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20 June, 1815), and arranged, as a Museum of British Book I,

Chap. I. Zoology—and especially of Ornithology—at Knowle, in INTRODUCDevonshire. Purchased at a cost of £1100.

TION.

(XXIII) 1818. The BURNEY LIBRARY.

Collected by Dr. Charles Burney (Died 28 December, 1817). Purchased by a Parliamentary vote for the sum of £13,500.

[See Book II, Chapter 3.]

(xXIV) 1818. Mrs. Banks' ARCHÆOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS.

Collected by Mrs. S. S. Banks, and by Lady Banks; comprising a valuable series of coins, medals, prints, &c., and presented to the Museum by the Survivor.

(xxv) 1823—1825. The King's LIBRARY.

Collected by King George the Third (Died 1820); inherited by King George the Fourth, and by him transferred, on terms, to the British Museum.

[See Book II, Chapter 4.]

(XXVI) 1824. The Payne-Knight CABINETS, LIBRARY, and MUSEUM.

Collected by Richard Payne Knight (Died 24 April, 1824), a Trustee; comprising Marbles, Bronzes, Vases, Prints, Drawings, Coins, Medals, and Books. Bequeathed by the Collector.

[See Book II, Chapter 3.]

Book I,
Chap. I.
INTRODUC-
TION.

(XXVII)
1825. The PERSEPOLITAN MARBLES.

[See Book II, Chapter 2.]

(XXVIII) 1825. The ORIENTAL COLLECTIONS of CLAUDIUS JAMES Rich.

Claudius Rich was British Consul at Bagdad (Died 5 Oct., 1821). He made an extensive gathering of Persian, Turkish, Syriac, and Arabic MSS., and of Coins, &c. These were purchased by a Parliamentary vote.

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(xxix) 1825. Sir RichARD COLT HOARE's ITALIAN LIBRARY.

Given, by the Collector, in 1825, and subsequently increased, by another gift.

[See Book II, Chapter 3.]

. (xxx) 1827. The BANKSIAN LIBRARY, Herbaria, and MUSEUM.

Collected by Sir Joseph Banks, P.R.S. (Died 19 June, 1820), and a Trustee. Bequeathed by the Collector, with a prior life interest, to Robert Brown (Died 1858); and by him transferred to the British Museum in 1827.

Sir Joseph's botanical Collections included the Herbaria, severally, of Cliffort; of Clayton (the basis of the · Flora Virginica'); of John Baptist Fusée d'Aublet (Died 6 May, 1728); of Nicholas Joseph Jacquin, author of the * Flora Austriacæ' (Died 24 October, 1817); and of Philip Miller, author of · The Gardener's Dic

OOK I, Chap. I. INTRODUCTION.

tionary' (Died 18 December, 1771); with portions of Book I, the Collections of Tournefort, Hermann, and Loureiro.

(XXXI) 1829. The Hartz-MOUNTAINS MINERALS.

Collected at various periods and by several mineralogists. This fine Cabinet was for a considerable period preserved at Richmond. Presented by King George the Fourth.

(XXXII) 1829. The EGERTON MANUSCRIPTS.

Collected by Francis Henry Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater (Died 11 February, 1829). Bequeathed by the Collector ; together with a sum of £12,000, to be invested, and the yearly income to be applied for further purchases of MSS. from time to time ; and with other provision towards the salary of an · Egerton Librarian.'

[See Book II, Chapter 5.]

(XXXIII) 1831. The ARUNDELIAN MANUSCRIPTS.

Collected, between the years 1606 and 1646, by Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, &c. (Died 4 Oct., 1646); Given in 1681 by his eventual heir, Henry Howard, Esquire (afterwards XIIth Duke of Norfolk -Died in 1701), and at the request of John Evelyn, to the Royal Society; Transferred by the Council of that Society, in 1831,- partly by purchase, and partly by exchange— to the Trustees of the British Museum. The Collection includes the bulk of the Library of Bilibald Pirckheimer, purchased at Nuremberg, by LORD ARUNDEL, in 1636.

See Book I, Chapter 4.]

30

BOOK I,
Chap. I.
INTRODUC-
TION.

THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM,
BUT DEPOSITED IN THE NATIONAL GAL-
LERY.

(xxxiv)
1823. The BEAUMONT GALLERY,

Collected by Sir George Howland Beaumont (Died 7 February, 1827); Given by the Collector in 1823 to the British Museum, on condition of its usufructuary retention, during his lifetime. Deposited in the National Gallery, under terms of arrangement, after the Collector's

W

LLERY

(XXXV)
1830. The HOLWELL-Care GALLERY.

Collected by the Reverend William Holwell Carr (Died 24 December, 1830), and by the Collector bequeathed to the British Museum. Deposited under arrangements similar to those adopted for the Beaumont Pictures in the National Gallery.

These are the primary Accession-Collections that came to the British Museum, during the first seventy years which elapsed after its public opening (January, 1759). They form a noble monument alike of the liberality and public spirit of individual Englishmen, and of the fidelity of the Trustees to the charge committed to them as a body. And the reader will hardly have failed to notice how remarkable a proportion of the most munificent of the

INTRODUC-
TION

Benefactors of the institution were, previously to their gifts, Book I,

Chap. I. numbered amongst its Trustees.

If the liberality of Parliament failed to be elicited in due correspondency-in respect either to the amount or the frequency of its grants—to that of individuals, the failure is rarely, if ever, ascribable to oversight or somnolency on the part of the Trustees. If, during the lapse of those

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amounted, in the aggregate, to but £151,762— little more, on an average, than two thousand pounds a year—they made not a few applications to which the Treasury, or the House of Commons, refused to respond. Meanwhile, the gifts of Benefactors probably much more than trebled the public grants.

‘Departments’only: (1) Manuscripts ; (2) Printed Books ; (3) Natural History.

The acquisition, in 1801, of the Alexandrian monuments, was the first accession which gave prominence to the * Antiquities '—theretofore regarded as little more than a curious appendage to the Natural History Collections. Four years later came the Townley Marbles. It was then obvious that a new Department ought to be made. This change was effected in 1807. The Marbles and minor Antiquities, together with the Prints, Drawings, Coins, and Medals (formerly appended to the Departments of Printed Books and of MSS.) were formed into a separate department. Twenty years afterwards the 'Botanical Department' was created, on the reception of the Banksian herbaria and their appendant Collections. The division into five departments continued down to the date of the Parliamentary inquiry of 1835-36 [Book III, Chapter 1]. Soon afterwards (1837), the immediate custody of the 'Prints and

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