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of course, men who voluntarily seek those of electioneering tactics. Thus and are glad to get the Vice-Presidency; if the Presidential candidate comes but they are almost invariably men from the East, it is thought a good move who have concluded they can never be to nominate the Vice-Presidential canPresident, or else they are elderly poli. didate from the West; and, of course, ticians who desire to bow themselves vice versâ. And not only is it a general pleasantly out of public life through a rule that the Vice-Presidential candidignified sinecure. Deeply engraved date should hail from the other side of on the American mind is the parable the Alleghanies, but it is also considof the man who had two sons. One of ered of the first importance that he them went to sea; the other became should be the "favorite son" of some Vice-President. Neither
"doubtful" State. This it is hoped heard of afterwards.
will cause local patriotism to rally The fundamental trouble with the of. round him and so land his native State fice is, therefore, that it repels the best safely in the net. men while only the best men ought to But it sometimes happens that there have it. The Vice-President may be- are rival candidates for the Presidential come the President. If the experience nomination within the party itself. of the past 123 years may be taken as Their rivalry need not be over any mattypical, there would always seem to be ter of principle or policy. It may be, one chance in six that he will. But and frequently is, a purely personal ripoliticians cannot afford to regard six- valry, but none the less acrimonious for to-one chances. All they think of is that. "In such circumstances,” says what the Vice-Presidency is, not of Mr. Bryce, “it is a common practice to what it may be. They are engrossed offer a nomination for the Vice-Presiwith the needs of the present and can- dency to the disappointed candidate for not pay attention to the possibilities of Presidential honors, using the office, in the future. In choosing a Vice-Presi- fact, as a sort of consolation prize, an dential candidate they hardly ever stop olive branch, a propitiatory complito reflect that they are choosing a pos- ment.” In the same way a powerful sible successor to the President. What leader who seems inclined to bolt the occupies their minds is the necessity of party ticket may be won over by being getting bold of a
who will allowed to nominate the candidate for strengthen the party ticket in some the Vice-Presidency; or a mutinous facdoubtful State, or whose personal influ- tion, or some special element in the ence will conciliate some particular sec- party that it is thought desirable to tion of the country, or restrain a medi- recognize, may be conciliated or entated "bolt.” The nominating Con- couraged by having the Vice-Presidenvention does not take up the question tial nominee taken from its ranks. But of selecting a candidate for the Vice- this, though an easy way out of the imPresidency until the very end of its mediate difficulty, is fraught with treproceedings, when the crucial issue of mendous risks. It happens from time the Presidential nominee has been de- to time that the nominees for the Prescided and everyone is worn out and idency and the Vice-Presidency are not anxious to get home. Under the cir- only in acute personal antagonism, but cumstances any man whom the party represent entirely opposite principles leaders can agree upon is sure of being and policies, although both are nomadopted without discussion, and the inally members of the same party. considerations which guide the choice Their conjunction may be all very well of the party leaders are, in the main, for electioneering purposes and to keep
the party intact, but it is apt at times to lead to amazing results.
Supposing the President dies, or resigns, or is impeached, or becomes incapable of carrying the duties of his post, he is at once succeeded by a man who is utterly opposed to his programme, who represents nothing but a small and antagonistic minority in his party, and who is fully within his rights if he reverses all the measures brought forward, and turns out all the Cabinet The Nation.
Ministers and office-holders appointed by his predecessor. Three times at least this has happened in American history, to the immense confusion, not only of the party that chanced to be in power at the moment, but of the nation at large and of the national interests. Had Andrew Johnson, for instance, been in political sympathy and agreement with Abraham Lincoln, the horrors and blunders of the Reconstruction Period might, one and all, have been avoided.
IN MEMORIAM - WILLIAM BOOTH.
FOUNDER AND COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE SALVATION ARMY.
Died, August 20, 1912
Who for the Faith led on the battle line,
Under the Cross for sign,
Inspired in men a purpose pure of taint-
So died this soldier-saint.
Set free the thralls of misery and her brood-
And gave them hope renewed.
He healed their heartache and their wounds he dressed,
Sworn to the same high quest.
His feet with tidings of salvation shod,
Against the peace of God.
Still, through the darkest hour, untaught to yield,
Fell on the victor's field.
Yet a great people bows its stricken head
Soldier of Christ, lies dead.
M. POINCARE'S VISIT TO RUSSIA.
If necessity is the mother of inven- Powers in the maintenance of equilibtion, it seems to be a correlative propo- rium and of peace had been “proved." sition that when what is necessary is Not since the signing of the Angloalready in existence it will be preserved French Convention in 1904 had Gerjust because it is necessary. If it many lent herself to any such pregwere destroyed it would have to be nant admission as this. It means quickly reinvented. This reflection nothing less than that the bottom has makes us reasonably optimistic about been knocked out of the pretence that the peace of Europe. The signs are Germany was being hemmed in malithat if the nicely poised balance of ciously by the members of the Triple strength is not disturbed by some Entente. flashy negligence on the part of any As though to prove emphatically that of the great Powers-negligence com- it has not changed its mind in the last parable to that of the owner of valu- few weeks, the German Government ables who excites the cupidity of his caused an exceptional salute of twentyneighbors by leaving his doors and one guns to be fired by German ships in windows open at night-or is not up- honor of M. Poincaré on his way to St. set by a collapse of the subsidiary bal- Petersburg. He had not passed ance of strength in South-Eastern Eu- through German territory. The honor rope, then the present quiet should last. pursued him, so to speak. He must Germany is behaving with exemplary have been gratified when the custompoliteness towards France. The spoke ary seventeen passed into twenty-one. which for some years interrupted the M. Sazonoff, the Russian Minister of steady revolution of the French wheel Foreign Affairs, in a statement to the has been withdrawn. And this has Matin, said that the present arrangehappened because at last Germany has ment of the Powers in their groups recognized that what is necessary must was the "consequence" of their armies, be preserved. We trust that the their fleets, and their particular politirecognition of this plain truth will be cal relations. The word exactly expermanent. At present Germany presses the case. So we have an frankly admits the necessity of the agreement on both sides-both on that Triple Entente. If only she can be of the Triple Alliance and on that of convinced that this truth will remain a the Triple Entente—that a kind of law truth the peace of Europe will not be of gravity has declared itself in our broken for any purely perverse reason. modern Europe, and that he who defies It is a great satisfaction to be able to it will suffer as all persons suffer who admit as much as this. For some fall foul of something much greater years it has seemed unlikely that one than themselves. The meeting at Bal. would be able to find any element of tic Port was a mere exchange of civilconstancy in the relentless variability ities, but M. Poincaré at St. Petersof German policy. Now the law of burg has undoubtedly discussed with necessary things is accepted as though the Russian Ministers the whole gamut it were a law of nature. After the of questions in which France and Rusmeeting between the Russian and Ger. sia have either common interests or man Emperors at Baltic Port an offi- conflicting interests that suggest "accial announcement was made that the commodations." It is easy to draw up "value” of the present grouping of the a list of such questions—the loan to
China, the condition of the Balkans, rives sanction from, the Duma. True, the Turco-Italian War, the proposed the Duma has no constitutional voice railways of Asia Minor, the trans-Per- in foreign policy, yet the tendency we sian railway, and above all the details have described has been gradually of the new Naval Convention, which growing up. Soon it will be estabhas already been agreed upon in prin- lished by custom. The Duma is a ciple.
much more useful body, in spite of the In some of these matters the concern narrow franchise, than is admitted by of Russia is of course infinitely greater English Radicals, who prefer brilliant than that of France. How then will shadows to small and substantial facts; Russia pay France for her support? and the Duma is behind the fleet. Let The answer is by her naval pro- us hope that there will be no more gramme. Germany could hardly have grasping at phantoms in the Far East. taken it for granted that her only naval Russia's finer destiny is now in Europe. rival in the North of Europe would be The Russian Deputy Naval Minister Great Britain. If she did she already has told a representative of the Figaro knows that she was mistaken. The that the construction of the new Navy Russian scheme for the rehabilitation will be rapid, and that in twelve years of the Fleet is, we believe, perfectly the German fleet will be equalled, and serious. We must remember that Rus- soon afterwards surpassed. Next year sian foreign policy which uses army the first four Russian Dreadnoughts and navy as its instruments is no ought to be ready, and in five years, longer chiefly dependent upon the according to the programme, there caprices of archdukes and high bu- should be nineteen battleships and reaucrats: it is referred to, and de- forty-eight destroyers in the Baltic.
THE WEEK-END PARTY.
To live in the country, partaking of ing the great machinery of national or the pleasures and labors of country metropolitan life. In either case, town life through the week, and to have and country influences act as correcfriends from town to stay with you tives of one anotber, preserving the over the week-end, is almost an ideal sense of proportion and preventing the way of life, and of combining the in- character from being too much drugged terests of the small and the great by quietness or stimulated by exciteworlds. You get the best of your ment. friends, and the interests which they Out of these two simple and good bring to your detached life prevent its things has grown that extremely compeace from degenerating into stagna- plicated thing which has very little that tion. And to live in town, joining is good about it, the smart week-end throughout the week in its loud and party; when some twenty people, with strenuous activities, and to retire from their paraphernalia of luggage and Saturday to Monday to the silence of valets and maids, are conveyed by a some country retreat, there to quiet the nicely graduated series of trains to a nerves and slow down the pulses to country house on Saturday afternoon, their normal tune, is also an ideal and shot out again on Monday morning condition for people whose lot it is to by another nicely graduated series. work in cities, or take a share in driv- They are received by their host and
hostess in the true baronial manner, as are matters of great importance. At though they were indeed the inhabi- dinner on Saturday the conversation is tants of the house; but this is an illu- chiefly personal. “Tell me, who is that sion. They are week-enders like their sitting rext to So-and-so?" is a freguests; and they themselves, with their quent conversational opening which valets, maids and luggage, have but leads by easy stages gossip and mild arrived an hour or two before, and will scandal. On Sunday at breakfast it is depart an hour or two after, their in- about the bridge of the night before. vited visitors. There is very little that At lunch, of the golf of the mo:ning, is restful or recreative in such assem- mildly stimulated again to personalities blies. They consist almost entirely of by the advent of some woman vho people who know one another well, and makes an effective first appearance at who constantly meet in the same houses that meal. By dinner-time two in town; and they are employed in very three unfortunate people have been much the same occupations as have tacitly selected as objects of dislike by employed them during the week. The the rest of the party, which thus besimplicity of real English country life comes consolidated in a brotherly kind is entirely absent. From the moment of way by more or less good-nature:1 when the second, third and fourth foot- abuse of them. And at dinner the men respectively have burdened them- week-end topic will have definitely asselves with the responsibility of taking serted itself, and rule supreme. It is charge of your hat and stick and probably a very silly topic, and may be gloves, when the under-butler has de- anything from a low beam against livered you to the groom of the cham- which tall people knock their heads bers, when that functionary has pre- to the kind of hat or other garment sented you to your hostess (whom you which some pet or butt of the party took in to dinner the night before) un- may be wearing; but it serves to pass til the bridge debts have been settled the time until the division of the guests on Monday morning and the last of into bridge parties and gossiping paryour modest assortment of half-sover- ties. What train people are going eigns, crowns and half-crowns has been
away by is more than enough topic for pocketed by its ungrateful recipient, breakfast the next morning; and the you are engaged in a complicated though series of anti-climaxes is reached when stereotyped routine, which is refresh- at the door one takes elaborate fareing neither to the body nor to the spirit. well of people whom one will probanly You find yourself planted in a house meet again at lunch or dinner the same full of people whom you are constantly day. In the whole entertainment is meeting in London; you have to talk hardly anything that is real or belonghard to them, probably about the same ing to the life of the house. The chilthings which furnish the small talk 'f dren are either banished with their London dinner parties. You governesses to remote apartments, or requisitioned for games out of doors, or allowed to play picturesquely and debrought in for ridge or Coon-Can corously for a little while on the lawn. that is the way you spell it), and geri- The only person who really does exerally worried with elaborate efforts actly and only what he likes is the to amuse which only bore. Such mat- host, who perhaps selects some favored ters as the clothes people are wearing, guest to share in his own superior purand the way they play games, and the suits, and his chief duty seems to be extent to which they are on Christian- discharged when, with hearty and name terms with the rest of the party, genial enthusiasm,