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The moving power with these vast “ All other nations seem to have nearly bodies of men is the lust of conquest, reached their natural limits, and only to and a passion for southern enjoy- be charged with the maintenance of their ment. Democracy is unheeded or power; but these are still in the act of unknown amongst them; if imported growth, all the others are stopped, or from foreign lands it languishes and continue to advance with extreme difi. expires amidst the rigours of the culty; these are proceeding with ease climate. The energy and aspirations
and with celerity along a path to which of men, are concentrated on con
the human eye can assign no term. The
American struggles against the natural quest; a passion more natural, more durable, more universal than the saries of the Russian are men : the former
obstacles which oppose him; the adverdemocratic vigour of advanced civilisation. It speaks a language intel combats the wilderness and savage life ;
the latter, civilisation with all its weapons ligible to the rudest of men; and
and its arts: the conquests of the one rouses passions of universal vehe
are therefore gained by the ploughmence. Great changes may take
share; those of the other by the sword. place in human affairs; but the time The Anglo. American relies upon perwill never come when northern va
sonal interest to accomplish his ends, lour will not press on southern and gives free scope to the unguided exwealth ; or refined corruption not ertions and common sense of the citizens; require the renovating influence of the Russian centres all the authority of indigent regeneration.
society in a single arm; the principal inThis then is the other great moving strument of the former is freedom ; of power which in these days of tran- the latter, servitude. Their startingsition is changing the destinies of point is different, and their courses are mankind. Rapid as is the growth of not the same; yet each of them seems the British race in America, it is not to be marked out by the will of Heaven more rapid than that of the Russian to sway the destinies of half the globe.' in Europe and Asia. Fifty millions There is something solemn and of men now furnish recruits to the evidently providential in this ceaseMoscovite standards; but their race less advance of the lords of the earth doubles in every half century; and and the sea, into the deserted regions before the year 1900, one hundred of the earth. The hand of Almighty millions of men will be ready to Power is distinctly visible, not only pour from the frozen plains of Scy, in the unbroken advance of both on ibia on the plains of central Asia their respective elements, but in the and southern Europe. Occasional evident adaptation of the passions, events may check or for a while turn habits, and government of each to the aside the wave; but its ultimate pro- ends for which they were severally gress in these directions is certain destined in the designs of nature. and irresistible. Before two centu- Would Russian conquest have ever rics are over, Mahometanism will be peopled the dark and untrodden banished from Turkey, Asia Minor, forests of North America, or the deand Persia, and a hundred millions serted Savannahs of Australasia ? of Christians will be settled in the Would the passions and the desires regions now desolated
by the stand- of the north have ever led them into ards of the Prophet. Their advance the abode of the beaver and the is as swift, as unceasing as that of buffalo? Never; for aught that their the British race to the rocky belt of passions could have done these reWestern America.
gions must have remained in prime“ There are, at the present time, two
val solitude and silence to the end of
time. Could English democracy great nations in the world, which seem to tend towards the same end, although
ever have penetrated the half-peothey started from different points: I al.
pled, half-desert regions of Asia, and lude to the Russians and the Americans.
Cbristian civilisation, spreading in Both of them have grown up unnoticed: peaceful activity, have supplanted and whilst the attention of mankind was
the crescent in the original seats of directed elsewhere, they have suddenly the human race? Never; the isola. assumed a most prominent place amongst ted colonist, with his axe and his the nations; and the world learned Bible, would have been swept away their existence and their greatness at by the Mameluke or the Spahi, and slmost the same time,
civilisation, in its peaceful gulee,
would have perished under the squa. Christian race to the shores of the drons of the Crescent. For aught that Pacific. democracy could have done for Cen- Arbitrary institutions will not for tral Asia it must have remained the ever prevail in the Russian empire. abode of anarchy and misrule to the As successive provinces and kivg. end of human existence. But peace. doms are added to their vast domiful Christianity, urged on by demo- nions-as their sway extends over cratic passions, pierced the primeval the regions of the south, the abode solitude of the American forests; of wealth and long established civi. and warlike Christianity, stimulated lisation, the passion for conquest will by northern conquest, was fitted to expire. Satiety will extinguish this subdue Central Asia and Eastern as it does all other desires. With Europe. The Bible and the print- the acquisition of wealth, and the ing press converted the wilderness settlement in fixed abodes, the desire of North America into the abode of of protection from arbitrary power Christian millions; the Moscovite will spring up, and the passion of battalions, marching under the stand freedom will arise as it did in Greece, ard of the Cross, subjugated the Italy, and modern Europe. Free already peopled regions of the Mus- institutions will ultimately appear sulman faith. Not without reason in the realms conquered by Mosthen did the British navy and the covite, as they did in those won by Russian army emerge triumphant Gothic valour. But the passions and from the desperate strife of the desires of an earlier stage of existe French Revolution; for on the vic- ence will long agitate the millions of tory of each depended the destinies the Russo-Asiatic race; and after of half the globe.
democratic desires have arisen, and Democratic institutions will not, free institutions exist in its oldest and cannot, exist permanently in provinces, the wave of northern conNorth America. The frightful quest will still be pressed on by anarchy which bas prevailed in the semi-barbarous hordes from its resouthern states, since the great in- moter dominions. Freedom will terests dependent on slave emanci. gradually arise out of security and pation were brought into jeopardy- repose; but the fever of conquest the irresistible sway of the majority, will not be finally extinguished till and the rapid tendency of that ma- it has performed its destined mission, jority to deeds of atrocity and blood and the standards of the Cross are -the increasing jealousy, on mer: brought down to the lodian Ocean. cantile grounds, of the northern and The French Revolution was the southern states, all demonstrate greatest and the most stupendous that the union cannot permanently event of modern times; it is from hold together, and that the innume- the throes consequent on its explorable millions of the Anglo-American sion that all the subsequent changes race must be divided into separate in human affairs have arisen. It states, like the descendants of the sprung up in the spirit of infidelity; Gothic conquerors of Europe. Out it was early steeped in crime; it of this second great settlement of reached the unparalleled height of mankind will arise separate king- general atheism, and shook all the doms, and interests, and passions, thrones of the world by the fiery as out of the first. But democratic passions wbich it awakened. What habits and desires will still prevail, was the final result of this second and long after necessity and the pas- revolt of Lucifer, the Prince of sions of an advanced stage of civi. the Morning? Was it that a great lisation have established firm and and durable impression on human aristocratic governments, founded affairs was made by the infidel race ? on the sway of property in the old Was St Michael at last chained by states, republican ambition and jea- the demon ? No! it was overruled lousy will not cease to impel millions by Almighty Power; on either side to the great wave that approaches it found the brazen walls which it the Rocky Mountains. Democratic could not pass; it sunk in the conideas will not be moderated in the flict, and ceased to have any farther New World, till they have performed direct influence on human affairs, their destined end, and brought the In defiance of all its efforts the Brie tish navy and the Russian army rose barriers of nature. In January 1812, invincible above its arms; the cham- not one steam-vessel existed in the pions of Christianity in the East and world; now, on the Mississippi the leaders of religious freedom in alone, there are a hundred and sixty. the West, came forth, like giants Vain hereafter are the waterless derefreshed with wine, from the termi- serts of Persia, or the snowy ridges nation of the fight. The infidel race of the Himalaya-vain the impenewhich aimed at the dominion of the trable forests of America, or the world, served only by their efforts deadly jungles of Asia. Even the to increase the strength of its death bestrodden gales of the Niger destined rulers; and from amidst the must yield to the force of scientific ruins of its power emerged the ark, enterprise, and the fountains of the which was to carry the tidings of Nile themselves emerge from the salvation to the Western, and the awful obscurity of six thousand invincible host wbich was to spread years. The great rivers of tho the glad tidings of the gospel world are now the highways of cithrough the Eastern world.
vilisation and religion. The Rus- . Great, however, as were the sian battalions will securely commit powers thus let into human affairs, themselves to the waves of the their operation must have been com- Euphrates, and waft again to the paratively slow, and their influence plains of Shinar the blessings of reinconsiderable, but for another cir- gular government and a beneficent cumstance which at the same time faith; remounting the St Lawrence came into action. But a survey of and the Missouri, the British emi. human affairs leads to the conclu- grants will carry into the solitudes sion, that when important changes in of the far west the Bible, and the social world are about to take the wonders of English genius. place, a lever is not long of being -Spectators of, or actors in, so supplied to work out the prodigy marvellous a progress, let us act. With the great religious change of as becomes men called to such the sixteenth century arose the art mighty destinies in human affairs ; of printing; with the vast revolutions let us never forget that it is to reguof the nineteenth, an agent of equal lated freedom alone that these won. efficacy was provided. At the time, ders are to be ascribed; and con-, when the fleets of England were template in the degraded and imriding omnipotent on the ocean, potent condition of France, when at the very moment when the placed beside these giants of the gigantic hosts of infidel and revo- earth, the natural and deserved relutionary power were scattered sult of the revolutionary passions by the icy breath of winter, steam and unbridled ambition which exNAVIGATION was brought into action, tinguished prospects once as fair, and an agent appeared upon the and destroyed energies once theatre of the universe, destined to powerful, as that which now directs break through the most formidable the destinies of half the globe.
STATE OF PROTESTANTISM IN FRANCE.
In the present paper, the modesting strength and growth in these pronoun “I” must be used, and the small resting spots, it may expand, I jaunty confident dogmatic "We" hope, its influence, and mount into rejected, as all I have to commu. higher places. The manner in which nicate is either what I have seen this spirit was first excited is very myself, or learnt by personal enquiremarkable, and very striking and ries. The stately ex cathedra“ We” touching from the simplicity of the would give my subject a bold after- means used. Colporteurs, or hawkthought aspect which it must noters, whose business it is to sell Bibles have. I had no idea of the warm and tracts, in excursions made for interest of the new and exciting that purpose over the country, inprospects, of the delightful hopes troduced themselves, a little more which this subject enfolds, till I came than two years ago, into the house of upon the spot where I am now. a most bigoted Roman Catholic at From Chalons sur Saone, to the Turnus. Almost all the inhabitants Lower Alps, taking in the depart of that place are of the lowest rank ments of the Isere, the Drome, and of life, and the family alluded to was the Ardeche, there has been of late of this class. The reading of the Bible, years a religious movement among however, and the conversation espethe inhabitants of a very peculiar cially of one particular colporteur,conand most hopeful character. To these verted the whole family. A conversion departments I shall limit the tour of of this kind, it may well be imagined, observation I am now making, and where there was no advantage to be to Lyons and the new churches gained, but much persecution to be within a day's journey therefrom, I sustained, which indeed followed, shall confine my present communi. could only have sprung from the cation. Instead of presenting a ge. liveliest convictions. There was one neral picture of the Protestant popu- family there, consisting of four perlation and its ecclesiastical establish sons, ardent and enthusiastic for the ments in these districts, as I had Gospel in the midst of a population intended to do, I shall follow the of five thousand inhabitants. This more interesting track of the new was a begioning; the colporteurs had religious exciteinent which has re- thereby a pied à terre: they could read cently taken place. I shall com- the Bible publicly, and speak to mence by announcing a fact of which those who, out of curiosity, came to I feel quite sure my readers were hear them. This they did with some previously ignorant - a fact which effect, till an audience being prepawill give them as much delight as red, a preacher was sent to address surprise, viz. that Reformed churches them. 'I am told that the first time have been established within the last the gospel was regularly preached in two years and a half at Chalons, the town, crowds focked to hear it, Macon, Turnus, Luhans, and Givry, and that a very great sensation was towns varying in their population produced. There is at present a from fifteen to four thousand inha. permanent church established, and bitants, whereas before that time I saw myself a congregation assemalmost every individual residing in bled, though on a week day evening, those places was a Roman Catholic. of about fifty persons. I must men. Besides this, at Lyons and St Etienne, tion that this work, commenced ori. where there had always been Pro. ginally by the humblest instruments, testants, a correspondent movement has not owed its spread and its suchas taken place, and a multitude of cess to that impulsion which very conversions have been made. In fact, rare and superior gifts and talents there is a spirit abroad which has not may sometimes, in a happy moment, been known in France since the time communicate to a mass. If there had of the Reformation. At present it is not been a secret disposition towards, creeping quietly along the ground and a want of religion previously exand nestling itself in the humblest isting, the gospel could not have settling places; but by and by gather- been received as it has been receiv.
VOL. XIXIX. XO. CCXLIII.
ed, especially in the midst of all the imagination and affections, or at obloquy and reproach, for such is least emotions, can be filled up. Prothe gross ignorance of the people of testantism without devotion is to one this town, that the only true Chris- who has been a Roman Catholic, a tians in it are called, and by many mere retrenchment, an absolute pribelieved to be, Saint Simonians. An vation. A great deal is thrown away anecdote was told me of a lady forbut nothing is gained. I have been, merly residing in this place, whose therefore, particularly anxious to name I forget, wbich I think suffi. discover a warm genuine pietyciently interesting to relate. She had warmer and purer than what is gebeen so zealous and devoted a Ro. nerally met with-and if I had not man Catholic, that during the Reign discovered this Ishould have thought of Terror she is thought by her influ- I bad discovered nothing. Far, howe ence to have kept the church of the ever, from being disappointed in this town open, and when the priests particular, I must say that the cold, were all banished, officiated herself, Hlagging, almost conventional assent as far as prayers and exhortations to the truths of the gospel, which diswent, in that edifice. She has since tinguish those long and even piously been converted, and has sent all her habituated to their influence, has beads, relics, images, and crucifixes been utterly put to shame by what I as a trophy to Geneva. This lady have witnessed since I have been resides actually at Macon.
here, in the very humblest abodes of From Turnus the movement the humblest class of society. I have spread to the surrounding towns, and visited the family alluded to above, by the same means. The beginnings at Turnus, and was not five minutes were always extremely feeble. When under the roof which shelters them, the pastor at Chalons first attempted in the most rigorous but decent poto establish a worship there, he could verty, without feeling how beautiful. only get three or four persons to ly the heart can illuminate a hovel. promise to attend, and was rejected To give an idea, not so much of the rudely by the few nominal Protes. sweetness of my own emotion as of tants to whom he addressed himself. the spectacle which excited it, I He has now a congregation of about must mention that I thought at the sixty persons, and an audience usually time within myself, that probably of one hundred, as many as his place during his sojourn on the earth, our of assembly can hold. The regular Saviour had often frequented such congregation or flock at Macon abodes, and partaken, perbaps, of the amounts to about one hundred, and humble meal of their inmates, and the audience sometimes to double whilst I was warming myself with that number. In both places they the faith and love which beamed are all, with a very scanty excep- from coarse labour, begrimed faces, tion, converted Roman Catholics; beautified wonderfully by the exand among these persons, decidedly pression of glowing serenity and separated from the Church of Rome, contentment shed over them, gran. there exists a little corps of Chris- deur seemed to me, in the compari. tians quite of the John Bunyan son, to have changed places with stamp. If I had not seen this, I poverty, and to look squalid, cold, should have been comparatively but shivering, and forlorn. Another exlittle delighted with a formal sepa. ample I met with at Macon was still ration from Popery, however honest more touching. I visited there a it might be; for Protestantism with very aged woman. On approaching out piety is what Catholics would the door of the room in which she universally represent it to be -- a resides, I looked in and saw her quite mere negation-and a change from alone reading the New Testament. the Roman to the Reformed doc. On entering I found her, though the trine, occasions what Dr Johnson has weather was very cold, without any called such a laceration of mind, that fire. Her chimney smoked, and the without a conviction, deep, warm, proprietor of the house would not and vital, not in what Protestantism repair it. The old creature has a denies, but in what it affirms, I can. family of children, but they are all not conceive how the immenso space away from her. It soon sppeared which Popish ceremonies occupy in that all that is earthly in her heart is