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relief of a Bacchanalian procession (73., part ii) at Civita Bookii, Vecchia. All these accessions to the Towneley Gallery Classical accrued in 1775 or 1776.

Of the date of the Collector's first return to England with his treasures I have found no record. But it would seem that nearly all the marbles hitherto enumerated were G*LL1!»I »

'England.

brought to England in or before the year 1777. The house, in London, in which they were first placed was found to be inadequate to their proper arrangement. Mr. Towneley either built or adapted another house, in Park street, Westminster, expressly for their reception. Here they were seen under favourable circumstances as to light and due ordering. They were made accessible to students with genuine liberality. And few things gave their owner more pleasure than to put his store of knowledge, as well as his store of antiquities, at the service of those who wished to profit by them. He did so genially, unostentatiously, and with the discriminating tact which marked the high-bred gentleman, as well as the enthusiastic Collector.

A contemporary critic, very competent to give an opinion on such a matter, said of Mr. Towneley: 'His learning and sagacity in explaining works of ancient art was equal to his taste and judgment in selecting them.'* If, in any point, that eulogy is now open to some modification, the exception arises from the circumstance that early in life, or, at least, early in his collectorship, he had imbibed from his intercourse with D'hancarville somewhat of that writer's love for mystical and supersubtle expositions of the symbolism of the Grecian and Egyptian artists. To D'hancarVille, the least obvious of any two possible expositions of a subject was always the preferable one. Now and then

* Specimens of Ancient Sculpture. Published by the Society of Dilettanti, Preface, § 61.

Book Ii, Townelet would fall into the same vein of recondite elaboraCLaLicAi tion; as, for example, when he described his figure of an *ist" Ahd°" Egyptian ' tumbler' raising himself, upon his arms, from the Kxplobebs. back 0f a tame crocodile, as the ' Genius of Production.'

During the riots of 1780, the Towneley Gallery (like the National Museum of which it was afterwards to become a part) was, for some time, in imminent peril. The Collector himself could have no enemies but those who were infuriated against his religious faith. Fanaticism and ignorance are meet allies, little likely to discriminate between a Towneley Venus and the tawdriest of Madonnas. Threats to destroy the house in Park Street were heard and reported. Mr. Towneley put his gems and medals in a place of safety, together with a few other portable works of art. Then, taking ' Clytie' in his arms—with the words ' I must take care of my wife'—he left his house, casting one last, longing, look at the marbles which, as he feared, would never charm his eyes again. But, happily, both the Towneley house and the British Museum escaped injury, amid the destruction of buildings, and of works of art and literature, in the close neighbourhood of both of them.

T"E Liberal commissions and constant correspondence with

Sculpt Urks a 1

ic«cnn Italy continued to enrich the Towneley Gallery, from time vriiA to time, after the Collector had made England his own At'rom"0 usual place of abode. In 1786, Mr. Jenkins—who had long established himself as the banker of the English in Rome, and who continued to make considerable investments in works of ancient art, with no small amount of mercantile profit—purchased all the marbles of the Villa Montalto. From this source Mr. Towneley obtained his Bacchus visiting Icarus (engraved by Bartoli almost a century before); his Bacchus and Silenus; the bust of

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Hadrian; the sarcophagus decorated with a Bacchanalian Book u procession [A. 31., part x), and also that with a representa- Classical tion of the Nine Muses. By means of the same keen agent and explorer he heard, in or about the year 1790, that leave had been given to make a new excavation under circumstances of peculiar promise. Nations

Our Collector was at Towneley when the letter of Mr. Jenkins came to hand. He knew his correspondent, and the tenour of the letter induced him to resolve upon an immediate journey to Rome. The grass did not grow under his feet. He travelled as rapidly as though he had been still a youngster, escaping from Douay, with all the allurements of Paris in his view.

When he reached Rome, he learnt that the promising excavation was but just begun upon. Without any preliminary visits, or announcement, he quietly presented himself beside the diggers, and ere long had the satisfaction of seeing a fine statue of Hercules displayed. Other fine works afterwards came to light. But on visiting Mr. Jenkins, in order to enjoy a more deliberate examination of ' the find,' and to settle the preliminaries of purchase, his enjoyment was much diminished by the absence of Hercules. Jenkins did not know that his friend had seen it exhumed, and he carefully concealed it from his view. Eager remonstrance, however, compelled him to produce the hidden treasure. Towneley, at length, left the banker's house with the conviction that the statue was his own, but it never charmed his sight again until he saw it in the Collection of Lord Lansdowne. He had, however, really secured the Discobolus or Quoit-thrower,—perhaps, notwithstanding its restored head, the finest of the known repetitions of Myro's famous statue,—as well as some minor pieces of sculpture.

Archjcolo

1.IST3 AND EXPLORERS.

ACQI"1SI

Tions Madb In England

AND IN

Book ii, Other and very valuable acquisitions were made, occaCassicai. sionally, at the dispersion of the Collections of several lovers of ancient art, some of these Collections having been formed before his time, and others contemporaneously with his own. In this way he acquired whilst in England (1) the bronze statue of Hercules found, early in the Frahci. eighteenth century, at Jebel or Gebail (the ancient Byblos), carried by an Armenian merchant to Constantinople, there sold to Dr. Swinney, a chaplain to the English factory; by him brought into England, and purchased by Mr. James Matthews; (2) the Head of Arminius, also from the Matthews Collection; (3) the Libera found by Gavin Hamilton, on the road to Frascati, in 1776, and then purchased by Mr. Greville; (4) Heads of a Muse, an Amazon, and some other works, from the Collection of Mr. Lyde Browne, of Wimbledon; (5) the Monument of Xanthippus, from the Askew Collection; (6) the bust of a female unknown (called by Townelet 'Athys') found near Genzano, in the grounds of the family of Cesarini, and obtained from the Collection of the Duke of St. Albans; (7) many urns, vases, and other antiquities, partly from the Collection of that Duke and partly from Sir Charles Frederick's Collection at Esher. The bronze Apollo was bought in Paris, at the sale, in 1774, of the Museum formed by M. L'allkmand De Choiseul.

Some other accessions came to Mr. Towneley by gift. The Tumbler and Crocodile, and the small statue of Pan {A. M., pt. x, § 24), were the gift of Lord Cawdor. The Oracle of Apollo was a present from the Duke of Bedford. This accession—in 1804—was the last work which Mr. Towneley had the pleasure of seeing placed in his gallery. He died in London, on the 3rd of January, 1805.

ArchaeoloGists And Explorers.

Mr. TownsLktc's Will.

Codicil of
33 Dec, 1804.

He had been made, in 1791, a Trustee of the British Bookii, Museum, in the progress of which he took a great interest. Classical Family circumstances, as it seems, occurred which at last dictated a change in the original disposition which he had made of his Collection. By a Codicil, executed only twelve days before his death, he bequeathed the Collection to his onlv brother Edward Towneley-standish, on condition that a sum of at least four thousand five hundred pounds should be expended for the erection of a suitable repository in which the Collection should be arranged and exhibited. Failing such expenditure by the brother, the Collection was to go to John Towneley, uncle of the Testator. Should he decline to fulfil the conditions, then the Collection should go, according to the Testator's first intent, to the British Museum.

Eventually, it appeared, on an application from the Museum Trustees, that the heirs were willing to transfer the Collection to the Public, but that Mr. Towneley had left his estate subject to a mortgage debt of £36,500. The Trustees, therefore, resolved to apply to Parliament for a grant, and this noble Collection was acquired for the Nation on the payment of the sum of £20,000, very inadequate, it need scarcely be added, to its intrinsic worth.

Charles Towneley possessed considerable skill, both as a draughtsman and as an engraver. In authorship, his only public appearance was as the writer of a dissertation on a relic of antiquity (the 'Ribchester Helmet'), printed in the Vetusta Monumenta.

He was a learned, genial, and benevolent man. His intense love of ancient art did not blind his eyes to things beyond art, and above it. The impulses of the collector did not obstruct the duties of the citizen. He was a good landlord; a generous friend. It may be said of him, with

Act of

45 Geo. 111.

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