forage on the ground, and teeming with the west, from which the Greeks bad flocks and herds. One good road led by retired to wisely concentrate their lines, the west to the south, where another had been abandoned by the Turks, the fine position closed the way to the capi- Greeks at once proceeded to reoccupy it, tal, and two mountain roads, each at with the inevitable effect of weakening least as good as those by which the their centre at Pharsalos. That was Turks bad done their frontier-flanking, just what the Turks wanted. Accordled south-east to Halmyros and its road- ingly they struck full at the centre bestead, and to the position to the south fore noon the next day, and at sunset just mentioned at Domokos. Still the the Greek main body was in full reTurks did not pursue. Easter was past, treat, without having sustained any deand abundant meat-rations had put the feat more serious than a loss of at most Greek ranks into better heart. They a hundred men, since the two forces, in had also got rest, and they had every a battle which looked like nothing so other night without disturbance till day- much as a bit of a war-game played by light. We heard of fighting at Veles- volunteers, never got nearer each other tinos, bravely kept up by the brigade than from 800 to 1,200 yards, and in left there. But it was evident enough which the Turks won simply by "turnon analysis of the accounts which came ing” to the east, by carrying out the eleto the main body that the Turks had mentary tactical principle of bringing a only pushed forward some reconnais- superiority of force to bear on a tactical sances. Meanwhile, the new supply point. There was no serious fighting route from Lamia had been got into whatsoever, and the artillery, good working order. So far as the main bandled again better in aim on the side position was concerned Volo had ceased of the Greeks, but tactically better on to be necessary, and there was almost that of the Turks, preferred 5,000 or an army-corps for the defence of Phar- 4,000 yards to any nearer distance for salos itself. If only the position were their efforts. not too extended for the force a stand The retreat was in full operation might well be made here with some when the fighting ceased at sunset. It hope of success. If not here, then was conducted almost ostentatiously where? A line of low hills covered the through the one pass to the west of the front and concealed even from an enter- town, and it was done in fairly good prising enemy the disposition of the order, even better than that from troops.

Tyrnavos. On reaching Domokos, a The heights of Pharsalos, with the fine position covering the last stand that old Acropolis, though not surrounded could be made short of the old frontier by a mediæval wall as in an illustration at Furka, above Lamia, it was evident I have seen, but only by fragments of that preparations had been made some far more ancient, indeed, Cyclopean days before to hold it. Long guns were masonry, looked castellated, as many a in batteries commanding the three apScotch or Irish whin-dyke appears to parent roads through the pass, which is form the outline of a fortress or battery. some 1,200 feet above the plain in front But our horse-artillery would have of it. The slopes, the roads, the crests made nothing of getting to the top of it. of the adjacent hills afforded splendid It was admirably suited for mountain positions for defence by infantry and guns. The pass to the west of it was mountain guns; but, even without the easily fortified. The other roads had aid of maps-and I saw no big maps equal advantages in the way of defence, save in the hands of correspondentsbut nothing was done in this way. an eye used to a mountain country had Everything was done on the low hills, no difficulty in detecting signs of byenothing was done on the main position, tracks which showed how the position for lack of men. Yet, when the cavalry could be turned. The Greek staff desent in one of their few trustworthy clared, of course, that here would they pieces of intelligence that Trikkala, on stand forever, and a day longer; and

they made their dispositions very pret 10,000 more. Though they showed a tily, as though they had been following notable lack of energy, and though their some plan drawn at leisure by an en- artillery fire was pour rire, yet the fact gineer for an academical exercise, with remains that they rolled up their adverout reference to the number of forces saries in a singularly short time, conengaged on either side. Beyond show- sidering the physical difficulties of the ing a few cavalry in the plain to the country and the fact that they had to north, the Turks took their time once draw the bulk of their supplies over more, and the Greeks sent down their difficult passes behind them. comparatively few wounded to their It is not for me to moralize on the rear. Meanwhile, the day after the result. But this fact appears to be eskriegspiel fight at Pharsalos, the Turks tablished by the campaign, that no enbad forced Velestinos Junction, and thusiasm, no public spirit as displayed there was nothing to prevent the in- on the platform, in Parliament, or in vaders from pushing on to the rear of the press, can make up for the absence tne Domokos position by three or four of proper training and for lack of proper roads to both the west and the east. numbers in a military undertaking. The best road, debouching at Xenias And the success of Prince Alexander of Lake, and running from the west of the Battenberg in the Slivnitza-Pirot camPharsalos plain by the valley of the paign has no doubt been misleading in Sophaditikos or Onatonos, presented no its effects upon some ambitious minds. difficulties at all except its length, and First, the Turks are not Servians, and the Greeks had nothing like the force in the next place, Alexander had studrequisite to even pretend to hold it. As ied war intimately and on a great scale, soon as the defeated force from Veles- besides being a man of most exceptional tinos had been pushed beyond the low- ability. At the same time nothing can lying round by H myros, there was be more unjust and ungenerous than nothing to prevent a Turkish advance the outcry in Greece against the crown in force on Lamia within the old prince and his staff. The real blame boundary, except a position, in itself for the defeat of the Greeks is to be turnable in every direction, over the found in the rottenness of their politOthrys range, no part of which, though ical institutions and the influence of dreary enough, is impracticable for politics upon the army, both by giving resolute infantry. So, as need scarcely commissions in the army and the rebe said, the great position of Domokos, serve to men who have no training and like the great position at Pharsalos, was are disinclined to get it, and by, for abandoned, though not without a fight causes of temporary popularity, refuswhich the Turks needlessly forced on ing the supplies necessary for a proper in their centre. Thessaly, as handed training of the men who are nominally over to the Greeks in 1881, had been on the roll. If the Greek army is to rise won back by the Turks under German from its present Slough of Despond it direction in less than four weeks, and must be commanded in the interests of the Greek dream of aggrandizement the State by or through a king poswas shattered.

sessed of some real power, which King Nothing has been said of the compo- George has been carefully deprived of sition of the Turkish force which ac- in the interests of an unchecked single complished this, for the simple reason Chamber; it must learn what firethat I have no information for a mo- discipline means, of which it has not the ment to be trusted further than what slightest notion at present; it must my eyes supplied. But taking the Otto- realize that arms are more than ever mans as I saw them, and filling up the nowadays a serious profession, deintervening spaces the ordinary manding all the powers of the human usages of war would suggest, there mind in constant exercise over probmust have been quite 70,000 men en- lems big and small-though in very gaged in the invasion, and probably truth there is nothing so small as to be


indispensable--and that there are cer- dreaded any attempt to expose them. tain axioms laid down clearly enough The only excuse I can offer for lifting in an admirable little book by Lieu- even the smallest corner of the veil is tenant Mtalpa, a Greek officer trained that he in so far lifted it himself. in France, which are not to be violated For every man requires to express with impunity even if a just cause ani- himself in some way, and he more than mates the army and fires the nation most. Thoughts, emotions, sorrows, behind it.

hopes, joys too deep for common utterCHARLES WILLIAMS. ance, yet too strong and soul-shaking

to be safely repressed, sought an outPostscript.-So far I had written when let. They found it in the pulpit he details of the fighting at Domokos loved. They found it at the family alreached me. The Turkish plan of at

tar, when, forgetting himself and his tack was exactly as I had anticipated, listeners, he poured himself out in and, if it was not successful 'from the prayer. They found it, most of all, in right, that was because the Greeks had his poetry. One cannot help being there placed the Italian or Garibaldian

thankful that it was so, and feeling Volunteers of the Foreign Legion, who

that it was not only by an inward newere only going up as I was obliged by

cessity, but by a blessed law of com

this reserved and ill-health to come away. The only real pensation, that fighting at Pharsalos was made on be

acutely sensitive man, who could not half of the Greeks by a couple of

work off the ebullitions of his strong scratch companies of the British,

nature in any of the usual ways, found French, and Italians who had up to

a refuge in his pen. that time arrived, and were by that

“Lie there, my pen!” he wrote, when time pretty well disgusted with what nearing the shore:they had seen. So the duty of rolling back the Ottoman right fell to the red- Thou art the lute with which I sang my shirted battalions. That the Greeks


When sadness like a cloud begirt my way; fought so well as they did shows at once

Thou art the harp whose strings gave out they have improved and how much they needed improving. They were

my gladness,

When burst the sunshine of a happier day, just beginning to know what they Resting upon my soul with sweet and should have known at first. It was a

silent ray.1 mistake on the part of the Turks to attack Domokos Pass in any force in

And yet he did not, far is front. Their turning movements were known, discover this power very early quite sufficient to compel the evacua

in life, nor did he begin to write either tion of the position; and their blunder

as a means of self-expression, or with enabled the Greek army to save its

any dream of winning poetic fame. honor by a sort of a stand at last.

His first hymns were written for his

Sabbath School children, in the days C. W.

when, as assistant to the Rev. Dr. Lewis of South Leith, he walked daily from his mother's house, down Leith

Walk, engrossed in his work, and reFrom The Sunday Magazine.

volving plans for increasing its effiHORATIUS BONAR.

ciency. Almost every child in his In accordance with my father's ex

large Sabbath School was known to press desire, no memoir of him has

him by name, face, and circumstances. been written. Those who knew him

Searching for simple hymns to fasten well can only conjecture the reasons

the truth upon these young minds in for this wish. As regarded personal

direct and easily remembered lanfeelings and experiences, no man was ever more reticent, and he may have

1 My Old Letters. Prelude.

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liest age.


guage, and finding few-for the chil- But let me turn from this aspect of dren's paradise of literature was not Doctor Bonar's poetry, to speak of it as yet-he sat down to write them. an expression of himself. So much of

He himself did not know which was this is there in some places that the first of these hymns, but certainly, might almost weave a biographical "I lay my sins on Jesus,” “Holy Father, sketch from it. hear my cry," and his morning hymn for a child going to school belonged to I miss the dear paternal dwelling, the period which closed with his call Which memory still undimmed recalls, to Kelso in 1837. It was in the quiet A thousand early stories telling, of Kelso that the largest number and I miss the venerable walls. perhaps the best and sweetest of Doc

And again,tor Bonar's hymns were written. In many of them-for instance, “I was a

I thank Thee for a holy ancestry;wand'ring sheep," "All that I was, my

I bless Thee for a goodly pa rentage; sin, my guilt,” “Not what these hands For seeds of truth and light and purity, have done”—he simply reached the Sown in this heart from childhood's earusefulness at which he aimed; but in others he rose into true poetry; witness what is perhaps his simplest, yet most I thank Thee for a true and noble creed, perfect effort, “I heard the voice of For wisdom, poetry, and gentle song; Jesus say,” or, his Christian worker's hymn, “Go, labor on, spend and be I thank the love that kept my life from sin, spent,” his communion hymn,

Even when my heart was far from God “Here, oh my Lord,” or yet again that

and truth, which was his own favorite of all he

That gave me, for a lifetime's heritage, had written,

The purities of unpolluted youth.
When the weary, seeking rest

Words like these call up visions of
To Thy goodness flee.

the large, merry, united family of From 1873 and onwards—having in boys and girls that filled the roomy

house which still stands, in Paterson's the mean time settled in his final sphere Court, old Broughton. Poor

the in Edinburgh-he wrote a good many hymns in connection with the new ef. neighborhood is now, a bit of the ola

garden is left with an old pear-tree in fort made by Mr. Sankey and others to

it. But then, the house stood nearly “sing the gospel;" and these in

alone in its garden, on the northern cluded in the hymn-books used at evan

limit of Edinburgh, and from it green gelistic meetings. The desire of his

fields and hedges sloped away to the heart, from beginning to end, was the

sea. realization of the petition of his own

The father of Horatius Bonar (James hymn:

Bonar, solicitor) used to take his sumMake use of me, my God!

mer walk and bathe before breakfast,

from six to eight in the morning, havThou usest the high stars,

ing, we are told, first secured time for The tiny drops of dew,

quiet reading and prayer by rising at The giant peak and little hills, four. In these walks his boys were My God! oh use me too.

his constant companions, until his sudAnd with all humility, with all truth, den death, when my father was eleven he could write before laying down his years old. His mother long survived.

To her during his residence at Kelso, pen,

he wrote, every Friday night, a letter I thank Thee, Lord, for using me, containing some original meditation, to



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cheer and comfort her; and of her he So hidden from our sorrowing eyes, Sang:

Our young, sweet spring-bloom buried lies;

One blast of earth swept o'er the As yon clear star

flower, Of the deep sky, and star that never sets,

It died, the blossom of an hour. Midnight's lone darling, so was she to me.1

This seems the first of these songs of 'Tis thus we press the hand and

sorrow. Then follow, “Lucy," "He part,” was his farewell to his

to live, for Jesus died,” “The flock at Leith; and it was not the last

farewell is complete,"

early called forth by the sorrow of parting saved!" or of death.

And to some early friend:Looking back, I think that parting was a much more acute sorrow to him

Thou art in heaven, and I am still on than to most; even a temporary separa

earth; tion from one of his family he could 'Tis years, long years since we were parted hardly bear. He may have had few


I still a wanderer, amid grief and fear, very intimate friends, but to them he

And thou the tenant of a brighter sphere. clung in life or in memory with every

Yet still thou seemest near; fibre of his being. To the very last this

But yesterday it seems was so. His last bereavement hap

Since the last clasp was given, pened when he himself was on the bed

Since our lips met from which he never rose. To an in

And our eyes looked into each other's voluntary expression of wonder at the

depths. sharp suffering it seemed to cost him, the time being so short, he answered: In this way-as he himself would "Oh, you little know, you little know, have said, quoting from another-was a friendship of eighty years broken.”

“the heart of the minister formed within His very strong belief in resurrection him;" for, he always said, a minister and in the coming glory of earth, and needs to suffer and learn for his people the body, led him to regard death as in as well as for himself. a peculiar way the fruit of the curse, Thus he became the author of the the enemy of God and man, a thing “Night of weeping,” and the “Morning that ought not to have happened but of joy." Thus he learned to sympafor sin. The death of a little child was thize and comfort, and thus, above all, to him an unnatural and awful event did the vivid hope of the future grow which it needed all his strong faith stronger and stronger within him. and hope to bear him up under. There is a note of "other-worldliness" Often have we seen him, like David, in all his poetry. He was all his life, in pleading passionately for life while the very peculiar way, home-sick for child was yet alive, hardly when the heaven, “The land of which I dream,” child was dead, to gain David's calm, as he has called it. but rather to have his sorrow transmuted into the still more passionate

Where the faded flower shall freshen, looking for reunion. He

thus Freshen never more to fade; stricken five times over, and those he

Where the shaded sky shall brighten, lost were not all infants.

Brighten never more to shade:



The flowers of spring have come and gone;
Bright were their blossoms, brief their

They shone and they were shone upon,

They flourished, faded, passed away,

Where no bond is ever sundered;

Partings, claspings, sob and moan, Midnight waking, twilight weeping,

Heavy noontide all are done. Where the child has found its mother,

Where the mother finds the child; Where dear families are gathered

That were scattered on the wild;

1 My Old Letters, Borik x.

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