raw material of all these activities for work, even in that unhappy isle of exhis good, and the steady reduction of asperation and feud. For peasants, as his proportional numbers and quality well as we, are quite able to learn how

apparently regarded from the much better than any amount of mustandpoint of town and government as tual blood-letting is a little rest and “Progress," which in a certain direc- better feeding, and this for all the tion it undeniably is. But for Crete, patients concerned. Il faut cultiver son surely we must begin to see that the jardin. difficulty is fundamentally, not racial, not religious, but economic, agricul- War we understand, in terms and tural. Surely it is time to admit that images concrete enough, from the fate in every discontented village on earth, of nations down to individual deed and be it in Crete or Tipperary, in Suffolk suffering, life and death. But of or in Michigan, in Sicily or Bengal, the Peace, though each of us . pretends to villagers' paramount concern is their himself that he desires it, how many own personal and local agricultural have more than a mere abstract idea, prosperity. Their politic agitation or a mere whiff of rhetoric, a mere colorturmoil, their rebellion or battle is but less negative of Not-War, and that the outward symptom and audible ex- only wbile political conventions last? pression of some disturbance or arrest Who has not heard of Kriegspiel ? of that: their whole wrestling and How many have heard or thought striving, here in prayer or there in en- of Friedenspiel? Do not need mity, is with the desire to reduce that to understand peace in the internecine struggle for existence crete, to follow it also from indiwhich their religion and their politics vidual lives and labors up to its but overlie. While the powers play national and human resultants ? The their admirals, the Greeks their inquiry is a long one, as long and colonel, and the Turk his pasha, and broad as history, yet we shall have beeverybody accordingly, more than ever, gun if we grasp again its concrete cries for the gendarme, let any one symbol, the living olive-branch of old. who calls himself Phil-Hellene and Peace is not fundamentally a question who really desires to do a good turn of high concert, conference, or arbitrafor the Cretan Greeks-or conversely tion, good though all these may be; it for the Cretan Mohammedans, as the is fundamentally a question of indusTurcophile doubtless is willing to do, try, and this mainly of the main indusor still better, let any one who cares try, agriculture; this mainly again in for both as man for man in trouble, its intensive forms, irrigation, treesend them something better than a planting, and the rest. gendarme, better even than the urban For social health, as for individual relief of physician, and nurse, and health, must not the essential matter dole, urgent though these may soon be hygiene? Il faut cultiver son jardin. be. Send them a young mining geolo- That is the Hygiene of Peace. gist to ride from village to village who can employ and thus teach its men to Here, then, are some outlines towards clear their own well, to open out their a theory of the historic and cosmic springs; send them agriculturist genesis of the Eastern question in the with a consignment of fresh seed (they past; some elements also of a project have very possibly had none since the of its possible gradual and pacific soluVenetians left) and a box of grafting tion. The constructive and critical knives; send them next year a silk ex- treatment of these two sides of the pert and so on. Every one of these is question must, of course, appeal from available, even among the Armenian party standpoints to social-geographic refugees at hand. And we shall soon study and to social-economic experisee what wonders a little increase of ment. Not, then, for the sake of auwell-being, nay a little hope of it, will thority or of associations, but for that



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of briefer and clearer statement, alike even to imagine. Perhaps the Civil theoretic and practical, geographic and War, being luminous landmark, agricultural, a final summary of this might with sufficient accuracy be deview of the Eastern question and its scribed as the beginning of a more re. essential answer may be best given spectable and sane attitude towards in Eastern words-conveniently, too, as manly sports. It is not indeed so very showing there is no novelty in one's long since the larger portion of comviews. Of such statements there is no mercial and manufacturing America lack, but one may suffice; one tradi- regarded the individual who shot ducks tionally credited to a long and full life or caught trout for amusement as a spent in its vortex, a life rich in ob- fool at the very best, and probably servation and deep in feeling, and something worse. If this unwholesome whose experience of action ranged superstition had been due in the main from shepherd to cultivator, from vic- to honest Puritanism one might entor to fugitive, from servant to king. deavor to temper one's disgust witli Hear, then, the antithesis of paradise some measure of respect. Most of us, lost and paradise regained.

at some period of our lives, have been

brought in contact with people on 1.

whose grim creed every form of diverHe turneth rivers into a wilderness and sion jars; and their point of view we

the water springs into dry ground, can at least understand, though we A fruitful land into barrenness, for the may not hanker after their company. wickedness of them that dwell therein.

But the Puritan tradition was the II.

smaller ingredient of the old-fashioned He turneth the wilderness into a standing Yankee's aversion to games and field

water, and dry ground into water sports, the true root of which lay in a springs,

contempt for men who would divert And there he maketh the hungry to dwell, one single hour from the righteous

that they may prepare a city for duty of amassing dollars. These sentihabitation;

ments, to be sure, would have been And sow the fields, and plant vineyards, decently clothed in moral platitudes, which may yield fruits of increase. which must have had an odd flavor, PATRICK GEDDES. coming from a class who set no par

ticular limit to its cocktails, and not much more to its commercial conscience.

Whatever motives and whatever secFrom Macmillan's Magazine. tion of society formed public opinion AMERICANS AT PLAY.

in the Eastern cities thirty or forty Time was, and that not so long ago, years ago, it is quite certain that it when the American sportsman, in his looked askance at manly sports, and own country occupied an almost des regarded them, not only as a waste of picable position, while the athlete had time, but as being first cousins to practically no existence at all. We do drunkenness and dissipation. The not, of course, include in this statement celebrated Anglo-American sportsman the professional sportsman, who was and author, Mr. Herbert (Frank outside public opinion, but refer only Forester), spent the last twenty years to the amateur of the North and East, of his life, so tragically ended by his who would fain have spent his leisure own hand in 1858, in vehemently comin field-sports, or in manly pastimes of bating this monstrous and unwholea kindred nature. It would be impos- some prejudice. And it is partly this, sible to fix with any precision the date no doubt, that makes the memory of of his emancipation from that half that remarkable man so exceedingly Puritan, half bourgeois thraldom, dear to American sportsmen, who now which is not easy for an Englishman fish and shoot with impunity, and even


with repute. All is now changed 10- whici has so much added to the bright. deed. A certain distrust of leisure and ness of life beyond the Atlantic, has a distorted notion of the chief aim of shown itself most powerfully among liie are still, we all know, conspicuous the genuine Americans, and the blood traits beyond the Atlantic, but at any of the genuine American is chiefly rate they no longer control public British. The ill-conditioned and halfopinion. There were exceptions, how. educated provincial, who just now preever, even in the dreary period we dominates in the Senate Chamber, is speak of. Harvard, and possibly one precisely the type of man who will or two other universities, rowed in look with jaundiced eye on this wholedesultory fashion; the small cricketing sale importation of healthy customs coterie at Philadelphia, of which we from that island which, effete though shall have more to say, went on with it may be according to his foolish jarits cricket; baseball was played to some gon, seems, in fact, to haunt his very extent; while even then there were dreams with its threatening spectre. brazen individuals in the Eastern A few years ago the American press, cities whose love for gun and rod was with an eye, no doubt, to street popustronger than their fear of the narrow- larity, used to ridicule people who folminded bigotry which would hold tliem lowed the hounds or played tennis, or cheaper upon that account. Society dressed in tweed suits, Anglohas of course long ago flung the super- maniacs; and some rustic papers do so stitions of its fathers to the four winds. stiil. Now, however, these doings are What indeed those departed worthies, chronicled in more serious and respect. with their sombre broadcloth and ex- ful fashion, for not only society, but pansive shirt-fronts, would think if the most of the well-to-do class are bethey could see the doings of those who ing converted to wholesome ways. have inherited their fortunes and in- Hunting, coaching, and polo for the creased them, we dare not conjecture. more wealthy, lawn-tennis, golf, footThe ways of the ancients, who looked ball, and hockey for all, have taken askance at a Joe Manton and a pointer, firm root upon the soil, while shooting and even blinked a little at the innoc- and fishing among the Eastern States weapons

of old Izaak, have developed to an extent that has changed indeed. How disheartening, brought the question of game and its too, must the change be to certain preservation to an acute phase. But critics, who are forever dilating on we must leave field-sports alone, as the emancipation of Americans from being somewhat alien to the purpose European influence, and as if to antici- of this paper, as well as too wide a pate this millennium record their sen- subject for its limits. In connection, timents in emancipated English. however, with the taste for country

Distressing beyond a doubt, to a cer- life that has developed among Ameritain type of American patriot, are all cans, the evolution of the Country these packs of foxhounds, these stables Club must not be passed over. These of hunters and polo ponies, these excellent institutions originated, matches at football and at golf, these fancy, with the establishment of sometournaments at lawn-tennis, that are thing like a social headquarters at the now becoming part of the life of every kennels of the various packs of hounds well-to-do American in the older States in the countries they hunted. Now, and are rapidly spreading Westward. however, they have increased and mulHe may perhaps, after all, have to tiplied exceedingly, and are to be found form his “ideal American” out of the within reach of most of the large cities, Germans and Irish, whose recreations though chiefly prevailing, as is natural, seldom run far beyond the beer-garden in the East. These societies have for and the whiskey-saloon. It is quite their quarters luxurious and commocertain that this recent awakening to dious mansions, usually situated in the value of field-sports and games, neighborhoods where scenery and sport




are available. Extensive stabling is, of the sort that could be easily won over course, a prominent part of the scheme, to a deferential attitude by favors conand large grounds, where every facility ferred. The most startling developis provided for garden games, as wellment of the American country house, so as for the inevitable golf. Four-in-hand far, must surely be the almost princely coaches are frequent visitors to these mansion which the Vanderbilts have haunts of the sociable and gay, while lately built at the foot of the Blue that inscrutable person whose hobby is Ridge, in North Carolina of all places! to assume the part of the professional From what we know of the aborigines coachman, has already made his ap- in that remote part of the world, we are pearance in the ranks of American inclined to think that their remarks, fashion,-buttons, hat, lingo and all. when they beheld a spectacle so inconCountry life in private houses, too, on ceivable arise in their midst, would the English pattern, so far as the adap- have been almost worth crossing the tation is possible, has become an accom- Atlantic to hear. plished fact. The territorial dignity is, To come, however, more immediately of course, wanting; it is the life rather to the question of pastimes other than of further Surrey or the London end of field-sports, it has always seemed to us Sussex or Hertfordshire, save that in that the cricket of the Americans, as America such neighborhoods are act- chiefly represented by a small group at ually found at a much greater distance Philadelphia, is much more remarkable from the cities. There may, or may not than their achievements on the runbe, a few hundred acres of land at- ning-path or the river. These arenas tached to the American country house, have the whole nation, so to speak, to upon which the owner plays at farming draw from, and the whole nation and breeds Jerseys or thorough-breds. watches and applauds those that perBut with these limitations a very fair form on them. But cricket has no hold reproduction of modern life in the En- whatever on popular sympathy, and no glish country house is achieved. Pri- opportunity is neglected by a certain vate theatricals, lawn-tennis, golf, class of publication for ignorant ridicule riding and driving, with such sport as of the finest of games; doubtless, bethe neighborhood offers, and occasion- cause it is pre-eminently English. Even ally the propinquity of a pack of among the best class of athletic critics, hounds, make up an existence such as who devote much space to golf and the last generation could not have even lawn-tennis, cricket gets but scant imagined. Nor is identity of costume notice, and that, too, of the most unlacking, for the somewhat elaborate and skilful kind. Perhaps it is this very pronounced fashions that for the last sense of isolation and the rather exdecade or so have distinguished the clusive traditions of Philadelphian Briton in mufti have been adopted in cricket, that makes their players so inail their completeness by Americans of defatigable and so spirited. Rowing a certain class. There has been no has been for a long time quite a popular tendency, so far as we know, to court a sport in America, and has immense splendid isolation in this matter, or to natural advantages. But when Yale, attempt the territorial magnate on a the best University crew in the States, large scale. For obvious reasons coun- comes over to England the whole try life in America collects in colonies, country is in a transport of delight, and is, as a rule, quite out of touch with if they prove themselves match the indigenous owners of the soil, who for single college from Oxford regard its ways with mixture of Cambridge. When, however, amazement and awe, not wholly free eleven Philadelphians beat the Ausfrom contempt. The Yankee farmer is tralians, as they have more than once not, indeed, promising material upon done,-last year for example,-nobody which to experiment as a grand seig. seems to realize how incomparably neur, nor are his wife and daughters of greater a performance this is, than






would be a victory of Yale over Trinity Club of New York has owed a good deal Hall, let us say, at Henley. As we have of its varying strength to cricketers alluded to these particular contests by from this country. But the case with way of an illustration, any inference Philadelphia, and the group of clubs that such victories were won by supe- that cluster round it, is entirely differrior merit must, of course, be dis- ent. Except for the ground-professionclaimed. The American cricketer, als, who of course are always imported, moreover, unlike some of his

the game has been wholly supported for patriots, is among the most modest of three or four generations by Americans. men, and would be the first to attribute Both the patrons and players of cricket such good fortune to the glorious uncer- in Philadelphia have been chiefly drawn tainty of his favorite game. He would, from the older and wealthier families perhaps, admit, too, that the Australian, of the city, who have made it their on his way home, is not quite so formi- hobby and their pride, and kept it up dable as when strung up to the highest through times when hardly a wicket pitch, facing the full strength of all was pitched elsewhere on the continent England at Lord's. But this, after all, south of Canada. Cricketing fathers is not the point. Whether a representa- have produced cricketing sons, and tive Philadelphian eleven, according to taken a pride in bringing them up in English standards is at the top of the the way they should go, a course which second-class or at the bottom of first- good wickets, resident professionals, class cricket, it is relatively of more and plenty of money, have greatly faremarkable merit, we venture to think, cilitated. But till recent years, at any than even the teams Australia sends us. rate, the cricketing class was still a very Its calibre seems to suggest that the small one. Nor would it be far from American has really a genius for cricket, the truth to say that the game at and that if he took to it seriously, there Philadelphia had thriven and prospered might be international contests at upon aristocratic lines; we ao not fancy Lord's of an even more formidable na- that even get the populace have shown ture than we now see. Hitherto the much interest in the game. Clubs and Philadelphian amateurs, who occa- grounds have increased, but the players sionally visit us and are coming this are almost entirely the sons of the year, have been content to pit them- richer classes, and this fact has perhaps selves against such teams strong given the strength and esprit de corps second-class or weak first-class coun- sufficient to keep the game alive in a ties. Considering the limited amount of country which one might almost call material they have to draw upon, this hostile to it. Every little town, on the seems sufficiently creditable; but it must contrary, in Canada, has its cricket club, be further remembered that it has never and the Dominion abounds in men eduyet been found possible to bring over a cated at English public schools. But really representative eleven, and that very rarely, if memory serves us right, soft wickets are especially trying to an has a representative eleven of all amateur, and indeed to any team accus- Canada proved the equal of this small tomed to fiery ones.

group of Philadelphians. Last year a The existence of Philadelphia as the combined team from the Oxford and heart of American cricket is so peculiar Cambridge Universities were beaten by that it seems to deserve some special an eleven of past and present members remark. There is, we fancy, a common of the University of Pennsylvania. notion in England, and a very natural Neither Manchester, Liverpool, or Birone, that some British element or other mingham, crowded as they are with in the Quaker city has been the means clubs and in the heart of the motherland of keeping the game so vigorous. Most of cricket, could put an eleven of genof the other clubs in America, are, in uine resident amateurs into the field fact, largely or wholly supported by able to beat on their merits a representaEnglishmen. Even the old St. George's tive Philadelphian team. This condi


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