Cavour desired to have carried out in German Catholics dislike the Jesuits, and, Italy with far more logical boldness than without distinctly rejecting the dogma of it has ever been carried out in England, infallibility, bitterly resent its consewas distinctly submitted to the German quences. But they scarcely dare call their Parliament and rejected. Men of known souls their own, and dread what they may sense, liberality, and courage talked of the have to go through at home or in provinJesuits in language which in England is cial circles if they boldly oppose those scarcely ever heard except from the lips whom the Pope regards as his best friends. of Mr. Newdegate and Mr. Whalley. The But if the State would act and clear all perfect fairness of Constitutional govern- the Jesuits away, what a comfort it would ment was treated as being entirely a mis- be! and if in a German home it was distake, and the example of Belgium was ad- tinctly apprehended that the State had to duced to show that, under cover of what be obeyed or disobeyed, even feminine is called fair play and religious toleration, zeal would recoil from the advocacy of scheming priests and bold clericals may disobedience. But by far the most potent obtain the whole guidance of affairs and cause of the desire for State action was, have the nation at their feet.

we may be sure, the political one. The Several reasons may be suggested why friends of the Jesuits are politically the this should have been the course of opin- enemies of Germany, and find in France ion in the German Parliament. Perhaps a field from which to carry on their atsomething should be attributed to the in- tacks. The Jesuits are of necessity, and experience of a young legislative Assem- on their own principles legitimately, the bly which thinks that whatever it wishes allies and instruments of a foreign foe. can be easily effected, and, in its sublime Regarding the German Empire as the faith in its own decrees, ignores the diffi- greatest barrier in the way of their suc-, culties of practical life. But there can be cess, which it no doubt is, they wish to no doubt that influences prevailed of far help France to break it up. Great allowgreater moment. In the first place, to ance must be made, even by the friends sever Church and State would be to most of religious toleration, for the Germans Germans to embark on an experiment under these circumstances. Ultramontantotally foreign to all their familiar tradi- ism and Communism are in many respects tions aud ideas. The Prussian State is very similar, as they both aim at destroyalways nagging at a man from the day he ing national life and moderate liberty. In is born, if not before, till the day when a country like England, where neither of even bureaucracy admits that, the fact of them have any real power, we can afford his death and burial being properly certi- to let them both have their fling within fied, there is no more to be done with certain bounds; but it would try our him. To leave him alone at the most im- temper and our liberal principles very seportant crises of his life would seem to verely if either displayed an irritating acGerman officials something terrible. In tivity as the partisan of a foreign and Prussia the good man is the man who at hostile Power. The struggle between Gerevery epoch of his tiny history has re- many and the Papacy so far a political ceived exactly the right certificate. The one that Germany may be justified in har. Catholics receive their certificates and the ing recourse to political ineans of defendProtestants receive theirs, and the order ing itself. But it is easier to state this in of the world seems intelligible so long as general terms than to see what measures the latter are regarded as soldiers belong- could be adopted that would be efficacious, ing to a regiment that wears blue facings, and yet would not have a tinge of petty and the former are regarded as soldiers and undignified persecution. belonging to a regiment that wears white facings. But a state of things in which religion was not used as a means of marking off men as if into different regiments would be, in the eyes of the most thoroughly German of Germans, revolutionary

THE GERMANS AND LIBERALISM. and monstrous. Then, again, it is easy to Tue reports of the debate in the Gerguess from some of the speeches made in man Parliament on the expulsion of the the Parliament, that some part of the Jesuits will naturally be read with the pressure put on the Government to use deepest interest all over Europe. The desharp measures arises from the fears of bate sets in the clearest light the intense that portion of the German Catholic antagonism which exists between the world which is not Ultramontane. Many whole spirit of the German nation as new

From The Pall Mall Gazette.

ly constituted and the Roman Catholic , strengthen, deepen, and extend far and Church. It is an antagonism which goes wide Liberalism in the English sense of to the very foundation of things, and ex- the word, as against Ultramontanisin on tends far below the somewhat small and the one hand and what the French would rather technical quarrels which have brok- call the democratic and social Republic en out between the Jesuits and the Ro- on the other hand. Speaking with that man Catholic clergy on the one side and degree of vagueness and neglect of details the German Government on the other. for which only we have room in these colThese and some other occurrences to which lumns, it may be said that there are in we need not now refer are amongst the Europe in the present day three great somost interesting results of the great tri- cial and political parties — the Liberal umph of the Germans and the deep humil party, the clerical party, and the revoluiation of France. They make it plain tionists. Each has curious and deeply enough that, for a time at least – proba- seated sympathies with and antipathies to bly for a very much longer time than the each of the others. The Liberals and the present generation can regard with any clerical party are both essentially aristoimmediate personal concern — the centre cratic. This, as regards the Liberals, may of interest in European history and poli- appear a paradox; nevertheless it is pertics has changed, and that a new and all. fectly true. The essence of modern Libimportant element has been added to Eu- eralism is free play for individuals, or ropean politics. Till now, neither Ger- every one for himself. This is essentially many nor Italy has been a nation, and the an aristocratic doctrine. As a fact there rulers by whom parts of those countries are great differences between man and were governed, though in many instances man, and if society is so constituted that more or less constitutional sovereigns, every ove is enabled to pursue his own obwere far less closely connected with the jects in his own way, giving to the intergeneral feelings of the nation at large ests of others such a degree of attention as than either the Emperor of Germany or his benevolent instincts or tastes or his the King of Italy. The erection of these sense of his own interest may dictate, there two great Powers into nations governed can be no doubt that the minority of able on the general principles of modern Liber- and energetic people will get the good alism is by far the greatest event of our things of the world and will in one century. It is one of the greatest events way or another form its governing body that has happened in the world for many and direct its course. The ideal of Libercenturies. We are beginning to see the alism, in short, is an aristocracy by natuindistinct outline of a few of the great ef- ral selection. On the other band, the Libfects which may be expected to follow erals and the revolutionists are both in the from it. They will reach far beyond the present state of society reformers. Each region of politics, in the common sense of is more or less dissatisfied in every part of the word. They will perhaps do less than the world with the established institutions some people are not unnaturally disposed and established creeds of mankind, and to anticipate in the direction of changing they accordingly unite in the effort to alter old boundaries and altering what used to them, though they differ widely as to the be called the balance of power. Of course means by which the alterations should be it would be rash and even absurd to proph- made, and as to the objects to which they esy, but there is certainly much plausi- should be directed. Finally, the clerical bility in the opinion that both Germany and the revolutionary party may each be and Italy are too strong to be attacked described as Socialists. The name has acwantonly, even if there were any Power quired a bad meaning, but its proper and likely to attack them in such a spirit; and original signification is that society comes that, on the other hand, it is difficult to first and individuals afterwards; that soimagine great Powers with stronger mo- ciety is and that self is not the true centives for keeping the peace. No one, of tre of human thought, energy, and speculacourse, can presume to say what cour:e tion. may find favour in the eyes of the French, As to the antipathies between the three or how the Russian Government may see parties they are obvious enough, and do fit to conduct itself under the variety of not require specification. contingencies which may be expected to Such being very broadly and vaguely arise. So long, however, as Europe is the nature of the great division of Eurospared from wars of vengeance and race, pean politics, let us consider how it is afit seems likely that the chief effect of the fected by the establishment of two new great victory of Germany may be to 'nations - Germany and Italy. The an




swer, as we have already said, appears to than it could have had under any other us to be that Liberalism will be immensely circumstances. The Daily Teleyraph the reinforced, and clericalism and revolution- other day published a letter from its Prusary socialism discouraged to a correspond- sian correspondent on this subject which ing extent. The reasons of this are obvi- seemed to us to have about it a good deal

In old times it was a possible, and of the truth and instructiveness of a clever indeed the common, not to say the univer- exaggeration. It made a great deal among sal course, that nations should be estab- other things of the assertion (which we relished upon clerical principles and grow ceived with considerable doubt) that Gerup under clerical auspices. How far this man boys and youths never play, but only is from being the case, either with regard harden their muscles and expand their to modern Germany or modern Italy, it is chests upon strictly utilitarian principles needless to say.

The debate on the Jesuits at scientifically devised gymnastic schools. shows the true state of the case with super- Of course, one takes such a fancy for what abundant clearness. It is impossible to it is worth, but there can be no doubt at read it without seeing the strongest deter- all of the grave, solid, earnest character of mination on the part of the Germans that, the nation; of their thorough and invinciwhatever else they may or may not be, ble determination to get what they want, whether or not they call themselves Roman or of their faith in the efficacy of the means Catholics, they will not be priestridden, by which it can be got. They want money they will be the masters of the clergy, and and money's worth; they want the various not their servants. If, however, a nation arts of life; they want political power and is not to be clerical, it must in these days what belongs to it; and they believe in be essentially and radically liberal. No the possibility of getting what they want nation ever has been, and it is difficult to by education, by organization — in a word, see how any nation ever could be, organ- by taking trouble. This is, we think, the ized on the principles of revolutionary gist of Liberalism. It is a very grave, socialism. A nation of any size must con- rather cold, and exceedingly sturdy creed. tain numerous classes of inhabitants. They and, thanks to Prince Bismarck and what must be engaged upon an infinite variety he represents, it has done a good deal of undertakings, and this vigorous diversi- towards getting its foot on the neck of the fied activity, subject only to rules made by more romantic and softer creeds which common consent, is as essentially unsocial- stand on each side of it. istic as it is essentially unclerical. If a great mass of people are not to be kept together by a common religious faith and subjection to a class connected with the clergy, they must be kept together by

From The Leisure Hour, trade, by common interest in the adminis

BEARDS. tration of common affairs, by all the ma

“When the piercing north comes thundering forth, chinery of modern life and activity, and Let a barren face beware; this is Liberalism. A society can be imag- For a trick it will find, with a razor of wind, ined, no doubt, in which a general organ

To shave a face that's bare." ization might be framed so contrived as to

Few fashions have been so capricious as secure for every one a rateable proportion those connected with the hair of men's of the enjoyments of life, and to prevent faces, and if we look back for several ages any one from getting more; but nothing we shall find that the custom of shaving of the kind has ever been established. If has continually been introduced and as it were, it would do away altogether with frequently been discontinued. Alexander nations and national life as we understand the Great before an engagement commandthein. It is on this ground mainly that it ed Parmenio to have all his soldiers shaved, appears to us that the establishment of and gave as his reason that a long beard aftwo great nations, one of them by far the fords a handle for the enemy. We supstrongest in the whole world, or, at all pose that the old Normans held the same events, in Europe, is the greatest triumph view of the inconvenience of a beard, for for Liberalism in the broad sense of the they shaved close, and deceived their eneword which has occurred in this or any mies. Harold's spies reported that Wilother generation.

liam the Conqueror's army was composed The special character and position of not of soldiers but of priests. After the the Prussians, under whose auspices Ger- Conquest, however, when the Normans many has become a nation, gives the mat- settled in England, they began to wear ter far greater weight and importance beards, and, in order to make a distinction between them, orders were given that the I. are full of amusing allusions to the varieEnglish should shave.

ties of fashions in beards. We learn from If we look at the portraits of our kings them what were the various styles adopted we shall find that each of them adopted a by different wearers, as the French, Spanspecial fashion of his own. Henry I. wore ish, Dutch, and Italian cuts, the new, old, a beard trimmed round, and Richard Caur gentleman's, common, court, and country de Lion a short beard Henry III. shaved, cuts. Stubbs, in his “ Anatomie of Abuses," but his son, Edward I., wore a curled says that the barber will ask “whether you beard. There is a touching story of Ed- will be cut to look terrible to your enemy ward II. in his misery which illustrates our or amiable to your friend, grim and stern subject. When he was at Carnarvon, in countenance, or pleasant and demure." Maltravers ordered the king to be shaven The worthy old clergyman, William Harriwith dirty cold water, at which he burst in- son, to whom we owe our chief knowledge to tears, and exclaimed, “ Here at least is of the state of this country in the sixteenth warm water on my cheek, whether you will century, gives the following account of the or no.”

varieties of beards in his description of Edward III. wore a noble beard, but England:—“Some are shaven from the Richard the Second's was short. During chin like those of Turks, not a few cut the fourteenth century, close shaving be- short like to the beard of the Marques came prevalent with young men, and the Otto, some made round like a rubbing old men wore forked beards, as Chaucer brush, others with a pique devant, (oh! describes the merchant: “A merchant was fine fashion !) or now and then suffered to there with a forked beard.” Henry IV. grow long, the barbers being growen to wore a beard, but Henry V., Henry VI., be so cunning in this behalfe as the tailors. and Edward IV. all shaved. Henry VIII. And therefore if a man have a leane and shaved until he heard that Francis I. of streight face a Marquesse Ottons cut will France wore a beard, and then he allowed make it broad and large; if it, be platter his to grow. Francis did not approve of like, a long slender beard will make it all his subjects wearing nature's covering seeme the narrower; if he be wesellfor the face, and he therefore obtained becked, then much heare left on the from the Pope a brief by which all ecclesi- cheekes will make the owner looke big astics throughout France were compelled like a bowdled hen, and so grim as to shave or pay a large sum. Bishops and goose ; if Cornelis of Chelmeresford saies richly beneficed clergy paid the fine, but true, manie old men weare no beards at the poor priests were forced to comply all." with the requirements of the law. Some Taylor, the water-poet, gives the followmen have been so proud of their beards ing catalogue of the styles worn in his that they have taken their loss greatly to day :heart. Duprat, son of the celebrated

“Some like a spade, some like a fork, some Chancellor and Cardinal Legate, possessed

square, a very fine beard. He distinguished him

Some round, some mow'd like stubble, some self at the Council of Trent, and was soon stark bare; afterwards appointed to the Bishopric of Some sharp, stiletto fushion, dagger-like, Clermont. On Easter Sunday he appeared That may with whispering a man's eyes outat his cathedral, but to his dismay he pike; found three dignitaries of his chapter wait- Some with a hammer cut, or Roman T, ing to receive him with razor, scissors, and

Their beards extravagant, reform’d must be; statutes of the church in their hands. He Some with the quadrate, some triangle fashargued without avail, and to save his beard

ion, he fled and abandoned his bishopric. A

Some circular, some oval in translation; few days afterwards he died of grief.

Some perpendicular in longitude;

Some like a thicket for their crassitude: When Philip V. of Spain gave orders for

That heights, depths, breadths, triform, the abolition of beards throughout his

square, oval, round, kingdom, many a brave Spaniard felt the

And rules geometrical in beards are found.” privation keenly, and said, “ Since we have lost our beards we seem to have lost our

We extract a few verses from a ballad souls.” Sir Thomas More thought of his on the beard, apparently written in the beard at the time of his execution, and reign of Charles I. :moved it out of the way of the headsman's “ Now of the beards there be such a company, axe.

And fashions such a throng, The plays, poems, and treatises of the That it is very hard to handle a beard, reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles Tho' it be never so long.


How neat 's moustcahios do at a distance


did, who shaved him?" and, "Didn't the apostles have beards ?" Therefore wo should imitate Samson and thousands of old philosophers who would not be shaved. Matthew Green wrote the following impromptu in answer to a lady who inquired why beards were not worn as in former times :

"To brush the cheeks of ladies fair,
With genuine charms o'erspread,
Their sapient beards with mickle care
Our wise forefathers fed.

But since our modern ladies take

Such pains to paint their faces,
What havock would such brushes make
Among the loves and graces."

Fortunately the same reason cannot be given now, because our ladies do not disfigure their faces, but the general introduction of beards and moustaches a few years ago met with great opposition at first; and it is said that in 1851 the parishioners of a country parish discontinued their attendance at church on account of the clergyman taking to a beard. Now, whether we go among rich or poor, laymen or clergy, we find beards everywhere, and doubtless the change of fashion has improved the appearance and benefited the health of many, for we can say with the old ballad:

"The Roman T. in its bravery,

Doth first itself disclose,

But so high it turns, that oft it burns,
With the flames of a torrid nose.

"The stiletto beard, oh! it makes me afeard,
It is so sharp beneath,

For he that doth place a dagger in 's face,
What wears he in his sheath?

"But methinks, I do itch to go thro' stitch

The needle-beard to amend,

Lest they disturb his lips or saffron band:
How expert he's; with what attentive care
Doth he in method place each straggling

Andrew Borde wrote a treatise on beards,
which is lost, and only known to us by an
answer written by one Barnes. The latter
takes up the cause of beards in a very
trenchant style. He asks, "Pray, Andrew,

Which, without any wrong, I may call too did not Adam possess a beard? and if he


For a man can see no end.

"The soldier's beard doth march in shear'd,
In figure like a spade,

With which he'll make his enemies quake,
And think their graves are made.

"The grim stubble eke on the judge's cheek,
Shall not my verse despise;

It is more fit for a nutmeg, but yet
It grates poor prisoners' eyes.

"What doth invest a bishop's breast

But a milk-white spreading hair? Which an emblem may be of integrity, Which doth inhabit there."

All this care of and attention to the personal appearance took up much time, and many of the religious writers complain of the time wasted in the trimming of beards. The once celebrated Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas, in describing the habits of her grandfather, who was a Turkey merchant, says that his valet was some hours every morning in starching his beard and curling his whiskers. She adds that a companion read to him during the time upon some useful subject. If what Hutton tells us in his "Follie's Anatomie" (1619) was true, the morning's dressing could not have been sufficient to keep the beard in proper trim:

"With what grace, bold, actor-like he speaks, Having his beard precisely cut i' th' peake.

"A well-thatcht face is a comely grace And a shelter from the cold."

ACCORDING to the Sydney Herald, the schooner Surprise has lately made a visit to the coast of New Guinea, penetrating fifteen miles up the Manoa River. Contrary to the general impression, the natives, who were hitherto supposed to be ferocious in their character and opposed to the visits of strangers, were

found to be mild and gentle in disposition. They were of the Malay stock, and had never seen white people before. On the departure of the schooner, under Captain Paget, they exhibited every demonstration of sorrow, the women weeping and the men accompanying the party to a considerable distance.

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