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efficiency; the desire to earn the bonus ployer uses that method, one cannot is what is relied upon to keep the wonder that the American Trade worker up to that standard. If the unions have regarded the whole sysmanagement is scrupulous and careful, tem with suspicion. The knowledge or the standard will probably be suf- the capacity of machines, animate and ficiently low; and it is true that in inanimate, which the system has acmany cases improved methods of Sci- cumulated is a powerful and dangerous entific Management have not only in- weapon. As one reads the words of creased the output, but have also made these great American manufacturers the work easier and the hours shorter. and capitalists, who ticket and label But this has not always been the case. their men, who move them about in "Efficiency engineers" are, after all, their "yards” like pawns on a chessonly human, and human calculations board, who talk of them and oil them are not necessarily kept accurate by with bonuses as if they were cog-wheels good intentions. A slight miscalcula- in a vast machine, it is difficult to avoid tion may result in the setting of too from time to time a feeling of horror high a standard of efficiency. When for the whole system. The scientific this happens, the bonus acts as a goad manager studies men as if they were to urge the worker on to efforts be- machines, the machinery of their yond his or her strength.
minds as well as of their bodies. He And there are other considerations not only watches every movement of which make one question the hopes of the workman, stop-watch in his hand, Mr. Taylor and his followers, that the but he is also a psychologist. He will system can provide a permanent recon- give you a law about the cupidity of ciliation of the interests of the employ. the human mind as readily as the law er and the employed. After all, at the of heavy laboring, which tells us the root of the whole system is the enor tiring effect of heavy labor on a firstmous increase of output of man and class workman. Such knowledge can machine, and the consequent decrease be, and already has been, used to in the cost of production. Whether drive and oppress the workman, as the worker is to share in the profits that well as to educate and raise him. result must depend very much upon When the ownership of the Bethlehem the spirit in which the new knowledge Steel Works “passed into the hands of is used by the employer. It is true Charles M. Schwab, in 1901, the efthat if it is used, as Mr. Taylor used it, ficiency engineers
dismissed. in the right spirit, and in accordance But the machinery of their system was with the three last principles of scien- kept. Bonuses, premiums, and other tific managemeut laid down by him, inducements for greater exertions on little but good can result. "Each work- the part of the workers were continued, man has been systematically trained but without the spirit which had preto his highest state of efficiency, and viously made these contrivances part of has been brought to do a higher class a larger system. ... The result was a of work than he was able to do under
return to the system of 'drive' such as the old type of management; and at the world has seldom seen excelled." 1 the same time, he has acquired a But though the system may not friendly mental attitude towards his
bring at once the millennium, which employer and his whole working con
many people prophesy from it, its imditions."
portance should not be overlooked But where so much depends upon
I "Fatigue and Eficiency," by J. Goldthe spirit in which the individual em- mark, p. 200.
either by the worker or the employer. never stopped the introduction of maThere are practically no limits to its ap- chinery, and a system which affects plication. It has already been applied, production and industrial efficiency, as and with remarkable results, to the scientific management does, is bound handling of pig-iron, the laying of to force its way in under the drive of bricks, the carrying of messages by of- competition. What is to be hoped and fice-boys, the testing of ball-bearings worked for is that a fair share of its for bicycle wheels, the running of benefits may fall to labor. It is a hope. elaborate metal-cutting machines. The ful feature of it that it can never be American trade union has already fully successful without a very high shown its hostility to the engineer with form of co-operation between all conthe stop-watch; the hostility of the cerned in it. That is why those who English workman will probably be far believe that some form of co-operation greater. But the wheels of our indus- can be the only solution of industrial trial system are apt to turn without problems should consider whether they any reference to the likes or dislikes have not in this system an instrument of the unfortunate people who form peculiarly fitted to their hands. part of it. The breaking of machines
BOOKS AND AUTHORS.
Sherman, French & Co. publish a "Food for the Invalid and the Connew edition of Frederic Rowland valescent," which is full of practical Marvin's sermon "Christ Among the suggestions regarding the purchase and Cattle,”—an earnest plea for the hu- preparation of food. The scope of the mane treatment of animals, which has book is somewhat broader than the already had a wide circulation.
title indicates, for there are special
menus and diets and careful estimates Mrs. Kate Douglas Wiggin's "A
of the exact cost of providing a sufChild's Journey with Dickens" is a
ficient bill of fare for an average charming account of a rare experience
family. The “high cost of living” of which befell her in her youth, when she
which so much had the pleasure of riding in the same
is said nowadays,
would shrink perceptibly if these diseat with Dickens on a train from
rections were followed. The MacmilPortland to Boston, and with childish
lan Co. frankness exchanged views with him upon his own characters and stories,
A Volume of "Suggestions for the the entertaining parts and the dull
Spiritual Life" by Professor George parts, and their mutual favorites
Lansing Raymond of the George Washamong the people who figured in them.
ington University (Funk & Wagnalls It is a delightful bit of reminiscence
Co.) is composed of twenty or more disappealing to all Dickens-lovers.
courses, most of which have been de(Houghton Mifflin Co.)
livered as college chapel talks at WilWinifred Stuart Gibbs, who is die liams or Princeton,-and most of which titian for the New York Association for also were first given many years ago Improving the Condition of the Poor, during the author's early ministry over and teacher of economic cookery in a church in the suburbs of PhiladelTeachers' College, Columbia Univer- phia. Diverse in text and theme, and sity, is the author of a little volume on
preached under varying conditions,
they are alike in spirit and purpose and Tyrol," by F. W. Stoddard, illustrated all fall appropriately within the desig- in color and black and white; "The nation indicated in the title. Ad- Cathedrals of England and Wales," dressed especially to young men, they written by T. D. Akinson and illustouch upon large and vital themes. trated in color; a Players' Edition of
Louisa M. Alcott's masterpiece, “Little Several volumes of serious intent Women,” with pictures from scenes in
from the press of Sherman, the play; and two new titles in the Bur. French & Co. “Christianity and the lington Library, Keat's Poems and Labor Movement" by William M. Kingsley's “Water Babies," illustrated Balch, is an earnest and sympathetic in color. discusion of modern labor problems and an appeal to the churches to take The "1911 Bible," published by the an active part in their solution; “Was Oxford University Press on the three Christ Divine?" by William W. Kins- hundredth anniversary of the publicaley is a conservative and reverent pres- tion of the Authorized Version, is a entation of the affirmative side of this welcome relief to those Bible readers great question, which supplements the and students who, while realizing the same writer's recent volumes “Man's need of some revision of the 1611 text, Tomorrow” and “Does Prayer Pre- in the light of modern scholarship, vail?" and like those, is marked by were disappointed and affronted by force and clearness and an assured the multitude of unnecessary and cafaith; "Mountains of the Bible" by J. J. pricious changes made in the Revised Summerwell is a description of the Version. In the “1911 Bible" only mountains which have a prominent such changes are made as were needed place in Bible history, from Ararat to to clarify the text. The scrutiny of the Calvary, and a graphic sketch of the text was entrusted to a committee of events which made them memorable. thirty-four eminent Hebrew and Greek
scholars, representing various denominaLittle, Brown & Co, announce for au- tions, universities and divinity schools; tumn a long list of illustrated books, and such corrections as have been including Mary Caroline Crawford's made do not mar the beauty of the "Romantic Days in the Early Repub- original version. The chapter and lic," dealing with the social life of the verse divisions of the original version Atlantic seaboard cities; “A Book of have been retained, and there has been Hand-Woven Coverlets," with colored added a paragraph division by the simillustrations, by Eliza Calvert Hall, ple device of increasing the space beauthor of "Aunt Jane of Kentucky''; tween verses where there is a new turn "Colonial Homes and Their Furnish- in the thought. A system of chain refings," by Mary H. Northend, with 250 erences enables the reader to trace illustrations; “Historic Summer through the text the special themes Haunts from Newport to Portland," by which
in different books, F. Lauriston Bullard, illustrated by and new collected-reference sysLouis H. Ruyl; a holiday edition of tem makes it possible to trace the Jeffery Farnol's “The Broad Highway," more important occurrences of spewith 24 full-page pictures in color by cially significant words in differCharles E. Brock, the eminent English ent passages. The volume is beautiartist; “Switzerland in Sunshine and fully printed in Oxford black-faced Snow," by Edward B. D'Auvergne, pro- type. Oxford University Press, Amerifusely illustrated; “Tramps Through can branch, New York,
No. 3558 September 14, 1912
Young China and Young Turkey. By J. 0. P. Bland.
FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 643
DUBLIN REVIEW 652 III. The Staying Guest. Chapters I and II. By Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick. (To be continued.)
TIMES 660 IV.
NATIONAL REVIEW 670 V. The Technique of Controversy. By Cecil Chesterton.
OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE REVIEW 676 Vi. The Silver Tea-Service. By Christopher Stone.
CORNHILL MAGAZINE 684 VII, The Folly of International Sport. BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE 680 VIII. The Wooin' O't. (Being the authorized version of the Eugenist's Love-Song.)
PUNCH 694 IX. The Death of “General" Booth.
TIMES 695 X. Senator Lodge's Resolution.
SPECTATOR 697 XI. Literature and Belief. By R. L. C.
ACADEMY 699 XII. The Ulster Secret.
WESTMINSTER GAZETTE 701
A PAGE OF VERSE.
XV. Household Gods. By J. H. Macnair.
BOOKS AND AUTHORS
642 SPECTATOR 642 NATION 642
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Four great angels keep the earth
Katharine Tynan. The Eye-Witness.
What is this life if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare.
No time to stand beneath the boughs And stare as long as sheep or cows.
No time to see, when woods we pass, Where squirrels hide their nuts in
SHELLS. Nature nothing shows more rare Than shells, not ever flowers; no, Unfading petals tinted glow Where ocean's obscure weight is air; Where winds are currents, streams, or
tides, Life to perfect their shapes abides. Each hingéd valve curves out and rims Pink, yellow, purple, green, or blue, A color-whisper's graded hue; While dinted lobe, spine, or rib limns Crisp helmet, cuspéd shard to wing,Full panoply for fairy King. In easy air and warm light nursed Bloom prompt wit, love with glamor
fraught, And brave but flower-like youth: Like brittle shells, long years im
mersed, Secreted by toil, conscience, and
thought, Are formed art, virtue, truth.
T. Sturge Joor. The Nation.
No time to see, in broad daylight, Streams full of stars, like skies at
No time to turn at Beauty's glance,
No time to wait till her mouth can Enrich that smile her eyes began.