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mind of the Emperor Francis Joseph. very well, as far as it goes, for Austria A rapprochement between Austria and and for the peace of Europe. But what Russia, a closer understanding between will happen when, in the course of time, these two powers, seems therefore the Francis Joseph will be succeeded by a most natural and sensible step on the monarch who has not the vast expepart of Austria. The language of the rience nor the extraordinary popularity organs of Prince Bismarck concerning of the present emperor? That is the this entente cannot surprise anybody. question. To put it in one short senThey seem to be inclined to cry "quits” tence: the peace of Europe, the question now, and try to compare this Austro- whether Austro-Hungary can and will Russian treaty with the German-Rus- continue to exist in its present form and sian neutrality treaty. But the Austro- shape, depend on one life. And therein Russian entente has absolutely nothing lies the danger of the situation for in common with that Bismarck treaty. Europe as much as for the Hapsburg The latter was signed behind the back monarchy. How will things go on in of Austria, Germany's loyal ally; Austria when there will be nobody who whereas the Austro-Rassian rapproche- commands universal respect, and to ment was effected openly, in broad day- whose will all parties in the empire light, and to all appearance with the full finally give way? Should the Germans knowledge of Germany. Besides, the then tend towards the north-west and agreement arrived at between Austro- the Slavs to the north-east, with nobody Hungary and Russia does not in any in power to prevent this double cenway directly affect the interests or trifugal motion, a general conflagration policy of Germany, whereas Bismarck's and a general European war would be secret treaty most seriously touched the unavoidable. interests of Austro-Hungary.
And for this reason the present bickThe crisis which the German party in erings between the German party and Austria has lately brought about, shows the Slavs in the Austrian Parliament, clearly one of the great dangers which unimportant as they may appear to be threaten the peace and, perbaps, the at a superficial glance, possess the existence of Austria. Even the ques- greatest importance, the most serious tion of the Austro-Hungarian com- significance for Englishmen, as well as promise, a matter which recurs every for the citizens of all the other European ten years, is at the present moment less countries. threatening, and not so burning and
AUSTRIACUS. acute as the seemingly irreconcilable difficulty between the Germans and the P. S.—The great demonstration made Slavs in Austria. Cabinet ministers, by the Emperor Francis Joseph, in paymere politicians, or party leaders can- ing a long visit to the English ambassanot do anything to make a durable peace dor in Vienna on the occasion of the between the jarring and warring par- Jubilee, is a step unprecedented in ties. Only a few days ago they showed Austria, where the rigid Spanish court themselves incapable of effecting etiquette of the Middle Ages still holds short truce. The Emperor Francis good. In contrast to this friendly beJoseph alone can in some degree bring havior is that of the German emperor, order into this chaos; for he is trusted the eldest grandchild of the queen, who by all parties; he is looked upon as the incredible as it may appear-neither incarnation of honesty and good faith, held a review in her honor, nor attended and his word is implicitly believed. a church service, nor paid a visit to the What the emperor intends to do is, up to British ambassador, nor even sent this moment, a secret to everybody; but telegram to his grandmother. During whatever his proposals may be, it can- the last few days it has appeared as if not be doubted that they will restore Berlin had been wiped out by an earthpeace, at least for some time, at all quake from the face of this planet. events during his lifetime. This is all From all parts of the world messages of
goodwill and of congratulation were master of the art of land warfare that published by the newspapers, but none the world has known. came from the capital of the German In 1793, a British post-captain of emperor. That the reptile press organs thirty-five sailed into the Mediterof the old Djenghis Khan in Freder- ranean in command of H.M.S. Agaichsruhe have only words of vitupera- memnon, to enter upon a tion or of raillery concerning England twelve years, which ended in the hour and her queen is quite natural. The of his most glorious victory, and won sight of a great free people has the for him undying fame as the most brilsame effect upon Prince Bismarck as liant seaman whom the greatest of the cross or holy water has upon the maritime nations has ever produced. prince of darkness. For the serious
As Napoleon was the highest incarpolitician the conduct of the two em
nation of the power of the land and of perors shows to some extent which way the military aptitude of the French the wind blows, and will blow in the people, so was Nelson the supreme exfuture.
ponent of the power of the sea and the embodiment of the naval genius of the Anglo-Saxon race. Fate ordained that the careers of these two should violently clash, and that the vast ambi.
tions of the one should be shattered by From The Nineteenth Century. the untiring energy of the other. The NELSON.1
war which began in 1793 was in effect “One never knows," wrote Catherine a tremendous conflict between the the Second to Grimm,2 "if you are liv- forces of the land and those of the sea, ing in the midst of the murders, each directed by a master hand, and nage, and uproar of the den of thieves each fed by the resources of a great nawho have seized upon the government tion. The apparent inequality of conof France, and who will soon turn it ditions was considerable at the outset, into Gaul, as it was in the time of and later overwhelming. Conquered or Cæsar. But Cæsar put them down! overawed by the power of the land, the When will this Cæsar come? Oh, come allies of England fell away, becoming he will, you need not doubt.” These the instruments of Napoleon's policy, words were strikingly prophetic. Less till the small island State stood alone. than five years later a young Corsican There was no outpouring of wild enartillery officer of twenty-six scattered thusiasm such as carried the armies of the National Guards in the streets of revolutionary France from victory 10 Paris, and, having restored the waning victory; but, instead, a stern determiauthority of the convention, was ap- nation to uphold the cause of order and pointed second in command of the of real liberty in the face of all odds, Army of the Interior. In the following and in spite of much real suffering. year (1796), as commander-in-chief of With the ultimate triumph won upon the Army of Italy, he defeated the the sea, the name of Nelson will forAustrians, reduced the king of Sar- ever be associated. It is his immortal dinia to vassalage, occupied Milan, and honor not only to have stepped forth shut up the veteran Wurmser in Man- as the champion of his country in the tua. “Cæsar" had come to rule the hour of dire need, but to have bedestinies of France for eighteen years, queathed to her the knowledge in to overturn the entire system of Eu- which lies her only salvation. rope, and to prove himself the greatest
Captain Mahan's “Life of Nelson” is
far more than the story of an heroic 1 Life of Nelson the Embodiment of the Sea
career. It is a picture, drawn in firm Power of Great Britain. By Captain A. T. Mahan, lines by a master hand, in which the D.C.L., LL.D., U. S. Navy. London: Sampson
significance of the events chronicled Low, Marston & Co., 1874. : January 13, 1791.
stands out in true proportion. Nelson's
place in history, his mission the least carried away by an exaggerated great opponent of the spirit of aggres- hero-worship. It is evident that he is sion, of which the French Revolution profoundly impressed by the personalthe inspiring force and Napoleon ity of the man in whom
power the mighty instrument, his final tri- found its greatest exponent; but he can umph-all are traced with infinite skill be coldly-almost harshly-critical, and and inexorable analysis.
to the strain of human weakness,
which mingled with but did not mar At each of the momentous crises, so far removed in time and place at the Nile, at the closing years of Nelson's glorious Copenhagen, at Trafalgar—as the unfold- career, he shows no excess of mercy. ing drama of the age reveals to the on- The aim “has been to make Nelson delooker the schemes of the arch-planner scribe himself-tell the story of his about to touch success, over against Na
own inner life as well as of his exterpoleon rises ever Nelson; and as the latter
nal actions," and in the main this in the hour of victory drops from the stage when he has played so chief a part, his
course has been followed. If here and task is seen to be accomplished, his tri
there the running personal commentumph secured. In the very act of dying never the historical analysis-seems a he has dealt his foe a blow from which re- little fade, and leads to unconscious covery is impossible. Moscow and Water
repetitions, the book holds the reader loo are the inevitable consequences of
from beginning to end. Trafalgar.
It is remarkable that Nelson, though In this passage the keynote of the almost continuously afloat from 1770 book rings out clearly. We knew that till 1783, saw no naval action during the author of "The Influence of Sea the great war of American IndePower” would place before us this as- pendence. In this period, however, pect of Nelson's career as it has never the foundations of his future greatness yet been presented, that no writer of
laid. The opportunities the present or the past was so compe- few, but none were lost. As a posttent to deal with Nelson's achieve captain of twenty-two he took a leadments and to portray him as a director ing part in the siege and capture of of war. We did not know whether the Fort San Juan, gaining experience to be brilliant naval historian could assume turned to full account in after years on the more difficult rôle of the biog- the coast of Corsica. Of practical searapher, and could unveil a living image manship he became a master. he had of the man of simple yet complex na- shown marked independence of judgture, of impulse, yet of cold reason. In ment, together with a certain restivesome respects, at least, Captain Ma: ness under authority feebly or wronghan's success in the more delicate por- fully wielded. In 1785, defying popution of his task is complete. He has lar opinion in the West Indies, and disshown the gradual training of Nelson's regarding the orders of the admiral mind in the school of experience. He (which relieved him of responsibility), has placed beyond the reach of cavil he enforced the Navigation Laws, and the fact of Nelson's genius, which a re- after much anxiety and vexation was cent writer ventured to question, and upheld by the Admiralty. “This strughe has rightly claimed for that genius gle with Sir Richard Hughes,” states in its maturity a wider rauge than the Captain Mahan, “showed clearly not knowledge of the sea. Like his great only the loftiness of his motives, but antagonist, Nelson was something the distinguishing features which conmore than a born leader of fighting stituted the strength of his character men, and both owed their success as di- both civil and military." In 1788 N-)rectors of war to the insight which, son returned to England with his when associated with self-reliance and newly-married wife, and being out of readiness to accept responsibility, is favor with the court and the Admiralty the essence of real statesmanship. Cap- for having openly shown his friendtain Mahan is, however, not in the ship for the Duke of Clarence, then at
tached to the party of the Prince of a series of detached commands, inde. Wales, was unable to obtain a ship. pendent as regarded the local scene of His fearless assumption of responsibil- operations,” and exactly calculated to ity in the West Indies, and the breadth furnish the scope and the opportunities of view which he displayed, had im- for which he craved. pressed both the prime minister and The abandonment of Toulon in DeMr. Rose, the secretary of the treasury. cember, 1793, left the Mediterranean Although, therefore, for the moment fleet without a harbor east of Gibralunder a cloud, his strong self-reliance tar. Naval warfare in sailing days dehad already made its mark. “Even in manded the use of harbors quite as: the earlier stages of his profession,” much as now when coaling stations are said Codrington, “his genius had regarded in the light of a new requiresoared higher, and all his energies ment. Corsica, held by a French garrywere turned to becoming a great com- son, appeared to offer the necessary mander." Such
sorely facilities, and on Nelson's advice, in opneeded when, at the end of 1792, Pitt position to the opinion of General Dunrealized that war with Revolutionary das, the siege of Bastia
underFrance was inevitable, and on the 30th taken. “If the Army will not take it," of June, 1793, Nelson was appointed to he wrote, “we must, by some way or the sixty-four-gun ship Agamemnon. other,” and he both planned the siege “The Admiralty,” he wrote, “so smile and directed the operations to a sucupon me, that really I am as much sur- cessful conclusion. At this juncture a prised as when they frowned.”
French squadron sailed from Toulon, The three years which followed forns, and Admiral Hotham, commanding an states Captain Mahan, “the period in equal force, fell back towards Corsica, which expectation passed into fulfil- missing a great opportunity, as Nelson ment, when development, being ar- instantly recognized. Hood, rested, resumed its outward progress trating his fleet, was unable to bring under the benign influence of a favor- the enemy to action, but effectuallyable environment.” Nelson was fairly covered the siege of Calvi, where Nei-. launched on his unparalleled career. son lost the use of his right eye when Nothing could be better than the directing the fire of the batteries author's treatment of the wonderful shore, whose construction he had adchapter of history which now opened. vised. Corsica
"unassailHere is no mere narrative of the ac- able,” as Captain Mahan states, so long tions of an individual, but a luminous as the sea was controlled by the Britexposition of war in which the inter- ish Navy; but Nelson had not as yet action of the sea and land operations realized the impossibility of over-sea on a great scale is admirably traced. operations in face of naval supremacy, We are enabled to see the gradual es, and evinced traces of the same anxiety tablishment of law in a vast contest, which later he felt for Sicily. In the which began with “no sound ideas," no memorable action of the Agamemnon vestige of a clear policy. And we can and Ca Ira on the 13th of May, 1795– follow the rapid development of Nel- his first sea fight-Nelson unmistakably son's genius maturing through rich ex- showed “the spirit which takes a man perience, his reason correcting his im- to the front, not merely in battle but pulse and his power as a director of at all times.” The difference between war rising to meet the ever-increasing his bold initiative on this and the demands which it was called upon to decision instantly acted upon at St. Vinmeet. Fortune
now propitious. cent was only one of degree. So also In Lord Hood, Nelson found a
when, on the following day, Hotham .mander-in-chief who recognized his rested satisfied with a temporary adspecial capacity for “separate and re- vantage, Nelson pleaded for a pursuit sponsible service." Henceforth, till of Martin's feet. There was risk, as the battle of the Nile, bis "life presents the author shows, but in the circum.
stances it was a risk which ought to vis to quit the Mediterranean. By Nelhave been accepted. On the 13th of son this decision was bitterly resented. July, another chance presented itself “I lament our present orders in sackto Hotham, but the signal for a gen- cloth and ashes, so dishonorable to the eral chase was delayed “pending cer- dignity of England." His earlier view tain drill-ground manoeuvres," and the had changed, and, realizing all that the French lost only one ship. This naval evacuation implied, his mind dwelt campaign, successful only in the sense upon the advantages of a bold offensive that captures were made, supplied ob- on the sea. "The fleets of England are ject lessons which Nelson took equal to meet the world in arms." The heart. The French feet was not crip defection of Admiral Man, however, pled, and Captain Mahan, who in some left Jervis in a position of great numerpassages seems to question the deter- ical inferiority. The fleet in being, alrent effect of a fleet "in being," ready a heavy "curb,” now amounted, marks: "How keep the fleet the with the addition of the Spanish squadItalian coast, while the French fleet re. ron, to thirty-four sail of the line. It mained in Toulon ? What a curb it was natural that the British governwas appeared again in the next
ment should consider the odds too paign, and even more clearly, because great. the British were then commanded by To Nelson these three years were of Sir John Jervis, a
not to be the utmost importance. His mind, checked by ordinary obstacles." Con- continually occupied in solving naval troversy has raged over this point, and problems, in forecasting events, and in unfortunately the disputants will each studying the European situation, underbe able to claim the author as an ally. went rapid development. His exploits The inconsistency is perhaps more ap- on a minor stage had been remarkable, parent than real, for the records of and, as Captain Mahan justly points naval war conclusively show that an out, the brilliant achievements which effective fleet-a fleet at sea or ready to followed ought not to be permitted to sail and handled by fighting seamen-is obscure “the long antecedent period of a most powerful deterrent to naval op- unswerving continuance in strenuous erations, and especially to the over-sea action, allowing no flagging of earnesttransport of military forces.
ness for a moment to appear, no chance In the chapters dealing with Nelson's for service, however small or distant, proceedings on the Riviera in 1795 and to pass unimproved." It is the great 1796 Captain Mahan discusses with merit of the author to have thrown a much ability the possibilities of bring- strong light upon this period, far less ing sea power to bear on the land cam- dramatic than that which followed, but paign. Nelson's plan for landing five essential to a right understanding of thousand men at San Remo the the secret of Nelson's transcendent sucFrench line of communications with cess as a naval commander. Nice was not justified under the exist- Sent back into the Mediterranean ing conditions. It was eminently char- with two frigates to evacuate Elba, acteristic of his marked capacity for Nelson accomplished his task; and seizing upon the decisive factor in after fighting two actions, escaping his given situation; but “his accurate in- pursuers by an act of splendid daring, stinct that war cannot be made witn- and sailing through a night in company out running risks combined with his with the Spanish fleet, he joined Jervis lack of experience in the difficulties of the day before the battle of St. Vinland operations to mislead his judg- cent. The well-known story is lucidly ment in this particular instance." Na- retold, and the diagrams enable the unpoleon was now launched on a full tide professional reader to grasp the situaof victory; Spain declared war; Corsica tion. The British fleet in single column was in rebellion; on the 25th of Sep- was tacking in succession to follow the tember, 1796, orders were sent to Jar- Spanish main body, when the great