ness, on the coast, it is managed with gigs to race abreast. A score of entries great skill and profit. The salmon is not uncommon. The horses netting in the upper tidal waters of the owned by men of all degrees, count, Scheldt is also practised with great suc- baron, or farmer, and the gigs picked cess. But there are no trout; and tench out with gold, and the animals decoare the main object of the canal fisher- rated with ribbons make a fine show. man. In April the tench begin to move, The pairs go off with a flying start, at and travel in great numbers to different the sound of a bugle, and if the two waters from those which they lay in vehicles are not level when they pass during the winter. Then they are the line the bugle sounds again, and netted, and later in the year, when they they start afresh. The horses are are in better condition, are angled for. steadied, and as they once more pass But the people are habitually too busy the line the driver shakes the reins-for to take readily to the contemplative no whip is allowed, and the pair iy recreation of the “bank angler.” down the avenue at top speed, their What they really enjoy is a fair, skat- hind legs tucked under them, and their ing, or the one distinctly Dutch sport, fore feet coming out like pistons. the Hardriverij. This delightful word When the final heats are run the excite(pronounced "hard-drivery") is Dutch ment grows intense. Unlike our flat for a trotting match. It was from Hol- racing, the Hardriverij victory often land, through the old Dutch settlers of falls to some comparatively poor owner the colony, before new Amsterdam was of a trotter. The count and the farmer taken by the fleets of Charles II. and shout encouragement as their gigs rush re-named New York, that our American by, and the friends of each are equally cousins got their taste for trotting demonstrative in their different ways. horses. All classes, from the nobleman If the farmer wins the success is celeto the farmer, grow excited over the brated that evening with an enthusiasm survivals of the chariot race, and their which could not be exceeded in Yorklevel roads have naturally led to the shire. The Dutch are generally considbreeding of horses exactly suited for ered a phlegmatic race; but they keep gig driving at high speed. The breed is immense reserve of excitement indigenous to Friesland, though many strictly suppressed, and when this finds are bred in Guelderland. Most of the vent, not even Italians can be wilder. horses are shaped like a small edition That evening half-a-dozen well-to-do of the English shire horse, short and farmers and their wives may be met compact, with very strong quarters and dancing arm in arm down the Spui well sloped shoulders. They do not Straat, singing at the top of their voices, show the quality of the Norfolk or the owner of the winner beating time as Orloff trotter, as the neck and head are he dances backwards in front of them. coarser, and they have generally a good At the end of April or the beginning deal of hair at the heels; but for pace, of May outdoor life in Holland is most over a short course, it is doubtful it enjoyable. The tulip fields still show either could equal them. The trotting the flowers of the later sorts, and the matches are run in heats like coursing bird life is most interesting when the matches, except that in each a horse nesting season is beginning. Locomomust win the best out of three courses. tion is so easy in a country where every At the Hague these races are held in a road is flat, stream trams and light railfine avenue running from the great ways common, and the roads perfect for wood to the “Maalibaan” or parade cycling, that all the varieties of country ground. The course is on pounded scenery may be enjoyed without sleepcockle-shells, and wide enough for two ing away from the hotel.




From The Cornhill Magazine. passed a winter at Ramsgate, where SOME MEMORIES OF THE QUEEN'S CHILD. the Duchess of Kent and her daughter HOOD AND MARRIAGE.

were also staying, and with whom my I think it must be seventy-two years parents one evening went to dine, ago since I first saw the Princess Vic- while I, not quite emancipated from toria, then about six years old, and one the schoolroom, was left at home. To month younger than myself. I

my surprise and somewhat, no doubt, taken by my grandmother, Lady Rad- to my consternation, mingled with nor, who had, I believe, been on inti- pleasure, a message came back to say mate terms with the old Royal family. the carriage was to call for me and to Kensington Palace, when she paid take me to join the party in the evena visit to the Duchess of Kent. The ing. Not an evening dress fit for "soroom, which I remember with some ciety" did I possess, at any rate not distinctness, had a large window, I there; but for that there was no help, think a bay, in which a little girl was so I was attired, if I remember rightly, playing by herself, and whom I joined, in a frock of washed white book-muswhile the elders conversed together. I lin, as the material was then called, do not know whether I may have without sash or bows to brighten it, shown a too easy familiarity of man- black silk mittens for my hands and ner in my ignorance of court etiquette, arms, and probably black prunella but the young princess quickly and shoes on my feet, with sandals crosswarningly told me, referring to the ing over the instep and fastened round toys scattered around, “You must not the ankle, and away I went. We touch those, they are mine; and I may danced a quadrille while some one of call you Jane, but you must not call me the company I think played, and I Victoria.” Being by nature inclined dare say I most conscientiously pointed to obedience, I hope, and think, I did the toes of my prunella shoes, rounded not transgress in these matters, but I my arms into two semicircles, and held have no recollection of how the visit up the skirt of the washed muslin passed off, nor how we parted.

frock, in strict accordance with the When I was about fourteen or fifteen teaching of my kind old French danc-that is over sixty-two years ago—my ing master. Dancing was dancing in mother went from Wiltshire to the Isle those days, not skirmishing! The of Wight to hold a stall, I think, at a princess joined in the quadrille, but I bazaar patronized, and I believe at cannot recall any other particular cirtended, by the Duchess of Kent, to cumstance relating to the part she raise funds to meet distress in Ireland. took that evening, and the few guests From the sale my mother brought me dispersed early. back an impression from a drawing on The strongest impression I brought stone by the Princess Victoria, whose away with me was the gracious, smilsignature is lithographed in the corner. ing, gentle kindness of the Duchess of It is a pretty picture of a village child Kent, which always seemed to shine leaning against a projection of a cliff, in her face whenever we afterwards while a pitcher on the ground is being met. filled with water from a pipe let into When our queen was married, I was the rock. In a moment of folly, years named to be one of her twelve bridesafterwards, I pasted the picture on to a maids, an honor the sense of the greatscreen, where I fear I must now leave

ness of which has strengthened with it; but one day I hope somebody will passing years. We were at the time have it carefully removed and framed, living in Berkshire, and my mother for its own sake, and that of the hand and I had then our first experience of that executed it. I have often won- railroad-travelling-as after posting, I dered whether many copies of it now think to Reading, we joined the Great exist, and, if so, where.

Western line, not, however, entering a When I was seventeen my family public carriage. To have done so then



would, I imagine, have startled our The great lady-the very great lady friends as unpleasantly as a very few knelt, visibly trembling, before the years ago staid grandmammas and de- communion rails, and a noble woman mure aunts were startled by hearing and a noble man were joined together of granddaughters and nieces skip in holy matrimony and by the bond of ping into omnibuses or climbing to a consecrated love. their tops, and so careering along Lon- Ah me! what years of happiness foldon streets. On this occasion our own lowed, and then what mourning and carriage was placed on a truck; in this woe! It was God's will that our sovwe sat, and so steamed to town. ereign should be visited by a crushing The morning of the wedding,


sorrow; but we may well praise and twelve bridesmaids assembled in St. thank him, that, in spite of the bitter James's Palace some considerable time trial, he of his

grace and

mercy before our services were required; so spared her to the affection, and the when we perceived that one of our veneration of her people, and to the number had her rose on the wrong tender love of her children. side of her head, we had plenty of leis- I cannot recall what passages ure to remedy the mistake, the victim apartments we passed through after most good-humoredly submitting to the ceremony, but we finally found our criticism and amateur hairdress- ourselves in a room with the queen and ing. She was one of those eight of prince with no guests or relatives presour number who have passed away ent. They were stanuing by a table, since then to the “unknown land.” when an attendant brought in what How simple our dress was! A double looked like a plain colored baize skirt of white tulle over white silk, the cloth bag, and gave it to the queen, upper one looped up on one side and who drew from it, one at a time, a litfastened by a large white rose with tle dark blue velvet case, giving one to green leaves similar to the one worn each of us. Then she and the prince on the head, though maybe bigger. passed out at a side door, and we saw They were placed on the right side of them no more. those who were to walk on the left, The cases contained brooches in the and on the left side of the six on the form of a spread eagle studded with opposite side of the train. Holding up turquoises, with ruby eyes and holding that train we walked along the corri- a pearl in each claw. The royal inidor with spectators ranged in tiers tials and the date were engraved at the along the wall, and turned into the back. We afterwards received permischapel, when for a moment came a sion to wear them in a white rosette startling discordant crash, as the band

on our shoulder, as a kind of bridesin the passage did not stop playing maids' order. But the use of this privoutside before the organ took up a to- ilege gradually died out. I hazard the tally different strain within. I daro conjecture that under similar circumsay the bride heard nothing of it, for stances in these days the gifts would doubtless heart and thoughts were too be brought in with stately ceremony, deeply engrossed to notice any out resting on a richly embroidered velvet ward matter.

cushion lying on a golden salver. Yet I Like our attire, all was simple and rejoice to remember it was not so then, plain in the chapel. There were no and look back with respectful admiraballroom-like decorations, no glitter or tion to the unostentatious, simple habpomp, ecclesiastical or otherwise, its of those times. But, “autres temps, light but that from Heaven. But there autres mœurs," I had a great appreciawas calm seriousness, deep tender in- tion of the beauty of the royal brideterest, and a reverent hush, save the groom, as I have also of his upright reading of the Prayer-book service. character, marked mental endowments, 1 Since the above was written, by the death of

and practical wisdom; but I had no I.ady Foley the number has become nine. other personal knowledge of his charm.





In the evening a banquet was held in vividly than the literary language can the palace, to which I was escorted by do, certain phases of human experimy step-brother-in-law, Colonel Buck- ence. ley, one of the earliest equerries of her The history of all dialects is similar, Majesty. There were little tables, at but for the purposes of illustration we one of which we sat with others, but I may take the Scottish as typical. Mr. bave no recollection who were

Freeman says: companions; while at a large table, presided over, I think, by the Duchess of The Scottish, that is the northern form Kent, were the greater folk. After the of English is, in the strictest sense, a feast the guests departed, and so the

dialect. That is to say, it is an indewedding day was ended.

pendent form of the language which Since then kind words in the sweet

might have come to set the standard, and

become the polite and literary speech, and gentle voice of our Royal Mistress

instead of that form of the language to have been spoken to me, when I have which that calling actually fell. Or felt almost too shy and nervous to hear rather as long as Scotland was politically them; but that belongs to a far away distinct from the southern England, the past.

northern form of English actually did set I have a possession I value much. It

the standard within its own range. It is a slight pencil sketch drawn by the

was the polite and literary speech within

the English-speaking lands of the Scottish queen and sent to me through my

kings. brother-in-law, to show what the bridesmaid's dress was to be. It is on Even then, however, aistinction note-paper, stamped with a gold crown was made between literary Scotch and in one corner. I was told that one of vernacular Scotch. Nor was this all. the other bridesmaids had similar It has been pointed out by trustworthy gift, but whether there were more I authorities, that in the sixteenth cennever heard.

tury written Scotch began to differentiWhen I am gone hence, I hope this ate itself markedly from the common little treasure will pass to a near rela- English (Inglis), which was employed tive of my own who already possesses a at an earlier period throughout the old letter written by Queen Elizabeth to kingdom of Northumbria. The change one of her maids of honor. I think it is traceable to political causes. An inwould be fitting that the same house tense feeling of hostility to everything should contain a letter written by English set in after the great national Queen Elizabeth the Great and a draw- disaster at Flodden. The nation was ing from the hand of Queen Victoria driven in upon itself. A spirit of litthe Greatly Beloved.

erary separatism came into play, and JANE HARRIETT ELLICE. patriotic writers made it a boast that

they did not write in English but in Scottish, that they had discarded the southern in favor of their own lan

guage. This spirit, which has survived From Macmillan's Magazine. to our own time, and obtrudes itself ON THE ABUSE OF DIALECT.

too often in Scottish dialect literature, What is the function in literature of is a very different thing from the padialect, of what King James the triotism which inspired Burns to sing First, writing of his own tongue, calls a song for Scotland's sake. Upland Speech? Accepting, provision- What is and what is not classical ally, the theory of language which says Scottish, it may be left to students of that we think in words, all dialects the dialect to determine. It is suffimay be regarded as expressions of dis- cient to recognize the fact that there tinct types of character; and as they was once a Scottish language which are less remote from the lowest was the literary speech within the Enstratum of speech, so they reflect more glish-speaking lands of the Scottisb





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kings. The old conditions cannot be to the doctrine that we think in words, revived. The reformation and the we may discover a sound principle union of the crowns made it inevitable underlying the advice that in writing that the northern should succumb to of rural affairs we should make use of the southern form of the common En- rural speech. The dialect which lives glish speech; and Scotch, as it is now in the mouths of the rural population, spoken and written, cannot be treated whether it be the dialect of Scotland as differing from other English dialects or Cumberland, of Lancashire or Linin kind. The question whether and to coln, of Somersetshire or Devon, what extent it is admissible in

flects different world from that temporary literature to employ Scotch which is imaged in the standard lanis to be tested by the same canons as guage. are applied to any similar departure Landward affairs may be taken as from the literary language.

including not only external nature and Long ago (in 1584-5), King James man's relation to it, but also rural charwrote his “Essayes of a Prentise in the acter and manners. The use of diaDivine Art of Poesie," and attempted lect for the description of external nato lay down rules and cautions ture, is necessarily confined to those (cautelis) for the literary use of his who speak it as their native language. mother-tongue. Of these rules there The most gifted writer, if his motherare two which particularly deserve at- tongue be a dialect which does not emtention. The royal critic advises po- body the best thought of the time, etic aspirants that if their purpose be works under limitations. Although of love, they are “to use common lan- within the limits imposed upon him he guage with some passionate words," may approach perfection, he can never while, if their purpose be to write of attain his fullest development. His "landward affairs,” they ought “to use spirit is cabined by the speech in which corruptit and uplandis words."

it seeks to image itself. But confined The first of these rules is sound in though he be to a dialect of which the principle, and justified by practice. A growth has been checked, there Scot, when under the influence of some things he may do as well strong emotion, resorts instinctively to writer who uses the standard literary a purer form of speech than he is in speech. Dialect must inevitably conthe habit of employing. In his finest note less than the standard language; songs, and when the element of humor as an expression of all that is meant does not enter, Burns approaches pure by mind, it must be less intense. Yet English in form and phrase. There is, if we recall the fact that the lowest for instance, little or nothing in the dic- stratum of speech reflects the external tation of “Mary Morison” or “Ae Fond universe as primitive man saw it, we Kiss,” two of the best love-songs ever shall see how it is possible that a diawritten, which an Englishman can find lect may express more clearly than the difficulty in understanding. Passion standard language the phenomena of dictates pure speech, and tact should nature. A Wordsworth does not tell a lover that it is no compliment to less in nature than a Burns; he his mistress to court her in the rudest more; he finds thoughts that lie too and broadest form of the vernacular. deep for tears in the meanest flower of the other rule, that, in speaking of that blows. Burns does not; but what landward or rustic affairs, the poet he does see is perfectly vivid to him, should use corrupt and upland words, and has all the qualities of an immethe validity is not so apparent. If we diate sensation. And his dialect, like take it as meaning that a writer is de- the language of earlier Scottish and liberately to adopt a corrupt form of English writers, suffices to reflect this the language, it is obviously vicious. direct vision of nature. The mirror is But that is not the only meaning that not too small for the object. It is for can be taken out of it; and if we revert this reason, perhaps, that critics are so






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