. I explained this phenomenon anism of the lunar influence is not at by saying that the first appeared just in all what it was once thought to be. time to profit by the moon's light, while The moon acts on the progressive move- the others, after germination, were not ment of atmospheric depressions, ac- exposed so long to the lunar rays. The cording to her declination—that is to hypothesis may be good, but perhaps it say, her height above the horizon. Just does not correspond to the reality. as the sun in its annual course alters Nevertheless, it is confirmed by an obthe latitude of the trade winds, so our servauon of M. Carbonnier, who has, on satellite alters the latitude of the rain- his part, shown that at full moon conbearing currents in her monthly course fervoid and cryptogamic vegetation is and causes them to prevail in one region more active than in other lunar periods. or another, according to her declina. However this may be, the arguments tion.

presented against the lunar influence “The moon is the same everywhere;" are insufficient to reverse the popular certainly, but its action is very different prejudice. We see that the best plan is according to the latitude and the decli- never to reject old popular traditions nation. The argument that is com- from purely theoretical considerations, monly brought up is as strong as if one -M. Henri de Parville in Le Corresponshould say that the sun is everywhere dant, Paris.

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