away, throwing after it, as one throws Scripture, the death of Arius after the a stone, the derisive anger of the last Bishop's prayers to “take him away," sentence.

is mentioned at first simply as "the That is the method of Macaulay. death of Arius," then as his death “in

Huxley brought to the art of con- the midst of his deadly, if prayerful, troversy a much bigger brain than enemies," and finally, as "the miracuMacaulay's and an infinitely wider out- lous slaying of the man who fell short look. Yet his method is Macaulay's- of the Athanasian power of affirming though with a difference that will be contradictions." This is in the very presently noted. It is not difficult to manner of Macaulay in his best compick out passages from all his con- bative form. troversial essays, passages which in Yet an immense gulf separates Huxeverything but the literary style (which ley from Macaulay, and that gulf is of course is far more lucid and re- due less to a difference of method than strained) resemble the passages that I to the difference between the moral have quoted from Macaulay. For ex- and intellectuai make-up. Huxley ample, in the essay called “The Lights ardently loved and desired the truth of the Church and the Light of Sci- —simply because it was the truth. ence” he quotes a religious commenta- This love and hunger for truth tor who from a calculation of the lives for truth's sake

not only of the various early patriarchs draws not among Macaulay's many admirthe conclusion that “the account which able qualities, but

almost in Moses gives of the Temptation and the so many words repudiated by him. Fall passed through no more than four The latter part of his essay on Bacon hands between him and Adam." Here is practically a plea for not caring is Huxley's comment

about truth unless it happens to be of If "the trustworthiness of our Lord

immediate use to mankind. The effect Jesus Christ" is to stand or fall with of this difference upon their methods the belief in the sudden transmutation is very noticeable. Macaulay is fightof the chemical components of ing only for immediate victory. He woman's body into sodium chloride, or looks for the weak point in his oppoon the “admitted reality" of Jonah's

nent's argument and hammers at it. ejection, safe and sound, on the shores

He does not care very much if a hunof the Levant, after three days' seajourney in the stomach of a gigantic

dred strong points remain unanswered. marine animal, what possible pretext

For his aim is simply to defeat his can there be for even hinting a doubt enemy, and he knows that the effect of as to the precise truth of the longevity defeat is produced if only on one point attributed to the Patriarchs ?


the opposing pleader is entirely routed. that has swallowed the camel of

So again he is not much concerned if Jonah's journey will be guilty of the

the counter-theory he sets up is weak affectation of straining at such an his

and untenable. If you look at his torical gnat-nay, midge-as the supposition that the mother of Moses was

reply to Gladstone, for instance, you told the story of the Flood by Jacob;

will feel at once the contrast between who had it straight from Shem; who

the keenness with which he fastens on was on friendly terms with Methuse- and demolishes the weak elements of lah; who knew Adam quite well? Gladstone's theory and the easily as.

In another essay, where he is quot- sailable structure of the counter-theory ing (with approval) Newman's argu- which he attempts to erect in its place. ment that the miracles of the Church Very different is the method of Hux

as easy to believe as those of ley in controversy (by a curious coin





cidence) with the same man more than the difference between Newman and half a century later. His aim is not almost all other controversialists is merely to set up a trophy but to con- that he is not only a tactician but a quer a province. Therefore he is not strategist. Macaulay, as I have said, content while a single strong point in tries to break his opponent's line: his opponent's case remains

Huxley tries to defeat him all along swered or a single weak point in his the line. In Newman alone do you own undefended. He attacks the find an elaborate series of operations, weak points of the other side as merci.


patiently worked out without reference lessly and as successfully as

to the temptation of immediate "scorMacaulay did. But he engages the ing," and intended to end, so to speak, enemy all along the line; and he is not in the surrounding and obliteration of content while a single position remains

the enemy.

He alone seems to look unreduced. He even, in his contro- past the battle to the campaign. versy with Gladstone, suggests objec- It is of the very nature of this tions that he may rebut them, so method that it cannot be shown, as anxious is he that no loop-hole for es- I have tried to show the method of cape should remain. He wants his Macaulay, by quotation. The ultimate victory to be not only conspicuous but blow when it comes is indeed as final.

smashing or more smashing than the Huxley was fond of attributing (it most vigorous strokes delivered by was his one permanent illusion) this Huxley and Macaulay. But it has alcharacteristic of his to his pre-occupa- ways been carefully prepared, and its tion with physical science. He was

force really depends upon that preparawildly wrong. It was due to a care for tion. the final truth of things, which is a The best way in which I can illusnative quality of the mind and has no trate the methods I am trying to demore to do directly with biology than scribe will perhaps be to take a parwith coal-mining. Aquinas had it be- ticular example and follow it out in fore physical science in the modern some detail. sense) existed. Newman had

The third of Newman's lectures on though his studies had lain in an en- “The Present Position of Catholics in tirely different direction. On the other England" is devoted to showing the hand, some of Huxley's scientific col- true nature of the traditions upon leagues (Haeckel for instance) con- which Protestant condemnation of the spicuously lacked it and argued quite Catholic religion rests, and the flimsy as unfairly as ever Macaulay did, and unreal character of their historical though far less ably.

foundation. To this end he takes three When we turn to the third name I instances, with only one of which I have mentioned we find ourselves sud- am at the moment concerned. denly confronted with an entirely new The historian Hallam, in his Vield mode of controversy, so original and of the State of Europe during the Middle so wonderfully successful that it de- Ages, had remarked that "in the very serves more attention than it seems to best view that can be taken of monashave received from writers of criti- teries their existence is deeply injuricisms and appreciations of Newman. ous to the general morals of the na

Continuing the military metaphor tion,” because under their influence which I have several times used-mis- men of the highest character "fell imleading no doubt in many points but plicitly into the snares of crafty not without its value—I might say that priests, who made submission to the


Church not only the condition but the able testimony," namely, the foregoing measure of all praise." And to illus- quotation from St. Eligius, adding trate this fact he proceeds

what he describes as “the very proper He is a good Christian, says St. Eli

reflection" of Dr. Maclaine, Mosheim's gius, a saint of the seventh century,

translator: “We see here a large and who comes frequently to church, who ample description of the character of presents an oblation that it may be a good Christian in which there is not offered to God on the altar; who does the least mention of the love of God, not taste the fruits of his land till he resignation to His will, obedience to has consecrated a part of them to God;

His laws; or of justice, benevolence, who can repeat the Creed or the Lord's

and charity towards men.” Prayer. Redeem your souls from

Newman now turns to a certain Mr. punishment, while it is in your power: offer presents and tithes to churches, White, an Oxford Professor who, in light candles in holy places, as much lecturing on the life and work of Maas you can afford, come more fre- homet, remarked that “no representaquently to church, implore the protec- tion can convey stronger ideas of the tion of the saints; for, if you observe melancholy state of religion in the these things, you may come with se- seventh century than the description curity at the day of judgment to say,

of a good Christian as drawn at that "Give unto us, O Lord, for we have given unto

period by St. Eligius," and proceeded Thee!" With such a definition of the Christian character, it is

to quote as before. A further step not surprising that any fraud and in

backward carries him to Archdeacon justice became honorable, when it con- Jortin, who made the same quotation tributed to the riches of the clergy and in his Remarks on Ecclesiastical History, glory of their order.

introducing it with the observation Now the statement that St. Eligius

that it constitutes “the sum and subever gave "such a definition of the stance of true religion as it is drawn Christian character” is, as will pres

up for us by Eligius, one of the princiently be seen, a lie. One can readily

pal saints of that age.” imagine with what promptitude and en

Newman now takes us to Mosheim ergy Macaulay or Huxley would have himself, who in his Ecclesiastical His. pounced upon that lie, how they would tory, observes that while the religion have torn it in pieces, and scored heav

of the earlier Christian was spiritual, ily by exposing and denouncing it.

the later ones "placed the substance of Not so Newman.

religion in external rites and bodily Newman proceeds, while leaving the

exercises," and proves this by the statement as yet uncontradicted, to same quotation. point out to the reader that Hallam

Now Newman has manouvred his gives as his reference for that state- guns into position and he proceeds to ment Dr. Robertson, the historian of open fire as followsCharles V, and the German Lutheran

Brothers of the Oratory, take your historian, Mosheim. To Dr. Robert- last look at the Protestant Tradition, son then Newman turns and quotes ere it melts away into thin air from him as stating that in the dark ages

before your eyes. It carries with it a "the barbarous nations, instead of as

goodly succession of names, Mosheim, piring to sanctity and virtue, imagined

Jortin, Maclaine, Robertson, White and

Hallam. It extends from 1755 to the that they satisfied every obligation of

year 1833.

But in this latter year, duty by scrupulous observance of ex

when it was now seventy-eight years ternal ceremonies,” and in support of old, it met with an accident attended this giving what he calls “one remark- with fatal consequences. Some one



for the first time, instead of blindly Protestant traditions however venerfollowing the traditional statement, able and apparently authoritative. The thought it worth while first to consult

victory is complete. The enemy is St. Eligius himself.

simply obliterated; his guns and bagHe then proceeds to show that the gage have fallen into the hands of the quotation is made up by picking out victor. and putting together odd sentences I could give a hundred other inscattered through a very long sermon, stances, did space permit, of this and that the surrounding sentences ac- method in Newman's controversial tually contain those very recommenda- writings. There is that amazingly eftions to general piety and benevolence fective chapter, in The Development of which poor St. Eligius had been so Christian Doctrine, which deals with vilely abused by Mosheim, Maclaine, the early Christians, where the attiRobertson, Jortin, White and Hallam tude of the Roman world towards the for omitting. Thus: “Wherefore, my new Faith is carefully delineated and brethren, love your friends in God and illustrated by numerous quotations love your enemies for God, that he who from pagan writers, and the reader loveth his neighbor has fulfilled the gets to the end of it without a suslaw ... he is a good Christian who re- picion of the masked battery which ceives the stranger with joy as though Newman has prepared, until he is sudhe were receiving Christ Himself ... denly reminded that the accusations who gives alms to the poor in propor- which he has been reading are almost tion to his possessions ... who has word for word the same as those now

deceitful balances deceitful brought against the Catholic Church. measures ... who both lives chastely If there be now in the world, says himself and teaches his neighbors and Newman, a form of Christianity which his children to live chastely and in the is accused by the world of superstition, fear of God. ... Keep peace and char- insane asceticism, secret profligacy and ity, recall the contentious to concord, so on, “then it is not so very unlike avoid lies, tremble at perjury, bear no Christianity as that same world viewed false witness, commit no theft. ... it when first it came forth from its Do as you would be done by. ... Divine Founder." Visit the infirm. ... Seek out those How triumphantly Newman used the who are in prison." And then St. Eli- method here described is best shown gius adds: “If you observe these things in his famous controversy with Kingsyou may appear boldly at God's tri. ley. In reading the earlier phases of bunal in the day of judgment and say, that controversy one is inclined to 'Give, Lord, as we have given.'' fancy that Newman is missing points

Now observe the controversial effect and not taking full advantage of his of Newman's superb strategy. He has adversary. But he misses nothing. He nailed the particular lie about St. Eli- has ruthlessly taken every advantage. gius to the counter as Macaulay or His guns command every position. Huxley would have done. But he has And at the end his adversary, surdone much more than that. By his rounded and already doomed, dashes patient tracing of the tradition, by his backwards and forwards striving careful marshalling of all the authori- wildly to find somewhere the mercy or ties that support it, before he smashes the escape which are alike forbidden it, he has created in the mind of his him. That is what I call great Conreaders an indelible distrust of all troversial Strategy. The Oxford and Cambridge Review.

Cecil Chesterton.


“The Zulu," said he, “is only a Priest with a touch of red,” and he nimbly unwound a specimen of each and laid them on the counter before me. "I should recommend a Priest for a bright sunny day, and a Zulu for a dull day; and in the evenings try one of these Coachmen."

I was puzzling over the varieties of flies with all the bewilderment of a novice, and wondering how a mere trout-so placidly inane of aspect on a breakfast dish-could distinguish between a cleric and a savage, when I saw the poor woman enter the shop shyly, with a large box under her cape. It was only a glance-I looked up as she pased me—and then fell to studying my new fly-book again. Odd, I thought, to have a book composed entirely of fly-leaves; and as I wrote the names of the flies down with a pencil I mused on the strange fortune of Professor Case in the pocket between a Coachman and a Sultan; the Priests (my father having been a bishop) I respectfully placed in the next page.

"A Priest," I said, looking up, "should be at his best on Thursday evenings”; but my friend the shopman was gone: I observed him in close converse with the poor woman by the far window. They had the box open on a table between them, and as I glanced at them the shopman closed it gently and, coming towards me on the other side of the counter, opened a drawer and extracted money from it. He gave the money to the woman, and, as she came down the shop past me, I turned to look at her. It was the sad face of a Madonna; her eyes glistened with tears, and she clutched the coins in her hand as she went furtively through the

this kind? It folds up, you see very handy." “That woman had a

very sweet face," said I.

“Oh, yes, sir. Very sad case, Mrs. Grant; she's come down in the world."

He was still opening and shutting the landing-net dexterously. I took it from him. It was certainly very handy.

"A widow?" I asked.

“Yes, sir, about two years. Husband was a gamekeeper. We knew him well here, sir."

“And you give her money?"

"Well, sir," he said, flushing slightly, "we advance her a little sometimes. You see, she has a hard fight for it, and we know that she's respectable, and her husband was a customer of ours for years. And," he added, as if to justify his generosity, "she always pays us back."

"I'm afraid that you think me inquisitive."

“Not at all, sir."

"I'll take this," said I, putting the landing-net on the counter; "and now I want some waders."

While he was at the back of the shop the face of Mrs. Grant haunted

I could have sworn that I had seen it before.

"Now, would you be offended," I asked, as he came back, "if I were to ask you some more about that woman? I am much interested by her face, and perhaps I could help her."

"I wish you could, sir," said he. "There's no woman in the town deserves help more."

He told me, while he showed me three pairs of waders that Mrs. Grant had been a lady's maid, had married a head-keeper who had in fifteen years drunk himself to death and left her destitute with five children, three girls


open door.

“Now, sir," said the shopman; "did you say a landing-net? Do you like

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