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II. The Religion of the Frenchman. By A. L. Lilley.

CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 719

III. The Staying Guest. Chapters III and IV. By Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick. (To be continued.)

IV. The Making of the Panama Canal.

TIMES 726 By Charles Paxton Markham. BLACK WOOD'S MAGAZINE 737

V. The Poems of Edmund Gosse By Alfred Noyes.

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 747

VI. The Lady of the Canaries. By St. John Lucas (To be continued.)
BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE

VII. The American Vice-Presidency.
Vill. In Memoriam-William Booth. By Owen Seaman.
IX. M. Poincare's Visit to Russia.
X. The Week-End Party. By Filson Young.
XI. The Subjection of Man.

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A PAGE OF VERSE.

751

NATION

758

PUNCH 760

SPECTATOR 761

.

SATURDAY REVIEW 762
TIMES 765

XII. The Country to the Town. By S. Gertrude Ford.

XIII. Drifting. From the Chinese of Li Po.
XIV. Burnt-Out. By C. Farmar.

BOOKS AND AUTHORS

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WESTMINSTER GAZETTE 706

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PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY

THE LIVING AGE COMPANY,

6 BEACON STREET, BOSTON.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION

FOR SIX DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, THE LIVING AGE will be punctually for warded for a year, free of postage, to any part of the United States. To Canada the postage is 50 cents per annum.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office or express money order if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered let All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks express and money orders should be made payable to the order of THE LIVING AGE CO.

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Single Copies of THE LIVING AGE, 15 cents.

THE COUNTRY TO THE TOWN.

Their fadeless lines of fire and

beauty cast. I too have felt the wild-bird thrill of

song behind the bars, But these have brushed the world

aside and walked amid the stars.

In vain we cleave the torrent's thread

with steel, In vain we drink to drown the grief

we feel; When man's desire with fate doth war

this, this avails alone To hoist the sail and let the gale and the waters bear us on. From the Chinese of Li Po

A.D. 702-762.

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I.
Gay the gems you wear at night,
A thousand facets, all one light!
Rich the robes you don by day-
One glory, though your heart is gray,
I see your shining strands of hair:
Gold, much gold, is tangled there.

But I have seen, I have seen
The silver daisies light the green,
Have shared the splendors manifold
That are but bought with cowslip-

gold,
The brilliants strewn forest

floorsIs not my realm rich as yours? And the Town said, “Proudly my days

go by," But the Country made answer, “Queenlier I!"

II. Many pleasures throng your parks Between the magic dawns and darks: Wherefore should you heed the hurts Of children crying at your skirts ? Pomp of a great King's Parliament, A great Queen's Court, your pride has

blent. But I have known, I have known The white Moon on her mountain

throne; Have heard the children laugh to see The Sun-King's summer revelry, The pageant of the purpling moors

Is not my lot high as yours? And the Town said, “Gaily my days go

by," And the Country made answer, "Happier 1!"

S. Gertrude Ford. The Westminster Gazette.

BURNT-OUT. The sunset, late a bar of flame

That smouldered in the opal skies, Beneath night's looming shade grows

tame, And with a last wan flicker dies. Those splendid shapes of rosy clouds,

The golden plume and giant crest, Rise gray like pale ghosts freed from

shrouds-
Burnt-out the glory of the west.

: Yet, since awhile, by that grand pyre

The wide seas were incarnadined, And far bleak Alpine snows caught

fire, And vales with purple mists were

lined, We tread more bravely through the

gloom, We dream more sweetly in the night, We feel less terror of the tomb,

Remembering that enfolding light.

DRIFTING. We cannot keep the gold of yester

day; Today's dun clouds we cannot roll

away. Now the long, wailing flight of geese

brings autumn in its train, So to the view-tower cup in hand to fill

and drink again,

I watch my heart's red holocaust,

And stir its sullen flame in vain. Brave hopes! what azure skies you

crossed! Now comes the darkness once again. But if the shade in some dark tent Dispelled by my heart's pyre may

be, Great God, who gilt the firmament, Kindle this little flame for me!

C. Farmar. Chambers's Journal.

And dream of the greatest singers of

the past,

THE DEGENERATION OF CLASSES AND PEOPLES.

I.

lar symptoms of degeneration in a Before I begin to consider the social woman, If the degeneration is sufand political aspects and effects of de- ficiently advanced the man cannot begeneration, I wish to give once more get and the woman cannot bear chilan exact definition of this term. This dren. The cycle is closed. By a proccan best be done in the words of the ess of elimination the race has freed writer who first introduced it into sci- itself from a noxious element. That ence, Dr. B. A. Morel. In his Traité is the cruel but effectual method by des Dégénérescenoes he says: “We must which Nature herself remedies a morregard degeneration as a morbid varia- bid disturbance in the evolution of a tion from an original type. This vari- race that is still fit to live, still capaation . . . includes transmissible ele- ble of the strife for existence. This elements of such a nature that anyone mentary fact of experience was obviwho carries the germ of them within ously overlooked by Dr. Robert Reid himself grows continuously less and Rentoul, when he proposed the "Sterilless capable of fulfilling his tasks in ization of certain Mental and Physical humanity, and that intellectual and Degenerates.” We need not interfere. moral progress, which is already im- The process accomplishes itself autopeded in his own person, is threatened matically. also in his posterity.”

Let us attempt to understand the To this I add: "Not merely moral and mechanism of degeneration. When the intellectual progress, but even exist- organic vigor of parents has, through ence itself." For unless a vigorous one of the causes to be adduced later, renovation and improvement of the or

been weakened, they engender offspring ganism is induced by means of a for- whose morphological elements are, tunate admixture of new blood, degen- from the outset, of an inferior chareration increases from generation to

acter. The germs themselves, which generation, and very quickly reaches break away from the organisms of the a point beyond which the degenerate parents to unite din producing a new cannot pass; because he is either ge- living being, are weak, defective, laden netically incapable or else ices chil

with an insufficient store of life-energy. dren that are still-born or die in in- They are not able to develop up to the fancy. Woman resists the influences goal which a normally strong and that cause degeneration better than the healthy individual of the given species male, but even she cannot permanently

can attain and ought to attain. Their escape them. The degenerate woman

evolution comes to a standstill at a becomes less and less able to perform greater or less distance from the point her biological function as child-bearer.

which it should reach, or deviates from In such a woman we observe certain

the line that leads to its natural goal, well-known physiological deficiencies and pursues a false direction, which is which result in sterility. It stands to

more or less remote from the norm of the credit of Dr. Larcher to have

the species and alien to it. I will try, shown that difficult births caused by by means of an illustration familiar to one or other of these defects are regu- everybody, to make this clear even to

readers who are not well versed in * Translated for the “Hibbert Journal by biological ways of thought. The the Rov. B. W. Lummis, M.A. Translation revised by Dr. Nordan.

healthy and efficient organism may be

compared to a locomotive which is suggested above, is to be sought in the meant to travel, say, along the South- unsatisfactory condition of one or of Eastern and Chatham Railway from both parents at the time of procreation. Victoria to Dover, is provided with the Here, again, the multiplicity of the inrequisite amount of coal and water, dividual cases is merely the various is under the charge of a capable driver expression of one simple, fundamental and a good stoker, runs without a law. The organism has been rendered hitch and arrives when it is due. The inefficient either through a morbid degenerate organism and its develop- change in the chemical character of its ment might be represented by the same cell-plasm and its fluid, or through an locomotive if it were built of poor impoverishment of its vital power. The metal, had a drunken or overworked morbid change is in all cases an indriver and a lazy and careless stoker, toxication, which may be brougbt and started with insufficient coal and about by the introduction of poisonous water. Such an engine is exposed to substances such as alcohol, morphia, various mischances on the journey. cocaine, and the like, or through the Being so badly built, it may break an toxins of pathogenetic, parasitical axle or start a leak in the boiler, and micro-organisms like Koch's tubercular be left unable to proceed. The inca- bacillus, Laveran's microzoon of mapacity of its driver and stoker may laria, Schaudinn's treponema, and so cause it to leave the metals, or may

forth. Impoverishment sets in when take it along a wrong branch, or bring the organism has been overworked. it on a blind siding, where it will be Whenever catabolism, the decomposiwrecked on a bulkhead. The most tion of organic material that goes on probable thing that can happen is thatduring activity, outweighs anabolism, after using up all its coal and water, the building up of material that goes it should come to a stop through ex- on during rest, the organism is growing haustion, somewhere perhaps between insolvent and making progress, graduSittingbourne and Canterbury. One ally or swiftly, towards bankruptcy. thing is certain: it will not reach its Excessive fatigue not only causes destination at Dover.

structural changes in tissue, but also As this parable clearly implies, the brings about an accumulation of waste degenerate individual deviates from matter, too great or too concentrated the racial type either through a check for the emunctory organs to dispose of in development or through erratic adequately. In their effect on the orformation. Arrested development re- ganism these waste substances are sults in atavism, where the individual toxins, and it may well be that what comes to a stop at an early point on we call fatigue and exhaustion is ultithe road over which the species has mately nothing but an intoxication; in tra velled, and cannot go further. Er- that case intoxication would be the ratic development leads to monstrosi- only source of that deterioration of the ties, which do not correspond to any organism which leads to degeneracy in point which the species, in its normal its offspring development, has ever passed. All the Weismann has attempted to deny anomalies of degeneration can be re- that the germ of life which is transferred to these two formulas-arrested mitted by parents to offspring can or aberrant development, atavism or share in the change sustained by the monstrosity—but as a rule they com- parental organism. To future histobine the two.

rians of science it will be a matter for The origin of degeneration, as was astonishment that such an extravagant

doctrine can have been conceived by a the life-germ of every single human biologist and accepted, for a time, by being that the species has produced serious scientists. Weismann's conten- from its beginning and is yet to bring tion cannot have been founded on ob- forth before its end-and not only this, servation. The heritable properties of but also all the germs which did not the germ are not perceptible by the lead to the emergence of a new lifesenses. Weismann, then, has simply con- were materially contained in the structed a theory out of his own imagin- spermatocysts and ovaries of the first ation-a theory which is refuted both human pairs or the first group of by common sense and by the rational human pairs. Weismann's theory is interpretation of experience. Accord- not a scientific hypothesis, but mystiing to Weismann the germ-plasm, unin- cism of the worst kind. If it has been fluenced by its bearer, is transmitted taken seriously, that is the consequence without change by its first engenderer, of a not infrequent logical fallacy. Bewhosoever he may have been, to his cause its author is a biologist, it has posterity: and throughout the incalcul- itself been taken for a biological theory. able succession and multiplicity of off- It was not, however, as a biologist but spring it is received and passed on in its as a dreamer and dogmatizing vision. material identity by relay after relay of ary that Weismann conceived it, and new individuals. To recognize the it has no more foundation, and ought monstrous absurdity of Weismann's to have no more authority, than any theory we need not even have recourse of the amusing fancies of H. G. Wells to the presumption that all organic life in The War of the Worlds or in The Time on the earth has a unitary nature and Machine. The theory of Weismann is a common origin; consequently that all not confirmed by one single observed animals and plants that have ever lived fact; it is contradicted by all. If acor will live on our planet are derived quired characteristics

not infrom a common ancestor, perhaps from herited, evolution would be altogether one or more microscopic one-celled unintelligible and impossible; for it creatures; for however small we may cannot be understood how one identical suppose that group of atoms to be germinal substance could produce, one which could be the bearer of herit- after another, the most divergent forms able organic characteristics, it is still of life: unless, indeed, we should asunthinkable that those one-celled or- cribe to it the mysterious property of ganisms from which all life on earth consummating within itself-of its has emanated should have contained own power and its own impulse, indealready all the material germs which pendent of its temporary bearer and bave since, throughout all geologic of any external impetus—that evoluperiods, been transmitted by the par- tion whose expression consists in the ental organisms to the fruit, in every appearance of more and more highly several generative act, whether we developed organisms on the earth. speak of the division of the cell-nucleus Such an assumption hardly differs of a bacillus or the fertilization of the from that of a new divine act of creaegg of a diplodocus. But we need not, tion as the origin of every single life. I say, have recourse to that assump- It has certainly passed beyond the tion; the theory remains unthinkable point at which it could be called bioeven when we do not derive all life logical science; it must be called faith. from one primitive cell or from a few Not all acquired characteristics are such cells, but confine ourselves to hu- heritable, it is true. Only those are manity, and advance the postulate that heritable which influence the quality of

were

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