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places we have found patterns remaining which are of Bookiu,
i • j • » Chap. IV.
coarse execution, but Greek in design. Another
The not a whit less interesting discoveries at Halicar nassus and elsewhere, made chiefly in the years 1850, Tll 1857, and 1858, V Mr. Charles Newton, now claim "t"TM01 attention, but my present notice of them can be but very »*ssus.ot inadequate to the worth of the subject. They as richly Ofbrandeserve a full record as do the explorations of Layard or those of Fellows.
The earliest, in arrival, of the Halicarnassian Marble3 were procured by our Ambassador at Constantinople (then Sir Stratford Canning, now) Lord Stratford De Redcliffe. These first-received marbles comprise twelve slabs, sculptured with the combats of Greeks and Amazons in low-relief; and were removed from the walls of the mediaeval castle of Budrum, in the year 1846, with the permission, of course, of the Sublime Porte. It is a tribute all the stronger to the energy of Lord Stratford to find another man of energy writing, in 1841: 'I would not have been a party to the asking what—to all who have seen them' (namely, the Marbles of Halicarnassus, built into the inner walls of Budrum Castle)—' must be considered as an unreasonable request.' It took, it is true, five years for aTI^L;« Lord Stratford to overcome the obstacle which to Mr. Att*^*^,
pp. v"J, 4o0
Fellows seemed, in 1841, quite insuperable. (1853>
In 1850, and expressly in order to a thorough explora- TllE tion of the site of Halicarnassus, and of other promising parts of the Levant, Mr. Charles Newton, then one of Lmno'
the ablest of the officers of the Department of Antiquities Nkwto.v (whose loss at the Museum, even for three or four years, was not very easily replaceable), accepted the office of British Vice-Consul at Mitylene. In 1857, he discovered
a00*TM' four additional slabs (similar to those received from the Another Ambassador), on the site of the world-famous mausoleum itself; several colossal statues, and portions of such; together with a multitude of architectural fragments of almost every conceivable kind; columns—mostly broken into many portions—with their bases, capitals, and entablatures, in sufficient quantity and diversity to warrant a faithful restoration of the ancient building by a competent hand.
From Didyme (near Miletus), from Cnidus, and from Branchidae, many fine archaic figures in the round; some colossal lions; and an enormous number of fragments both of sculpture and of architecture; with many minor antiquities, various in character and in material, were successively sent to England. Mr. Charles Newton's narrative of his adventures at Budrum, and at several of the other places of his sojourn and excavations, is very graphic. Some portions of it are worthy to be placed side by side with the best chapters of the earlier narrative of the explorations and travelling experiences of Layard.
Of the most famous trophy of Mr. Newton's first mission to the East—the mausoleum built by Queen Artemisia— the discoverer has himself more recently given this brief and striking descriptive account:— The Tomb This monument, writes Mr. Newton, in 1869, was erected 'to contain the remains of Mausomjs, Prince of Caria, about B.C. 352. It consisted of a lofty basement, on which stood an oblong Ionic edifice, surrounded by thirty-six Ionic columns, and surmounted by a pyramid of twenty-four steps. The whole structure, a hundred and Guide to ne forty feet in height, was crowned by a chariot-group in o/jntigm- white marble, in which probably stood Mausolus himself, w'Vu't. represented after his translation to the world of demigods
and heroes. The peristyle edifice which supported the Boo*jnp)'raraids was encircled by a frieze, richly sculptured in high- Another relief,' and so on. The frieze thus mentioned is that of Akch*°lo. which the twelve slabs were, as already mentioned, given "TM0A^ by Lord Stratford De Rkdcliffe in 1846, four exhumed by Newton himself in 1857, and one more purchased from the Marchese Serra, of Genoa, in 1865. This piecemeal acquisition of the principal frieze, by dint of researches spread over twenty years, is not the least curious of the facts pertaining to the story. But the annals of the Museum comprise ten or twelve similar instances of ultimate reunion, after long scattering, of the parts of one whole. They tell of manuscripts (made perfect after the lapse of a century, it may be) as well as of sculptures, thus toilsomely recovered.
But the Greco-Amazonian battle-frieze was not the only frieze of the famous mausoleum. The external walls of the 'cella'had two other friezes, of which Mr. Newton succeeded in recovering several fragments, some of them of much interest. And the mausoleum was profusely adorned with sculptures in the round as well as with the richly carved figures in relief, both high'and low, which encircled (in all probability) the very basement, as well as the peristyle and the cella portions of this marvellous structure. Lions in watchful attitudes (' lions guardant,' in heraldic phrase) stood here and there, and the fragments of these which have been recovered testify to their variety of scale, as well as to their number. The names of five famous sculptors of the later Athenian school—Scopas, Leochares, Bryaxis, Timotheus, Pythios—who were employed upon the decoration of the tomb itself, or upon the chariot-group, have been recorded, and it would seem that each of four of these had one side of the tomb specially assigned to him. 'The material of the sculpture was Parian marble, and the
whole structure was richly ornamented with colour. The tomb of Mausolus was of the class called by the Greeks hcroon, and so greatly excelled all other sepulchral monuments in size, beauty of design, and richness of decoration, that it was reckoned one of the "Seven Wonders of the World."'
While Imyard was unearthing Nineveh; Fellows bringing into the light of day the long-lost cities of Lycia; and Charles Nkwton restoring, before men's eyes, this funereal marvel of the ancient world, which had long been known (in effect) only by dim memories and traditions; Dr. Nathan Davis, in his turn, was exhuming Carthage and Utica. All these distinguished men were labouring, in common, for the enrichment of our National Museum, within a period of some twenty years. Three of them may be said to have been busied (in one way or other) with their self-denying tasks contemporaneously.* If we take into the account the variety, as well as the intrinsic worth, of the additions thus made to human knowledge; above all, if we duly estimate the value of those links of connection
* I shall not, I trust, be suspected of a want of gratitude for the eminent and most praiseworthy efforts of Mr. Davis—one of the many Americans who have returned, with liberal profuseness, the reciprocal obligations which all Americans owe to Britain (for their ancestry, and also for the noble interchange of benefits between parent and offspring, prior to 1776; if for nought else), if I venture to remark that the abovewritten passage in the text has been inserted somewhat hesitatingly, as far as it concerns the date of the Carthaginian explorations. No index; no summary; no marginal dates; conflicting and obscure dates, when any dates appear anywhere; no introduction, which introduces anything; scarcely any divarication of personal knowledge and experiences, from borrowed knowledge and experiences; such are some of the difficulties which await the student of Carthage and her Remains. Yet the book is full of deep interest; its author is, none the less, a benefactor to Britain, and to the world.
between things human and things divine, which are the Boom in. most essential characteristic of some of the best of these Anothke acquisitions, it may well be said that the annals of no Archio'..museum in the world can boast of such an enrichment as i'mAxn this, by the efforts of the travellers and the archaeologists of one generation. And all of these explorers are—in one sense or other—Britons.
On one incidental point, I have to express a hope that the reader will pardon what he may be momentarily inclined to think an over-iteration of remark. If I have really adverted somewhat too frequently to the connection which many of these rich archaeological acquisitions, of 1842-1801, present between the annals of man and the Book of Gon, I have this to plead, in extenuation: Certain writers pass over that connection so hurriedly as almost to lose sight of it. And we live in an age in which some of our own countrymen—some of those among us to whom the Creator has been most bounteous in the bestowal of the glorious gifts of mind and genius—have even spoken of our best of all literary possessions as 'Jew-Records,' and 'Hebrew old-clothes.' Those particular expressions, indeed, were employed long before the arrival of the Assyrian Marbles. But I think I have seen them quoted since.
Among the spoils of Carthage and of Utica which we owe Th* Spoils to Dr. Nathan Davis, are many rich mosaic pavements, of Tuuud the second and third centuries of our era, and a multitude of Phoenician and Carthaginian inscriptions, extending in date over several centuries. And it must be added that many of the antiquities, and more especially of the mosaics, excavated under Dr. Davis's instructions at Utica, were found to possess greater beauty, and a more varied interest, than most of those which were disinterred by him