State will use the weapons at its command. place to receive about six millions sterling A German Bishop whose spiritual func- to compensate them for their losses. Strastions are more immediately connected with burg will rise up from its ashes fairer and the army announced within the last few grander than ever, and it is not in the days, under special orders from Rome, that heart of man not to see some merit in ofhe would excommunicate a priest if he ficials who have got six millions of money continued to celebrate divine service in a to distribute. The mere thought of such building in which at other times some of a sum suggests a vista of the most brilthe Old Catholics were permitted to assem- liant jobs, and there is no knowing how ble. The German Government has replied many good turns can be done under such by treating this threat of excommunication circumstances by those in authority to as an infraction of military discipline, the prudent men who reveal that they have Bishop being in some way attached to the true German hearts beating under their army, has suspended him from the dis- homely exteriors. In the next place, two charge of his functions, and informed him millions of money are to be devoted to rethat it will hold a formal inquiry into his plenishing the rolling-stock on the railconduct. As the circumstances of the case ways in German Lorraine and Alsace, and were peculiar on account of the Bishop's although the main purpose of the grant semi-military position, it is possible that may be to put the lines in first-rate order no serious question between the Govern- for strategical purposes, the riches of the ment and the Church may arise out of it. district can scarcely fail to be increased But such a question must arise somewhere by the consequent development of internal and somehow very shortly. On every side communications. The upper and the highthe same perpetual cause of difference and er middle classes, especially in the towns, quarrel exists. The Bishop of Strasburg may probably for a long time hold themrecently declined to be present at the cere- selves aloof from Germany. The new Recmony of opening the Strasburg University tor of the University is a Protestant, and if Dr. Döllinger was suffered to attend. the Protestants have long been in Alsace, The Government gave way, and bought not only a small minority, but a minority the sanction of the Bishop's presence at bullied and trampled on in a thousand this price, for it was ready to endure any petty ways during the period of license temporary inconvenience rather than that accorded to Catholic ecclesiastics in the the opening of the University in its new days of the Second Empire. The majority German character should be a failure. But of the population may therefore, so far as it is not likely to yield again, and unless it is influenced by religious animosities, Rome withdraws from the conflict in order regard the new order of things as strangeto wait for a more propitious moment, the ly out of the proper course, and the higher differences between Rome and Gerinany centres of provincial life will no doubt have can scarcely fail to assume within a very their standing distaste for everything Gershort time a most serious character. man heightened by religious feeling. Two

The opening of the University of Stras- measures also on which the Germans have burg was made as grand an affair as possi- thought proper to insist will naturally ble, and everything has been done to show heighten this hostility to the new governthe intentions of the Government to make ment. Every young Alsatian who after a the new home of German intellect brilliant certain date chooses to stay in his native and famous. Professors of the highest em- province will have to serve in the German inence have been engaged, Germans from army, and no one will be suffered to hold all parts of the Fatherland have begun to land in Alsace who is not a German citiflock there, and the Alsatians will at last, zen. Those, therefore, who do not wish in the fulness of time, have an opportunity to see their sons serving in the ranks of of discovering what Geist really means. the enemy, and who cannot bear to forego Even their warmest friends represent them their French citizenship will have to sell as eminently suited by nature and habits their land and bid adieu to the province. to illustrate the immense difference which On many persons of sensitive minds this the discovery may make in the human in- necessity will fall as a great hardship, and tellect. But the Alsatians, if not very it is impossible that there should be any clever, are shrewd enough to understand good will to Germany in families on whom which side of their bread is buttered, and this bitter choice is imposed, and who feel the butter is being laid on very thick on its bitterness. But the mass of the poputhe German side. The French 'indemnity lation will probably make no difficulty is flowing like a golden river into the con- whatever, and will go on holding their quered provinces. They are in the first land as cheerfully under one Government


as under another, and will console them- ness a sufficient number of ships of war to selves for the burden of German military protect their commerce in distant quarters service by the obvious reflection that, if of the globe, and especially in the Asiatic men must fight, it is a great satisfaction seas. Their trade in that part of the to fight on the strongest and safest side. world is as yet inconsiderable; but they

That the side of Germany shall continue are exactly the men, if they ever get a to be the strongest and safest is an object foothold China or Japan, to keep it; of which the German Government never for they can get a farthing out of a sixloses sight for a moment. Besides the penny bargain as no other Europeans can, sum of six millions devoted to making they always keep their minds alive, and good the losses of the newly annexed prov- they are perfectly indifferent to the charms ences, another sum of six millions is to be of the dangerous and exciting pursuit of laid out in improving and arming the fort- religious proselytism. It is impossible to resses of Alsace and Lorraine. The forti- estimate in how many strange and indifications of Metz are not up to the high rect ways the strength and wealth of Gerstandard on which the new possessors of many will have been increased by the rethe great stronghold insist; and there will sult of the French war, and by the paybe plenty of French money available for the ment of the French indemnity. But some purpose of making Metz all that it should rough notion of the general result may be be to prevent France from ever regaining obtained if we do nothing more than noit. The numbers of the German army are tice what is direct, obvious, and unmistakalso to be rapidly and largely increased. | able. The money wrung out of France A new battalion of a thousand men is to will be used in the first place to make be added to each of the 148 German regi- Germany better able than ever to fight ments, so that Germany will have an army France, and in the next place it cannot on the war footing of nearly six hundred fail to be used to lighten the burdens of thousand infantry, whereas the French the German taxpayers. When a French Government only proposes to have a little war of revenge is talked of, it must not be over four hundred thousand. This in- forgotten that the indemnity which will, crease in the German army has been ob- during peace, make the French taxpayer tained not only by making a greater call pay more will also make the German taxgenerally on the population, but by North payer pay less; and so far as wealth is an Germany having persuaded South Ger- element in military success, this difference many to provide its proportional number will be continually and silently operating of troops. Here, again, the French indem- in favour of Germany. nity is found to be doing its work. In the late war the number of the Southern troops was not in proportion to the population, and in the distribution of the indemnity the obviously fair course to take

TROY. — Marshal von Moltke, during his was to give grants to the different Gov- military mission in Turkey, found time to pay ernments in proportion to the sacrifices a visit to the supposed site of Troy, and he dethey had actually made. But it was scribes this visit in his recently published book : thought prudent to animate the lagging

I directed my footsteps (he says) towards a spirits of the South by a gentle and skil spot to which are attached the oldest of historifully administered bribe. A portion of cal souvenirs, but where time has probably blotthe indemnity is to be distributed not in ted out all traces of man's handiwork, towards accordance with services rendered in the Ilion. Strange to say, one still has pointed out late war, but in accordance with the total to one with great appearances of probability the of the population. South Germany will theatre of events which were related centuries thus get, it is reckoned, about a million ago by a blind poet, and which occurred centusterling more than it ought properly to do, ries again before his day. Nature has remained and with this encouragement South Ger- the same. Here are the two streams where the many is ready to set earnestly to work women of Troy washed their “shining robes,” and to send the due number of men into there the Simois descends from Mount Ida and the ranks of the national army. The Ger- confounds its turbulent waters with the calm

flood of the Scamander. The waves still roar mans are too wise to spend very much of around Cape Sigeum and the island of Imbros. their newly found wealth in the construc- The white penk of Mount Ida, from whence Jution of a návy of the first class. But they piter contemplated the doings of gods and of think they may at least go so far as to inen, is visible from every point in the plain, provide for their security in the North and Posseidon, “ who made the earth to tremSea and the Baltic, and to have in readi-'ble,” could not indeed have found a more splen

where the battles took place, the windings of the Simois, the tombs of Achilles and of Ajax, the position occupied by the fleet near the sandy shore, Mount Ida and the verdant Samothrace. Nor is this all; along these heights I discovered foundations of walls cutting each other at right angles, and built of stones of various kinds without cement. I will not argue that these are the walls of the houses of Troy, but it is well known that temples have been raised and towns christened in memory of that city. It may be that some such monument has sprung from the ruins of ancient Troy, and that they have fur

did seat than "the loftiest point of verdant Sa- ! the source of the Scamander and the plains mothrace, from the height of which he witnessed the strife and its issue." In the "Iliad " it is necessary to make a distinction between the truth of the events which occurred and that of the poem itself. That all the princes of whom Homer speaks combated beneath the walls of Pergamos may be as doubtful as the genealogy of his demi-gods; but one thing is certain. Homer made his story fit in with the locality which he must have known most thoroughly. The site of the city is determined by the fact that the Scamander's source was just beneath it, and that the waters of the Simois washed its walls. When it is necessary to fix it more ex-nished the numerous capitals and sculptured actly, the opinions of the savants vary considerably; I, who am not an authority in science, was merely guided by military instinct towards the spot which one would choose for the erection of an impregnable fort. If, after leaving the Turkish fortress of Rumkalih, at the southern issue of the Dardanelles, you sail up the Simois for three hours, you will find that the plain leads to a chain of hills at the foot of which is situated the village of Bunarbaschi. It received its present name from the source of the Scamander which here springs from out of the chalkstone. Let us now ascend the slight incline, and we shall reach the spot where most travellers place Troy. Farther on- about a thousand yards off- there is a deep gorge, and beyond a still higher plateau about five hundred feet long, which is undoubtedly the position of Pergama. A small mound is held to be the tomb of Hector. And now, starting from this supposed tomb, take eight hundred steps forward in the same direction towards the mass of stones which is perhaps the fallen tower of the Scaan gate, whence Priam watched the combatants and whence the son of Andromache started back in terror before the plumed helmet of his sire. You then see before you a piece of ground about five hundred feet each way, and behind you some heights which served for the citadel of Priam, with its six hundred apartments. These heights are bounded on three sides by inaccessible cliffs; the fourth side is practicable, and it is there that must have been situate the Scaan gate the only one, indeed, that is mentioned as existing. From thence the view embraces

columns which cover the whole cemetery of the
wretched village of Bunarbaschi. Among the
most remarkable objects in this very interesting
country are the tombs; that of Achilles is espe-
cially easy of recognition by the description
given of it in Homer. It was " upon a point
of the Hellespont coast, so that it might be seen
from afar upon the sea by all men who lived at
that epoch and in the ages yet to come.
,, Be-
tween the tomb of Achilles and Cape Rhotium
rises another, which is said to be that of Ajax.
This elevated mound has also been opened. Part
of it has slipped away, and leaves exposed to
view a large square chamber with solid walls,
and about ten feet in length. In one corner of
this is a vault about four feet high, along which
one can creep upon one's hands and feet for
about twelve feet; the cement of this masonry
work is mixed with a greenish sort of gravel;
it is very hard and appears very ancient.
it shows that the vault does not reach back to
the time of Homer, for at that period the dead
were "laid in the depths of a grave that was
afterwards covered over with enormous stones
one upon the other." It is very probable that
in later days some Sovereign may have desired
to attach his memory to the imperishable name
of Troy, and have had his grave dug in the ver-
itable tumulus of the son of Telamon. But he
has had no Homer to confer on him the baptism
of immortality; the remembrance of him has
passed away, and curiosity has found in this
venerable monument nothing save that which
vanity had deposed therein.

Pall Mall Gazette.


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