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tice, the Duc d'Aumale adhered to their tion, have been increased, especially the principles, and abandoned for his part library and the picture-gallery. Both the rights of his family. This writer is were started in England, some mastermistaken. He seems to have forgotten pieces on canvases and on panels, as the bigh-spirited letter which the well as some rare books, having been prince addressed to M. Grévy, when the acquired by the duke during his exile. latter countersigned the decree taking They cannot be described here, but we from him the dearest of his titles, that must not omit to mention few of of general in his country's service. He them. First in chronological order is a had been forbidden to serve on the bat- painting in tempera by Giotto called tle-field at a time when France had “La Mort de la Vierge, a notable work dire need of a valiant captain, but he on account of the solemnity of its subwas thought of when a military judge ject. It contains twenty-one figures was wanted, in which capacity he per- within its small frame. This valuabre formed his duty with an ability and picture belonged to the collection of M. high-mindedness which extorted the Reiset, a former curator of the Louvre admiration of all Europe. He had even Gallery. The whole of the Reiset colbeen visited in his retirement in order lection was acquired by the Duc to be asked to place the collar of the d’Aumale in 1879. Next, there Golden Fleece around the neck of the some paintings, not striking in appearPresident of the Republic. His duty ance, but useful for the history of the done and the dictates of courtesy satis- art of the early schools of Sienna and fied, the hero of Abder Kader had been Florence. The quattrocentisti appear in struck off the rolls of the army; after a few paintings by Fra Angelico and his family's banishment had come his his school. Then there
Saint own degradation. The cup was full; John-Baptist, at once hard, rigid and he repulsed it with indignation, an ac- mystical, by Andrea del Castagno; a tion which cost him a new period of ex- charming "mystic marriage of Saint ile lasting three years.
Francis to humility, poverty, and chasWhen the Duc d'Aumale came back, tity," three figures very touching in political feeling had no doubt become their idealism, by Pietro de Sano; a virless strong, for his return gave general gin between two saints, by Filippo satisfaction. He found that great Lippi, a curious example of realism; a progress had been made with the works profile portrait of the beautiful Simonat Chantilly under the direction of the etta Vespucci, the friend of Julian de architect, Viollet-Leduc. The latter Medicis, which is attributed to Polladied before finishing his task and was juolo and might also be attributed to succeeded by M. Daumet, who carried Botticelli; “Vierge glorieuse" by it to completion.
Perugini, formerly in the Northwick The reconstruction of the château collection; an "Annunciation," by Franhaving been terminated, the duke was cia; “Autumn," by Botticelli; and able to give effect to an idea long enter. “Esther and Ahasuerus," a scene into tained by him. He had wished to be which Filippo Lippi has put all the queath the whole estate of Chantilly to grace and savor of his genius. that great society, the Institut, to which The examples of the earlier period of he belonged in three different capaci- the Milanese and Venetian schools ties. He did better, he made it over ir- show us nothing very remarkable prior revocably by a donation in due legal to an infant Jesus by Bernardino form with the adhesion of all his fam. Luini, which seems to have come from ily, simply reserving to himself the pos- Raphael's pencil. The “Christ with session thereof during his lifetime, in the reed,” by Titian, of which there is order to embellish it still further. This
a replica at Vienna, was bought by the arrangement has not been without ad- Duc d'Aumale at Brescia. Much negovantage to Chantilly. The collections, tiation took place before this picture all of which are comprised in the dona- was allowed to pass the frontier. A
"Virgin” with a numerous company of to France, passed from hand to hand, saints, is one of Palma Vecchio's best was sold for twenty-four thousand canvases. It belonged for a time to the francs at the sale of the Aguado collecNorthwick collection, but passed to tion, and again changed hands for one Chantilly with the Reiset pictures. hundred and fifty thousand francs at
Passing over a number of secondary the Delessert sale, in 1869, the Duc works, we reach one of the master- d'Aumale being the purchaser. M. pieces of the Condé museum, Raphael's Gruyer estimates that if the picture "Three Graces." M. Gruyer, the Duc were offered for sale to-day, it would d'Aumale's confidant in art matters, re- fetch more than one million francs, but lates that the prince could not recog- he thinks that it is now at the end of nize the three Graces in this little its wanderings. This is a point which painting. To him, the three figures, we shall examine further on. each holding an apple or orange, After noting examples of Andrea del were an allegory of the three ages of Sarto, Jules Romain, Perino del Vaga, woman,-one representing youth, an- and Bronzino, all derived from the esother the marriageable age, and the tate of the Prince of Salermo, and an third mature age. He explained his historical portrait, that of the famous idea by saying that the first two appear Odet de Coligny, Cardinal of Châtillon, to the best advantage, almost full face, painted in France by Primaticcio, we whereas the woman who has reached reach the Bolognese school with all the the child-bearing age partially hides Carraccis. A canvas by Annibal Carherself and shows her back. This is an racci, “Venus Asleep,” is its only caporiginal and plausible theory; but it ital item. After these the Italian does not convince M. Gruyer, who per- schools are met with more and more sists in seeing in Raphael's picture an rarely and finally come to an end, with eloquent souvenir of an antique paint. the exception of a landmark here and ing passed from the Dudley Gallery to there to guide us through the history Chantilly for the modest price of 25,- of Italian painting. 0001. It has been engraved in France, A few fragments of Spanish painting first by Mr. Walker, and afterwards by lead us to the Byzantine school, from M. Adrien Didier, whose work is the banks of the Rhine, and to the worthy of the original.
Dutch and Flemish schools, in which Another small picture by Raphael. we meet with a portrait of Jean-sansafter his second manner, possesses, Peur by an unknown hand, two porapart from its great value as a work of traits by Jan Van Eyck, or at all events art, a certain historical value. It is a after his manner, and a very interestpainting of the Virgin called the Or- ing figure of the Grand Batard de leans Virgin, a family heirloom, so to Bourgogne. This Grand Bâtard, named speak. It has very great merit in the Antoine, was the second of Philippe-leeyes of connoisseurs. Painted at Ur- Bon's nineteen bastard children. Some bino between 1505 and 1508, it is im- of their descendants might still be bued with Florentine grace, and figures found by careful search in Flanders or among Raphael's works as a striking Burgundy. and perfect production. This picture Among the Flemish quattrocentisti we travelled a good deal before reaching have to mention a picture by Thierry the Orleans Gallery. It got into the Bouts, entitled “Translation of Relics," Lands of David Teniers the Younger, of a deeply religious character; two who was accused of having touched up valuable works by Jan Memling, and the background; but it is certain that some historical figures by unknown he did not commit that crime. During painters, one of whom is supposed to the French revolution the Orleans Vir have been Holbein. We then come to gin was taken back to Flanders for a very curious portrait of Elizabeth safety, and was sold there for twelve Stuart, queen of Bohemia, hy Mierethousand francs. It came once more velt. Without stopping to examine
some portraits by Pourbus and Hen- graceful or charming. One asks onedrich Pot, we may draw attention to a self whether the painter has not picfull-length portrait of Gaston de tured an artist's dream rather than France, Duke of Orleans, by Van Dyck. taken his models from nature. The This portrait, one of the master's fin- salon in the Champs-Elysées now open est, was given in 1829 to the Duke of contains a finely executed stroke-enOrleans, afterwards Louis-Philippe, by graving of this picture. King George the Fourth. It is well Among the treasures recently added known in England. By the
to the Condé Museum, which is the painter there are two other portraits; name given to it by the Duc d'Aumale, one, half-length, of the famous Count we can only mention the forty Foude Berghes, is the figure of a soldier, quets purchased by the prince at without fear if not without reproach; Frankfort in 1891, and for which he paid and the other, hung alongside to form two hundred and fifty thousand francs a contrast, that of the Princess de Bar- to Mr. George Brentano, their former bançon, pretty, gentle, and winning, owner. They are miniatures extracted who is less known than she ought to from a primer written and illustrated be. Then come the small Flemings and for Etienne Chevalier, treasurer of a picture of the Grand Condé by France. The space at our command Teniers Junior.
would not allow us to do more than inHere, had we space, we should give dicate the subjects, and a catalogue of a pen-and-ink sketch of that great man, this kind would have but a secondary although we should have
diffi- interest. M. Gruyer has made a special culty in doing so after the portrait study of them, the results of which he drawn for all time by the author of the has published in a large volume illus“Histoire des Princes de la Maison de trated by forty heliographic engravings Condé." Juste d'Egmont also has from the originals. Unfortunately, this painted Louis II., Prince de Bourbon, book, which is a very erudite work, has but at a later age-thirty-five years. not been put on the market; but it This portrait must have been painted ought at least to be possible to consult from 1654 to 1658, when the prince was it in the great public libraries. serving in Spain. It formed part of We have said nothing about the picCondé's estate, and is therefore the tures of the French sehool, which ocoriginal. Replicas are to be found in cupy a very distinguished place in the France, Belgium, and Spain. There Musée de Condé. After the works by are doubtless some in England as well. Fouquet, Clouet, and their pupils, the We will pass over the remaining pic- modern French school takes
up the tures of the two schools, although they largest space. Ingres, Delacroix, and include some fine sea-pieces and an ex- Meissonier are worthily represented. cellent landscape by Ruisdael, in order The late prince, in making arrangeto deal with the English school, the ex- ments for the endurance and glory of amples of which are not numerous, but his life's work, did not fail to provide extremely interesting.
sufficient resources, not only for its Joshua Reynolds is represented by a maintenance, staff, repairs, and portrait of the Duc de Chartres, after- forth, but also for gradual additions to wards Louis-Philippe. He is painted the collections. There is no need for fuil length, in the uniform of a colonel anxiety in this respect. The Chantilly of Hussars. This picture, of ight col- estate is very large. The forest not oring, is a reduction of the large por only produces wood, but contains extrait which is at Hampton Court, and tensive beds of that limestone of which which has suffered from fire as well as Paris is built. These might be made to from the restorers. By the same artist yield a considerable revenue, and the there is “the two Waldegraves,” mother Institute of France can be relied upon and daughter, which is one of his mas- to deal prudently with this source of interpieces. Nothing could be
come. What we fear is a danger of
another sort, arising from a different was that in enriching it be at the same cause, and, in our opinion, of a very time made it fixed and enduring. But threatening character.
he could not endow it with strength to France, for more than a century, has resist the fluctuations of political been in a permanent state of feverish power. This very wealth constitutes unrest. She is permeated with a leaven an attraction for the covetous and а of discord which causes her govern- source from which to draw in case of ments to be uncertain, unsettled, and need. Is the Institute necessarily of short duration. An orator in Parlia- closed field ? May not other classes ment well expressed this one day when, pass the elastic boundary which has in a moment of sincerity, he said: “The successively been opened or shut to adpresent régime is
one of perpetual mit new classes or eliminate them? change.” The past is no guarantee for Even at the present moment two satelthe future; the cruellest things are lites are gravitating around it: the done; injustice and wrongdoing have Academy of Medicine and the National borrowed the mask of legality, and in Agricultural Society. Both have fairly the name of the law people have been close connections with
the governpillaged and massacred. The same ment; might not the latter widen the may occur again. In the past, noisy doorway in order to admit them? and unscrupulous minorities have And, if this were done, is it certain that seized the reins of power and prepared the Institute would keep entirely the the way for the advent of despotism, place assigned to it by the prince in his and can any one say we shall not see generous designs? All these questions them again—that the mob would not present themselves when one examines now listen to and follow them?
the consequences which may The Institute of France, consisting of pectedly result from political changes, the five Academies, was not created by or from embarrassments caused by an the convention, as has been said. Be- impending crisis. fore the convention there were six If politicians were able to abolish the Academies, all of which were dissolved six old Academies by a stroke of the in 1793, and when, two years later, the pen, they may just as easily do away, Convention tried to re-establish them one of these days, with the present Inunder the name of the Institute, it only stitute and its five Academies. In allowed three of the old Academies to France the learned societies have alform part of the new body. It is there. ways been an object of suspicion on the fore misleading to try to make it ap- part of the government, either because pear that the late duke, in endowing it has feared the influence wielded by the present Institute, desired to attach those intellectual centres, or because it his gift to the Convention's narrow and has met with resistance when it has paltry scheme. The Convention put tried to thrust upon them its nominees. aside the Académie Française on the Fear and wounded vanity-no other plea that elevation of character, intel- motives are needed by the powers that lectual worth, poetry, eloquence, and be to commit an act of violence. And genius were elements hostile to the once the Institute suppressed, what spirit of the Revolution. This was the would become of the late prince's mag reason it offered for having suppressed nificent donation? It would revert to the company founded by Richelieu.
the State. If an act of Parliament Since 1795 until now the Institute has should be necessary, it would readily continued its way, not without heavy be passed by the force of the idea that trials, but on the whole with credit to the State alone is the legitimate guaritself and advantage to the community. dian and curator of the nation's treasThe Duc d'Aumale, in endowing it with ures. Always the raison d'Etat-more a quasi-royal appanage, wished to powerful in France than human reason. spare it further ordeals and settle to
Whatever else may be the destiny in some extent its destinies.
His idea store for it, the Duc d'Aumale's donation is none the less a great and gener- once glorious countries man has turned ous act, an act inspired by a broad and the forces of nature to the destruction sincere liberalism. It has nothing of his home. How far the desolation about it which is not in complete ac- and decadence, so manifest in every cordance with the known character of Mediterranean country from Spain to him of whom M. Edouard Hervé, a fel- Syria, is the fault of man, how far also low Academician of his, has said that a natural process, are questions hard he had “that pleasingly original capac- to settle in exact proportion, and still ity of sharing the ideas of the new likely to be long under debate, but France while retaining all the courtli- there is no doubt of the co-operation of ness of the old régime ... Few men both destructive agencies. In the West (adds M. Hervé) could so well hold the human factor is the more obvious, their own with the best authorities on but as we go eastward the cosmic facthe most varied topics, or discuss with tor appears more plainly. Thus it is no such superiority any question of litera- longer a matter of speculation but of ture, art, or military science.” We geographical fact that a comparison of ourselves often saw him at the Agricul- maps of the Caspian twenty years ago tural Society of France, modestly pre- with those of today shows a lamentable siding over the Forest Cultivation Sec- shrinkage; vast spaces of what was tion, upon whose discussions he used to then not only marsh but even blue bring to bear his wide practical knowl. water being now represented solely by edge. With his great good sense he ar- drifting sand. How this means for the ways succeeded in leading back the de- surrounding regions still hotter winds, baters, however divergent might be still scantier rainfall, need hardly be their views, to the common ground of explained. And though in this climatic general principles. France was not change the ancient cycle of “lean years wise enough to utilize his talents, and fat years” is discernible, record which were such as are rarely found and observation alike show how the united in one man, but the moral and evil accumulates, the lean ever devourintellectual inheritance left by him ing the fat. will not be lost as an example, and it How this advancing desiccation of will be more enduring than Chantilly Asia reacts upon Europe, alike in cliitself.
mate and in history, would need a volALPHONSE DE CALONNE.
ume to follow out, rather than a sentence; but broadly we may state the thesis that behind the personality of
the sultan, behind the disordered emFrom The Contemporary Review. pire, behind the puzzled politicians of CYPRUS, ACTUAL AND POSSIBLE.
the hour, behind the dramatic detail of A STUDY IN THE EASTERN QUESTION. Armenian and Cretan, of Greek and
Up from Larnaka, the port, to Nico- Turkish misery, there is going on now sia, the central capital, the journey, as of old the cosmic drama of geologic most of the way, is more desolate than and climatic change. We see how the beautiful. Yet before hurrying on, let peasant suffers from drought, but we us pause for a moment to interpret it. forget that the shepherd suffers even This desolation is the work not of na- more; and we shall better understand ture but of man. That sea margin of the phenomenon of the oft repeated fenn swamp, that dry torrent bed, pastoral invasions throughout history, these barren hill slopes, these skeleton from the Kurds of yesterday, through hills, all go back for their explanation Turks and Huns and Tartars of old, to tbe always wasteful and often wan. back to still earlier immigrations-perton destruction of forests which has haps of our Aryan forefathers also heen the crime of almost every succes- when we see them driven from their sire race. Nowhere better can we see ancient, well-watered paradise-garden the lamentable way in which in these by the faming sword of drought, the