of understanding English words of with the problem as a whole requires, command or of conveying information however, the consideration of firemen to the officer on the bridge. This crit- as well. In view of the fact that their icism does not apply without reserva- duties will inevitably demand a new tion to the lascars, who commenced class with more skill but less muscle as about 1886 to join our mercantile ma- the new motor engines come in, an aprine, and rapidly increased to about prentice system would be most bene40,000 by 1904. It applies to the for- ficial in this direction as well. If eigners who increased between 1870 shipping directors were seamen they and 1894 by 21,000, while the number would not hesitate, but, alas! they are of British nationality fell by 24,000. mostly financiers. During this period our mercantile ma- Up to a few days before the disasrine had doubled in tonnage, and the ter to the 22-knot "Titanic," men were Navy was demanding in 1904 over talking of a 25-knot service to Canada. twice as many men as in 1870.

They were not seamen, but company The Navy now insists on men of Brit. promoters in search of Government ish nationality, whereas at Trafalgar subsidies, and probably aware that the there were 22 per cent. of foreigners in advance from 22 to 25 knots doubles Nelson's fleet. These foreigners could the cost of a ship. A meeting proposonly find their way into the mercantile ing to form fresh insurance companies marine if they had served in the Navy. because the rates were higher for the A curious reversal had thus taken more dangerous routes to Canada took place. The Merchant Shipping Act of place in Montreal almost a week before 1906 caused a welcome change in the the disaster. Here, again, the men of proportion of aliens, but it has left un- finance, but not the seamen, were in touched the great problem of enlarging sole possession. The fact is that the the area of supply except for its doubt

very rareness of accidents has induced ful expedient of reducing the qualifica- the relegation of seamanship to a back tion of able-bodied seamen to two years' seat. Finance, and finance alone, has service. Mr. Lloyd George, indeed, ruled all the recent tendencies of shipsaid: “I am quite certain that a good ping, and it is time for a change. How deal can be done by a system of ap- otherwise explain the extraordinary prenticeship.” He also supported a sug. phenomenon of the losses to the P. and gestion of Sir Alfred Jones that county 0. Company within a few weeks by a councils should establish training es- strike causing vessels to cease running, tablishments at every port. When the and the total loss of two ships, and yet British nationality qualification for a the shares in the undertaking started seaman in the mercantile marine was soaring upwards? In an able paper, in finally swept away in 1855, we had which a distinguished engineer renearly 16,000 apprentices, and we now viewed for the Institution of Mechansee that machinery ought to have been ical Engineers marine engineering provided to prevent the otherwise in

progress for ten years up to 1901, it evitable decay of the system. Fol- was stated with undoubted truth from lowing the “Titanic" disaster, Mr. Bux- the engineer's point of view that “as ton has proposed that two boys should the engineers cannot ignore the dicbe reckoned as the equivalent of one tates of finance, progress must primaA.B., and, provided the A.B.s in a ship rily be measured from the standpoint are on an adequate scale in proportion of economy. A steamship is built to to the boats and other duties, this is carry a given load of passengers or of a very hopeful suggestion. To deal material for a given distance; and suc0088 is reckoned according to the expense as the White Star is to follow with a in doing this work." 1 How facile it is ship 2,000 tons bigger, and the unprefor this idea to go further, and, in a possessing and vulgar title of the regular trade to North America, in “Gigantic." It is well, now that for a which collisions are eliminated by the moment there is a reaction in public west-bound traffic passing twenty miles opinion against big ships because of a north of the east-bound, and skilled pi- vague feeling that there are too many lots meet the vessels in sight of land, eggs in one basket, that we should to reduce the authority of captains and clearly bear in mind that to abandon the seamanship which goes with it to the movement would be to throw away the domination, say, of those who min- the natural advantages of our position. ister to the all-devouring consideration It is probable that our islands doing all of dividends. More than once in the their trade by sea have about four presence of a great sorrow the people times as much cargo entering and clear. of this country have shown the saving ing as Germany, but the latter Power sense which has turned evil into good, concentrates in the single port of Hamand it may be that the “Titanic" dis- burg over half her trade by sea, just aster will set seamanship once more on as is the case with American trade its rightful throne. No consideration through New York. The consequence of seamanship would justify the saving is that the big ship movement can only of one hundred to one hundred and be participated in by British ports twenty miles by passing through a and by Hamburg and New York, misty area strewn with icebergs. No which offer a reasonable probability of seaman, in sole authority, would go

full cargoes.

It is not now necessary twenty or twenty-two knots in hazy for me to deal with the attraction of weather at night through such a dan- passengers who can only be obtained ger zone. No seaman would be satis

by a standard of speed and comfort fied with crews that had no time “to both of which involve increased dissbake down,” a comprehensive sea- placement. The main point is that in man's phrase which means "to know a big ship the economy of coal, crew, the ropes,” to know the officers, their cargo handling, and speed in a seaway about, the working of the pumps way, in proportion to a gross quantity and the boats, and all the multifarious

of cargo, are so great as to offer conduties which in a leviathan are pro- siderable advantages if it is probable portionately more important and more that full cargoes will be obtained. As complicated. On the other hand, no no country possesses such advantages seaman would care to be bound by red- as Great Britain in this latter respect, tape rules which would force him to we should be fools indeed if we did not shirk such a route when information make the fullest use of the situation in shows it to be safe, as was the case comparison with our less fortunate last year. Seamanship is adaptabil- neighbors. The real count in the inity; it is not the creature of routine.

dictment against some of the great There will shortly be placed on the shipping companies is that they have Hamburg to New York route by a great not realized that financial consideraGerman company the “Imperator," tions equally demanded that, if any. whose 881 feet of length may be vari. thing, a higher order of seamanship ously compared with St. Paul's Cathe- should accompany the movement, form. dral 365 feet high, or the “Lusitania's" ing in itself a higher scale of insur760 feet. Her supremacy will be brief, ance against the possibility of accident, · Proceedings, July' 1901.

This the movement in itself tended to

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facilitate in two directions, for on the legislation can do but little good and one hand it very considerably reduced may do much harm, whereas, in rethe number of officers and crew in pro- sponse to a demand, invention has alportion to cargoes and passengers car- ways done a great deal. So far as ried, so enabling a closer selection of cargo is concerned, considerations of the fittest to take place; and, on the handling make it difficult to attain to other hand, by tending to reduce the such reserves of buoyancy as in a warnumber of ships on the sea it has added ship, but if some new type of engine, very considerably to the safety of ocean such as the Diesel motor, proved its travel against collisions. In addition, superiority over the turbine, it might there is a nearer approximation to un- easily lead to a recasting of designs sinkability in the big ship, as Brunell facilitating sub-division into waterlong ago, in 1852, demonstrated by tight compartments. This would be that marvellously fine example of iron a far greater gain than the somewhat shipbuilding, the “Great Eastern." doubtful provision of boats and rafts. This great genius realized that the mo- Every Merchant Shipping Act passed ment iron was substituted for wood the by the Board of Trade has provided for material no longer limited the size of the boat-accommodation according to ships. It became a matter of demand tonnage. In 1869 the maximum proviand supply, a subject he did not under- sion was for "ships of a thousand tons stand as well. In the case of the and upwards." To-day, when buge "Titanic,” she would probably have ships are being built, the provision is survived an end-on blow. What Oc- alike for all of 10,000 tons and upcurred was that a ship proceeding at wards. The tendency in such cases is twenty-one knots put her helm hard for lines run by limited liability comover and incurred the rending strain panies, and therefore gradually being along her side of collision with an ice- governed more and more by consideraberg. She remained afloat for about tions of finance rather than seamantwo hours and forty minutes. It ship, to be quite satisfied to comply would be impossible to imagine a worse with the law rather than the commoncase of collision. We do not know all, sense seaman's view of the situation. though we can conjecture a good deal, The obvious intention of Parliament is as to the seamanlike organization of always to provide sufficient floating acthe vessel. We do not know if all the commodation to enable all the passenportholes were shut. We know that gers and crew to leave a sinking ship. the water-tight doors were automati- Legislation which endeavors to lay this cally closed from the bridge, and but down in precise terms is nearly always for the saying of one witness who, un- outrun by inventive genius. If the der an order from an engineer, opened onus is left on inspectors and shipdoors in several bulkheads, we might owners of agreeing as to what is suffimake totally false assumptions. Were cient accommodation, we might find they ever closed again? Let us by all shipping driven away from the British means continue to try and improve on flag. It ought not to be impossible to all we learned from the Bulkhead Com. arrive at an international agreement for mittee of 1891, and the fresh one which common laws on this as on other is about to be appointed; but let the points, and in that case the capital outevidence be very clearly proven before lay and handicap of providing so much we deviate from the lines of shipbuild- boat and raft accommodation would be ing approved by the expert designers eliminated as an element of competiof the “Titanic." Generally speaking, tion. Too much, however, must not

be expected from boats, for their serv- pended on the number of inquiries it ices might be very doubtful if the has conducted, one could fill this Review weather conditions were unfavorable. by their mere enumeration. A man of In a collision the boats might be the initiative would, however, realize that most easily damaged, while the trim the essence of inquiry is impartiality. of a sinking ship might prevent others The Board of Trade has vitiated all from being used. Our chief reliance these inquiries partly by too numerous must be on the build of the ship her- a committee and chiefly by its failure self, and the skill with which she is to recognize that transport is nothing bandled by the crew as a whole. As if it is not a servant, so that the proper a matter of fact, two inquiries are place of the interests affected is not proceeding simultaneously at this mo- on the judgment seat as members of a ment into the “Titanic" and the committee, but in the witness-box as "Oceana.” In the one case the only interested experts. Even on commitlives saved were by boats, in the other tees to inquire into shipping rings, the the only lives lost were of those who directors of the rings were committee took to the boats. There is no diffi.

men! What is needed is a Board of culty in providing a complete supply of Transport of three or four experts to life-saving fittings, if some of the ab- watch and control transport questions surdities in the modern passenger

on the large scale, even as the Road steamer in the way of gymnasium and

Board established by Mr. Lloyd George games were removed. Here, again, it

does on the small scale with the roads is a question of the demands of the

of the United Kingdom. The Road man-in-the-street for luxuries at the

Board does its work with a singleexpense of necessities, and we look to

minded idea of benefit to the country, Senator Smith's Committee to tell us

and it has no taint of bureaucracy in if the pendulum has swung over.

I its composition. In the United States bave often wondered if there is really

and Canada commissioners with large an insistent demand for these extras powers over railways have been at such as would make a line providing

work for years to the great gain of them have an advantage over any

those two countries. If a Board of other. I would take any dozen pas

Transport is, then, to do its work, it sengers as a jury, and guarantee that must have ample powers without going the first thing they think of is the

to Parliament for laws to meet new cooking, and it ought not to be a very

conditions. Mr. Lloyd George put the difficult feat to better the existing cui- case so admirably in 1906 in reference sine, which sacrifices quality to quan

to the schedules for the food of the tity; and the second thing they look to

sailor that I am concerned to quote him is the comfort of their cabins and read.

with a view to point out that what he ing-rooms. Neither of these demands

said applies to the whole question of in any way conflicts with navigation.

control of transport arrangements. He There is a further demand for restful

said:-ness, which the games conflict with, and It is a great mistake, I think, to put all else is what St. Vincent would have into An Act of Parliament rigid rules called frippery and gimcrack.

which require another Act of ParliaThe Board of Trade has ever lagged

ment before they can be altered. It is behind the times and shown itself lack

very difficult to carry Acts of Parliaing in masterful initiative, and it is

ment nowadays, under any scheme,

with the present congestion of busitime it ceased to control transport ar

ness. That applies to the simplest Act rangements. If its salvation de- of Parliament. Even when you have

the assent of practically the whole everything is subordinated to speed, House--and that is a thing you can- backwards and forwards, with cargoes, not always get. One man raises bis coal, and passengers ever coming in hat, and his hat is more potent than

and going out, that seamanship considthe voices of the remaining 669 of his

erations are slurred over and everyfellow members; he simply has to ob

ing is st ed on th skill of the ject, and the Bill is stopped.

sailor on the bridge? He himself feels What, but legislation, has prevented that the one governing record with the anything in the nature of permanent directorate he serves will be his own crews in our ships? Yet no other sys- speeding-up in the many passages he tem will ever be satisfactory in elimi- makes. That, at any rate, is the gennating the unfit. To prevent a minor eral belief, and it is open to the shipevil connected with the position of sail- ping companies to refute it by submitors over fifty years ago, Parliament ting their books to show which are the blundered into a law which produced captains who have received the best the evil of crews who have not the billets, and what has been the comparright esprit de corps, and do not know ison of the record of their voyages and enough either of their ships or their those of other captains for a given peofficers. Is it any wonder, where

riod of years. · The Contemporary Review.

Carlyon Bellairs.



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One of the almost inevitable conse- the ascendant; if they are not armed quences of any great national upheaval soldiers, then they are armed robbers. is a period of lawless disorder during More often than not, indeed, so nearly the interval that is bound to elapse be- do the methods of one class resemble tween the outgoing of the old order and those of the other that the difference the incoming of the new. In the case between them is hardly appreciated by of the late revolution in China this the unfortunate people who suffer at phase was aggravated by the fact that their hands. With few exceptions, the the outbreak was premature. So much stationing of troops in any district is is admitted by responsible leaders of regarded by the inhabitants in the light the movement. The effect of this was of a public calamity. that whatever arrangements the Revo- Add to such conditions a lack of lutionaries may have had in prepara- funds wherewith to satisfy the just tion for taking over the internal ad- demands of these birelings—to whose ministration of the country, their plans exertions, after all, the existence of the were far from complete at the moment Republic is mainly due-and it is not of the Manchu abdication, and quite surprising that unrest and discontent inadequate to meet the situation which are rife all through the provinces. then arose.

The result was chaos, im- Manifestations of this feeling occurred mediate, widespread, and profound. in many places during the early part of The new order of things was brought the year-now among the soldiers who, into being by force of arms, and now- having had no pay for months, proat the end of April–the same power ceeded to plunder the people; and again still reigns supreme throughout the among the people, who, unable to enland. Armed men are everywhere in dure so-called republican methods any

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