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classes of readers; to boys themselves, observations and remarks are importo those who have been boys at school, tant factors in the development of the and to others who are interested in plot. Harper & Brothers. everything concerning boys. “The Bantam," by Brewer Corcoran will An invaluable pocket volume for stusuit all three. The Bantam is a moth- dents and lovers of Nature is the “Iluserless lad who comes from Manila to trated Key to the Wild and Commonly enter his father's old school, St. Jo's. Cultivated Trees of the Northeastern There is plenty of fighting in the story, United States and Adjacent Canada" for the Bantam has undaunted spirit, prepared by J. Franklin Collins and but he is a clean-minded, honorable Howard W. Preston (Henry Holt & youngster, such as any school would be Co.). The Key is based primarily upon proud to number as one of its members. leaf characters, and is so arranged that, The best sort of school spirit is repre- by following its simple and untechnical sented, and legitimate ambition is directions for the measurement of strongly emphasized. The author un- leaves, with the accompanying illustraderstands boy nature thoroughly, and tions showing nearly three hundred figwhile holding to the highest ideals, ures of leaves and bark, whoever uses gives us a book packed with lively inci- the volume may place accurately any dent and adventure. A strain of con- particular tree which interests him, and tagious fun and boy-wit brings a laugh may soon be able to recognize any tree for nearly every page. Harper & which he may come upon in his woodBrothers.
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THE SITUATION IN TURKEY.
The two most noteworthy subjects reckless determination of some memof interest at present regarding Tur- bers of the Committee to Turkify key are the development of its people everything, and to sweep away every since the revolution and the war with obstacle to the accomplishment of their Italy.
purpose. I wish to emphasize the As to the first, I would recall the les. statement that the Opposition in the son familiar to all from the phrase, Chamber was not in favor of reaction, “Forty years long was I grieved with because some of the unreasoning supthis generation," &c., &c., the moral of porters of the Committee in England which is that it takes a generation to during the last year-out of trop de zèle convert a nation of slaves into one of or simple ignorance—have steadily perfree men. The Christian minority of sisted in representing the Opposition the Osmanli nation have been in slav- as reactionaries. Some of the leading ery for upwards of four and a-half opponents were Greeks, like Bussios centuries. The Moslem majority have Effendi, who were justly roused to innever known any other government dignation at the treatment of the Christhan absolutism. Moslems, Christians, tians in Macedonia. Others were Mosand Jews alike still cringe abjectly be- lems, who protested against illegality fore the representatives of authority. and oppression quite of the old Hamid. A daring and courageous band of con- ean type. Others, like the Albanians, spirators four years ago took their lives took up the defence of the men of their in their hands, formed a secret Commit.
when the Committee tried to tee for Union and Progress, and over- Turkify them, and notably to compel threw a foul tyranny. The Constitu- them to abandon their own language, tion wos restored and a Parliament or at least to write it in Arabic characwas assenbled. The deputies were un. ters. But none of them wanted reactried men. They were almost entirely tion. the nominees of the Committee. The The result, however, of the haphazard voters knew little or nothing about a selection of deputies for Parliament, Constitution, were often ignorant of and of the formidable opposition which the meaning of the word. A more the Committee aroused, was that the scratch lot of men as legislators can Chamber became unworkable, and hardly ever have been collected to- when three months ago it was disgether. A few even among the depu- solved, there was a general feeling of ties, though very few, hankered after relief throughout the country. reaction. The Committee were the In fairness, however, one must look real rulers of the Empire, made and at the position from the point of view unmade ministers, committed blunders of the Committee. They risked their everywhere, in the Hauran, in Yemen, lives when they commenced their task. and above all in Macedonia and Al. They won, and would have been mercibania. Many crimes against individ- lessly killed by Abdul Hamid if they uals, including even murder, were com- had failed. In the one serious attempt mitted in their name, and probably by made by reactionaries after the revolutheir supporters, if not at their insti- tion, every Committee-man had to go gation. An opposition soon developed into hiding. Had the attempt of April in the Chamber, not against constitu- 13th, 1909, succeeded, men like Ahmed tional government, but against the Riza and a score of other leaders would
have been slaughtered. If reaction condition of the country had improved. should even now triumph, there would The people, Moslems and Christians be wholesale slaughter. The Commit- alike, took singularly little interest in tee became more powerful after the at- the elections or in the political conditempt at reaction, and for their own tion of the country. Those who did safety and in order to create a nation, were of various opinions. According have kept, and intend to keep, power. to many, there was little difference beThey are not going to lose the fruit of tween Ittilafs (members of the Oppositheir labor. They have blundered tion) and Ittihats (supporters of the badly, and their most serious blunders Committee of Union and Progress). I have justly lowered their reputation, was told that the partisans of the Opespecially in foreign countries. Admit. position stated that the Committee ting their blunders, and for the sake of wished to change the mosques into argument, their complicity in
Christian churches. In so far as they crimes attributed to them—what is the made such statements, they appealed to net result? They have kept the ma- Moslem fanaticism and ignorance, but chine of government running. De- I do not believe that such statements stroy it, and the country would be in produced serious effect. The Moslems anarchy. They have made several no- smiled incredulously as they repeated table improvements, and have
what had been said. They knew that nounced their intention to make more. the roads were more secure, that all They have allowed the country to de- alike could travel freely, and they had velop itself. They have greatly heard from an occasional trained genstrengthened the army, and have darme that the Committee was brought order into the financial admin- solved to keep order, and from the solistration. With a full recognition of diers that the discipline of the army all the faults of the Committee, the was better than it had ever been. The people of the country generally are question of religion hardly entered into agreed, so far as I can learn, that its discussion. condition has improved since the revo- As we learned by the end of April, lution. If the opinion of all the Euro- the Committee of Union and Progress peans and Americans in the country swept the country in the elections. The could be taken, I believe that while Opposition, known among Europeans as disappointment would be generally ex- the Liberal Entente, simply disappressed at the failure of the hopes peared. Many causes contributed to aroused by the makers of the revolu- this result, the chief being want of ortion, its voice would be unanimous, or ganization. The Committee of Union nearly so, in declaring that the condi- and Progress used every means it could tion of the country is better than it was think of to achieve its victory. In one four years ago. A few weeks since, in vilayet the Governor called all the offithe month of April, I journeyed for cials and told them that if they were about 600 miles in Anatolia to the foot not prepared to vote for the candidates of Mount Taurus, passing through Eski- of the Committee, the Government Cheir and Konia. The elections were would have no need of their services. in full swing, or had recently been Pressure was brought to bear in a completed. I heard many well-founded dozen forms to compel or induce voters complaints of the irregularities of the to support the Committee. Unless the elections, but everybody with whom I reports are false, and there is no reaspoke on the subject admitted that, son to believe that such is the case, though much remained to be done, the voters known to be hostile were ruth