banter directed against practical men compares favorably landscape.
who think it graceful to go into ecstasies painting with any of Horace's vign-
about the country,-indeed, the most ettes inspired by a flask of Cæcuban
decided protest in poetry against the under a tree, and is not inferior to most
main feeling which underlies what of the illustrations cited from the sub-
some now call the Lake School of En- sequent poets (except Shakespeare and
glish poetry. So far as we can gather Milton), until we come to genuine feel-
Mr. Palgrave's meaning on page fifty- ing for nature in recent poetry.
two, we are to account for Horace's Quintilian, in an oft-quoted passage,
limited allusions to landscape by his pointed out that the Latin poets ad-
limited opportunities of living in the mired nature only for her amenity;
country. But is it not strange that bold and wild scenery, mountain pass
when he does dwell, sincerely and not and frowning scaur, were to them
in mockery, on the delights of a coun- fædi and tetri visu (shocking and hide-
try life, it is on the noctes cænæque ous to behold), Tennyson's "Palace of
deûm, his dinner parties and country Art,” among its lovely pictures of
society, that he enlarges; not on the peace, has its “iron coast and angry
joys which the country offers, but on waves," its “foreground black with
those which can be imported thither stones and slags,” and its
from the town? Yet Mr. Palgrave
twice (pages 238 and 248) actually com-

Ragged rims of thunder brooding low

With shadow-streaks of rain. pares

Horace and Wordsworth lovers of the country.

All these would have been repulsive to In characterizing landscape poetry to

an ancient Roman whether in art the close of the eighteenth century, he poetry. gives us some excellent criticism which A very similar criticism may be made with the necessary modifications might on landscape in Hebrew poetry. Bibliwell be applied to Horace: “Man and cal poetry treats landscape mainly in his works were the chief subject of relation to man. The beautiful scene Dryden's powerful Muse, and, al- is the field which the Lord has blessed, though he looked back to Chaucer, his which will yield a good harvest. Even tales were so modernized by Dryden

the 104th Psalm is hardly landscape that the old poet became almost unrec poetry so much as a series of reflecognizable. The wonderful genius oftions on the relation of nature and na. Pope, who saw what his readers ture's God to living things, and espequired, largely took for the object of cially to mankind. The one phrase in his strenuous labor court life and the Hebrew literature which

to artificialities of society. Country life show a real sympathy with nature in as such was to him intolerable dul- the modern sense is the allusion to the ness.”

lilies of the field in the Sermon on the Though only too generous in his ap- Mount, a passage which has always preciation of the poets, and too ready seemed to us as curiously unique as it to find, even in casual allusions, is simply beautiful. heart attuned to the spirit of the coun- We have said that Mr. Palgrave here try, Mr. Palgrave puts one poet alone and there enunciates a principle which outside the pale. This is that tuneful- might have had a regulative influence est of singers, Ovid. The late Doctor on his quotations, but that his mind, Henry thought the first book of the so attuned to beauty in poetry, cannot "Metamorphoses” better than any part resist the Muse when she lays herself of his favorite Virgil's works. With- out to please; and it has already been out going so far as this, we would ven pointed out how the condition of ture to say that the scene in which "union with human feeling,” or even Proserpina with her girl friends plucks the "sense of the Unity in Nature,” is flowers in Enna, though depreciated as often neglected in the choice of illus“nothing but a gardener's catalogue,” trations. Though he quotes Beetho


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ven's phrase, “Mehr Ausdruck der As to Celtic poetry, we must confess Empfindung als Malerei (more expres- that to us it seems to prove nothing so sive of feeling than paiuting)," he does clearly as the fact that sometimes the noi ask his poets for rendering of in- more a poet writes about nature the ner sentiment, if they will only give more he betrays how little he is under him sufficiently beautiful or powerful her influence. Llywarch's dry catapainting, as in the garden of Alcinoüs, logues of the features of the external the convulsion of nature in the “Pro- world interspersed with moral platimetheus,” the praises of Athens in the tudes seem to show a temper at the op“Edipus Coloneus.”

posite pole to that of the lover of naIt is only when he comes to Eliza- ture:bethan poetry that he makes a distinction which, as we conceive, should Bright are the willow-tops; playful the

fish have guided him throughout, and lays In the lake; the wind whistles over the down that the statement of a natural

tops of the branches; fact, however true, is comparatively Nature is superior to learning. valueless for his purpose, if too obvi- Bright are the tops of the broom; let the ous. The consistent application of

lover arrange meetings; this principle would deprive

Very yellow are the cluster'd branches;

very large number of his quotations of their Shallow ford; the contented is apt to enjoy

sleep. claim to a place. Much the same may be said about another excellent rule, Yet Mr. Palgrave professes to find which appears, we think for the first landscape poetry here, and indeed one time on p. 171, that it is not enough might almost say everywhere. He is merely to describe nature, she must be often obliged to qualify his eulogies, as described for her own sake, as she is when he says of Allan Ramsay that he by Shelley and Wordsworth. Again, deserves praise rather for his intention at p. 202 he clearly sees how essential than for his performance, or characterfor his purpose it is that with “truth izes a poem as “beautiful, but how into nature” should be combined “per- ferior to the lyrics of Milton," sonal feeling;” but he does not seem to “full of life and invention, if not highly have missed this quality in his many poetical.” exquisite citations from early Italian But it is amazing how many delightand Elizabethan poetry. On p. 136 he ful pieces he has put before us, not quotes from Spenser passage in perhaps bearing closely on his theme, which we have “a picture of the but still very delightful for themselves. and of a vast royal ship of the day Among them we would especially note which has never been surpassed in En- an admirable rendering by Dean glish literature." The merit of the Plumptre of the opening of the twentypassage is perhaps exaggerated, but fourth canto of “The Inferno” (on p. what one feels most disposed to pro- 81), a passage from Ausonius (p. 65), test against is the generalization the song of Phædria (p. 134), the riverdrawn from it: "With what splendid god's song to Amoret in “The Faithful landscape scenes might Spenser have Shepherdess" (p. 140), and scores of endowed us, had he thus trusted to other beautiful pieces more familiar, himself more freely!" Not so; neither but all unfailing in their charm. in its sturdy boyhood in the hands of It is when we come to the fifteenth Chaucer, nor in its graceful adoles- chapter, on Coleridge, Keats, and Shelcence in those of Spenser was English ley, that at last we find ourselves expoetry under the influence of nature. actly at the author's point of view. When she desired to describe a natural And this is because now for the first scene she described it, and sometimes time landscape begins in the fullest very well; but she never felt nature to sense of the word to influence poetry. be a present goddess, and fortunately Here we have the personal note which she never pretended that she did. personifies nature and invests her with



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our human sensibilities, as when (to is interesting to note that Æschylus take one example out of a thousand in (in the “Agamemnon,' 1408), applies modern poetry) Shelley asks the moon, this same epithet (pvoas) to the

sea, but

the editors have unanimously Art tbou pale for weariness

struck it out as an error of the copyist Of climbing heaven and gazing on the

and replaced it by the pale and colorearth, Wandering companionless

less purâs (flowing). Other excellent Among the stars that have a different examples of this gift are “The blasts birth

that blow the poplar whitein “In MeAnd ever changing like a joyless eye moriam;" in "The Brook” That finds no object worth its constancy?

I make the netted sunbeam dance In Wordsworth, of course, this is the

Against my sandy shallows; very key-note; it is of the very fibre of his poetry, and is beautifully and and a less familiar passage from “The copiously illustrated in the book before Last Tournament," us.

The great waters break We have also the vigorous image that Whitening for half a league, and thin presents nature to the mind as vividly themselves as she could come before the

Far over sands marbled with moon and Coleridge's,


From less and less to nothing.
The ..ghtning fell with never a jag

In the lavish abundance of English
A river steep and wide;

poetry from Coleridge to Tennyson, and in Keats's,

there must of course be hundreds of These green-robed senators of mighty

admirably characteristic

passages woods,

omitted in a book like this; but Tall oaks;

cannot help wondering how Mr. Pal

grave could resist Keats's
and the minute observation of her
moods, as when the latter paints the

Magic casements opening on the foam “swarms of minnows' in a passage Of perilous seas in fairy lands forlorn; closely imitated by Tennyson in "Enid

or the terrible intensity of the scene in and Geraint” where he compares the

“Mariana in the South," where -
champions put to flight by wild Li-
mours to

The steady glare
Shrank one sick willow sere and small;
A shoal

The river bed was dusty-white,
Of darting fish that on a summer morn And all the furnace of the light
Adown the crystal dykes of Camelot Struck up against the blinding wall;
Come slipping o'er their shadows on ihe

or, lastly, that amazing picture in “The But if a man who stands upon the brink Passing of Arthur,” which has inspired But lift a shining hand against the sun,

more than one painter,-
There is not left the twinkle of a fin
Between the cressy islets white in flower.

A broken chancel with a broken cross
These and all the other signs of the That stood on a dark strait of barren

land; influence of landscape in poetry

On one side lay the Ocean, and on one fairly and fully illustrated and appre- Lay a great water, and the moon was full. ciated in the delightful chapter which deals with recent poetry. The work It is an interesting circumstance - is especially pleasing in its illustration that from one point of view the ancient of what is happily called Tennyson's and modern world are sharply COD"gift of flashing the landscape before trasted in their attitude towards naus in a word or two," such as "little ture. They both agree in drawing from breezes dusk and shiver." and “the the external world illustrations of menwrinkled sea beneath him crawls." It tal states. Sometimes, indeed, 'in

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ancient poetry these analogies are al

Let the wild most grotesque, as when Apollonius Lean-headed eagles yelp aloud, and leave Rhodius compares the fluttering heart The monstrous ledges there to slope, and

spill of Medea to ray of light reflected

Their thousand wreaths of dangling from the troubled surface of a tub of

water-smoke, water, Virgil likens the frenzied That like a broken purpose waste in air. Amata's wanderings to the gyrations of a top whipped by boys “round great Every one remembers Homer's empty halls.” But the


18 parison of man to the leaves of the forhardly ever inverted in ancient poetry. est; but we had to wait till the era of


Shelley for We can think of no example of such an

converse simile in inversion except one in the Homeric which the dead autumn leaves are lik“Hymn to Hermes,” where the speed ened to with which a work was done is com

Ghosts from an enchanter fleeing, pared to the speed of thought:

Yellow and black and pale and bectic

red, As when a swift thought darts into the

Pestilence-stricken multitudes. brain Of man, amid thick-coming doubts and

It will be seen that in Mr. Palgrave's fears. And sparkling fashés dance from out his

work we have ventured to take excep

tion only to the method, or rather to eyes.

suggest that the adoption of a different It was possibly this remarkable pas. method might have given more scope sage which suggested to Tennyson to his faculties as a critic, though it fine phrase in “The Dream of Fair might not have produced a more Women:"

tractive book. The execution is gen

erally excellent. The translations As when a great thought strikes along the brain,

from Greek and Latin poetry show And flushes all the cheek.

scholarship and taste. Sometimes the

printers have gone astray, and the necThe expression is very uncharacteristic

essary correction has been lacking. of early poetry, and perhaps points

For instance, on p. 26 husky must be a (with other indications in the

misprint for dusky which would poem) to a late, possibly Alexandrian origin of the hymn. And after all

be a very fair rendering of αιθαλίωνες; "quick as thought” is a conception so

on page 29 περίπλυον should be περιπλεον

in the translation from Menander familiar and natural that its elabora

on p. 32 we should read "shouldst tuou tion into a metaphor hardly makes a

live” and “thou wilt see;" birds has real exception to an established rule. But in modern poetry it is quite com- dering from the Georgics on p. 46. But

usurped the place of bulls in the renmon. Shelley comp:es a rock cling

the most unfortunate misprint is that ing to the side of ravine to "a

of whom for who in a sentence on P. wretched soul" which

118: "Dorigen goes on to speak of the Hour after hour hundred thousand whom she fancies Clings to the mass of life; yet clingios have been dashed against the rocks leans,

and slain.” This is unfortunate And leaning makes more dark the dre:)

misprint, for it seems to give the great abyss

sanction of the editor of “The Goldeu In which it fears to fall.

Treasury” and of a professor of poTo Browning the black-thorn boughs, etry at Oxford, to a vile solecism dark in the wood but white in the sun. which is gradually making its way into shine with coming buds, are “like the conversation and into the provincial bright side of a sorrow.” And in “The daily press. In a writer who is usually Princess" there is a very striking fig- so tenacious of a pure English diction ure:

we do not like to read that “the part





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omitted is of some length" when the ing as the great Cæsar, the modern enmeaning is that it is of considerable bodiment of the divine right, the replength. Such expressions pave the way resentative of the Almighty, and the for the Americanism


been universal providence of all mankind. away quite a time.” Finally, “to what Ten years ago, at the 1887 jubilee, simplicity of nature does he not re- hardly anybody paid the slightest atturn!” (p. 160) gives countenance to a tention to the then Prinz Wilhelm voir growing misuse of the negative in in- Preussen. The old emperor, Wilhelm terjectional sentences. The words I., was still alive, the crown prince, the quoted should mean "he returns to husband of our princess royal, in the every simplicity of nature,” but the prime of manhood, and “Willie," a nosentiment intended to be conveyed is body amongst the host of princes from. obviously “how he returns to the sim. all parts of the world. And emperor as. plicity of nature.” “What pleas did I well as king though he is to-day, stilr not urge" is right enough for “I urged stronger there lives in him the cabotin, every plea.” But "what tears did I the man who continually wants to adnot shed” is wrong, for the meaning vertise himself, who daily and could only be "I shed every tear,” hourly desires to put himself en eviwhich would be a very singular expres- dence, and whose strongest craving is sion, nearly as strange as "what a wet to make the world talk of him and ocday was it not,” for “how wet it was.” cupy itself with him and his doings. The neglect of this obvious distinction Had the German emperor been in-is becoming very prevalent; otherwise vited to come to London, heaven only it would not bave been worth while to knows what he might have done to atdwell on so minute a topic. But, in- tract people's attention. Perhaps 10deed, the general character of Mr. Pal. would have adorned the pages of the grave's work is so high that one would Visitor's Book at the Guildhall wità bis: naturally like to have it without a favorite maxim, Regis voluntas supremır flaw; and his position is such that his lexthe words which he wrote above authority might well be quoted for his signature in the Golden Book at usages which he would be the first to Munich. Or he might have asked the disown. We should all offer him our queen to allow him to put himself at hearty thanks and congratulations on the head of the whole population of a piece of work which few could have England to march past her majesty; attempted, few indeed could have ac- for a “march past" is the emperor's complished so well; and we can only ideal of bliss. Not without good rearegret that criticism must so often em- son, do his witty Berlin subjects say phasize rather points of divergence with bated breath, that their emperor than of concurrence, and devote to cola is suffering from defilirium tremens. appraisement pages which might have But perhaps it is just as well that the been filled with warm praise.

emperor should not leave Germany at R. Y. TYRRELL. the present moment. The public mind

through the length and breadth of the Fatherland appears to be uneasy. The foreign observer must find it somewhat

difficult to understand, why there From The Contemporary Review. should be so much excitement at presTHE GERMANS AND THEIR KAISER.

ent in Germany. But to the close stuOf all her Majesty's grandchildren dent the reasons cannot be secret. none regret more keenly than Wilhelm

The emperor leads a double life, II., Imperator et Rex, that he has not kind of Jekyll and Hyde existence. In been invited to England for the Queen's theory he acknowledges that the presJubilee. In London, among the six ent age represents progress and formillion of Englishmen, the German em. ward movement, but in practice he recperor would have taken delight in pos- ognizes no other will but his own, in

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