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ning of April of that year, to have uniformly decreased. It further appears from the Colonel's statements, that the western variIlawation
it was only 77 years before this period that the first authentic observations ations on the variation can be found, or in 1580, when the needle at London varied to the east 11-15 ng done -1899Jameson's Marine Thermometer. From many experiments made of late years by scientific persons, there seems every reason to believe that the thermometer is an instru ment of far greater importance to navigators The person already mentioned, having than it has been generally supposed. fert discovered many objections to the mode of vd bathe late celebrated Dr. Franklin was the using the thermometer recommended by person who noticed the great difference Colonel Williams, and having had several da between the temperature of the water on the thermometers broken, applied to different North American coast, in and out of sound-mechanics in various places to construct a ings, and suggested the use of a thermometer marine thermometer case for him, which as an indicator of an approach to that dan-would protect the instrument, and facilitate gerous shore, as it had been uniformly found its use, but unsuccessfully, until he some that the nearer any vessel approximated the time since applied to Messrs Gardner and Lushore,
without at least a sufficient warning of the ด่า approach to danger, to allow of its being 079 avoided, unless the ship should be so entire sly disabled as to be totally unmanageable. ab The statements of Dr Franklin and Colosnel Williams applied only to the coasts of North America; and hence it came to be 30 generally supposed that the increased heat bof the sea, when out of soundings, was causined by the Gulf stream-current, which, issuoking from the Gulf of Mexico, sweeps to the to northward along the coasts of the United Natural History, Specimen from the to as -States it has of late however been esta- Cape.-A living animal of the antelope ofblished, that the decreasing temperature of species, called a Nhu, having the head the water, as any vessel approaches the of a cow, the mane of a horse, and the to coasts of Spain, Portugal, and Barbary, is hind part resembling that of a mule, was Isufficient to give warning to any attentive brought to England in the Barossa, to navigator of his approach to these coasts; from the Cape of Good Hope. These and it seems probable, from the experiments animals are inhabitants of Southern Africa, lof Mr Davy, (brother to the celebrated Sir but very rarely to be met with. The one sw Humphrey,) that the thermometer will be now brought home belongs to Lord Charles found to point out, not only the proximity Somerset. As of land, but also that of extensive banks be Aurum Millium. Mr N. Mill has dis1990 of bema doudw -&elin all places. 1 H-dena covered a new metal resembling gold, and nottaAs person whose experience had shown possessing some of its best qualities, which -ishimdthatoins quitting the American coasts She calls aurum millium. In colour, it reanthere was an increase of twelve deg. of Fah-sembles 60s. gold, and is nearly as heavy in Jasenheit's scale in the temperature of the sea specific gravity as jewellers' gold. It is vin a few hours run from the mouth of the malleable, and has the invaluable property adDelaware, found also on approaching the of not easily tarnishing. It is very hard -coast of Portugal, that the mercury in the band sonorous, and requires care in the s tube of the thermometer sunk from 69 de-working. The price of it being from 4s. ingrees dat which it stood in the open sea, to to 4s. 6d. an ounce, will not be an ob360 degrees, when his ship was about three stacle to its general use: and for beauty sor four miles from Cape St Vincent and there is not any metal that exceeds it, and subsequently, that in beating through the it is susceptible of an exquisite polish. VOL. VII.
Description of Norway-The following account of the appearance of Norway, as distinguished from Sweden, is given by Bedemar:-Norway, he says, consists prin cipally of a mountain-basin, surrounded by the remains of an elevated platform, the exterior border of which, jagged by deep cuts, and ascending to a great height, lies around the whole of the ridge of the principal range of mountains. The sea has penetrated to this border, through the abysses which have been opened; and the western storms, and an illjudged industry, have circumscribed within the vallies the scanty woods which run through the basin itself. On the outside descend only mountain torrents, short in their course: the large streams belong to the centre of the land. *** They form many beautiful and high waterfalls, and many large lakes in their course. On the coasts only are a few towns to be found;
the rest of the country is covered with insulated dwellings; brown log-houses, surrounded by a few corn-fields and extensive meadows, small and independent pos sessions, suited to the independent and sturdy character of the people. In the vi cinity of rivers, which are at times nearly invisible from the quantity of timber floats ing down them, numerous saw mills are tó be seen; and a few iron and copper works are to be met with in the spaces cleared from wood. Along the sea shore, habitations, solitary or in groupes, surrounded with implements for fishing, and curing fish, appear like so many nests in the green hollows among the rocks. Over all this, an atmosphere generally clear, delightful, and invigorating, is spread as far as the 69
70 of latitude, after which we meet with deep and impenetrable fogs, a sea like lead, and the melancholy silence of an uninter rupted wilderness.
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