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mate of men and events, as his com- rather than as a sufferer in a specific ment on Napoleon after the annexation cause; and it is the relationsbip beof Nice and Savoy witnesses: “It was tween the fugitive and the woman who a great action, but he has taken succors him that forms the marrow of eighteenpence for it, which is a pity.”
the poem. However deep bis feelings in this re- We may regret that he has not left spect, nationality was not the subject a more imposing monument of his demost calculated to quicken his imag- votion to a great pational struggle, but ination. He had not that passion of it must be remembered that, after all, abstract patriotism which glows in this aspect of the Italian life of the Shelley or Foscolo. Love of the fitful time has lacked neither poets nor histoand the grotesque, of whatever is at rians, and it is a vain labor to expect war with itself, was too integral a part fruit from the mountain or flowers from of his nature for nationality to be to the sea. If we wish to know how the him a wholly congenial theme. The Italian prisoners fared in the Spielberg directness of the epic poet is not his. we have Pellico's “Le Mie Prigioni”; One cannot read “The Italian in Eng- if our quest is the popular feeling we land,” “De Gustibus,” or the third part turn to Giusti and Fusinato. The of "Pippa Passes" without realizing the Garibaldian epic which inspired Carearnestness of his convictions or the ducci and D'Annunzio has found its depth of his sympathy. The theme historian in Mr. Trevelyan. Other brings out the full chivalry of his things existed in Italy besides patriotheart and mind. Consider the tender ism. Browning found there nature painting of the peasant woman
and, even more completely, art and
music. But when I saw that woman's face, Its calm simplicity of grace,
He has painted the Italian landscape Our Italy's own attitude
with a bold brush; the splendor of its In which she walked thus far, and coloring glows in his poems; but it is, stood,
neverthless, only the setting for the Planting each naked foot so firm,
drama. To crush the snake and spare the
It is very rarely that it be
comes itself an actor; though in at worm,
least one poem he admits nature as a or that cry from the heart, "Italy, my
"shadowy third" at the meeting of Italy," and the last lines-
the lovers. The woods of an Alpine Such lovers old are I and she,
gorge mysteriously break down the So it always was, so shall ever be- barriers between lover and beloved; which close the poem on a note of se
but after a momentary intervention riousness which the whimsicality of
they retire into their original passive the couplet
state. When fortune's malice
Their work was done, we might go or Lost her--Calais
They relapsed to their ancient mood. might seem to endanger. But this is not patriotism per se.
Apart from their value as evidence of There is always a human interest Browning's attitude towards music, the which cannot be detached from it. "Toccata” of Baldassare Galuppi has, His ghost will return to Italy, but it with the songs of Pippa, a peculiar inwill crave society if only of a chatter- terest, as in these one seems to catch ing peasant girl. The Italian in Eng- an echo of the voice of an Italy which land makes his appeal as an exile was then passing and is now no longer. In the half-mocking and almost con- Ring and the Book” are impossible of temptuous lines of the "Toccata" there translation because they are, in a sense, are suggestions of decay, of death, totally alien to the spirit of Italian wbich fit the Venice of Browning's day poetry, though admirable and true picfar better than the gay lines of Byron. tures of Italian life, probably for the The Venice
same reasons that the Italian literature,
rich and valuable as it is, has never where the Doges
produced an essayist. The Italian charUsed to wed the sea with rings
acter is too eager and too impatient had set for ever, and the city bad to to fall easily into the mood of quiet pass through the ordeal of war and contemplation, into the coolly critical strife and famine before it could be attitude of the essayist. The Italians born anew. That Pippa has entirely are still-though less now than fordisappeared it would be rash to affirm, merly-partisans. In 1868, while though we hope that Ottima and her Browning was occupied with the comlover have gone for ever. But it is position of “The Ring and the Book," difficult to imagine Pippa and her song the Milanese, who a few years previin the busy streets of, say, Busto Ar- ously had driven ignominiously the forsizio or any of the other conglomeration eign invader from their gates, were of mills and houses so unpleasant but fighting less glorious battles on the significant a feature of modern Italy. merits and demerits of an opera. The It is the penalty of material advance to stage had played its not inglorious part lose such as Pippa and Fortù. Not in in the national struggle, and was conEngland alone
sequently looked upon as something of
a national heritage, but the hand-toMen meet gravely to-day
hand contest which took place after and debate
the first performance of Boito's "MefisIt were idle to complain of the prog- tofele” would have been impossible in ress of time and to speculate whether
a country in which reason held imagithings are changed for better or for
nation in a firmer grip. worse. These aspects of life were in If proof were needed of Browning's Browning's day a very essential part insight into Italian character one need of the nation. To-day, if they still only point to the sonnet he wrote on exist, they have lost their significance. the occasion of the unveiling of the Another revolution has shaken Italy monument to that most Italian of all since the unity, a revolution which Italian playwrights, Goldoni. No one up-rooted long-cherished ideals and was more shortsighted than Voltaire habits of generations, turning when he described Goldoni as Italy's agricultural into an industrial peo- Molière; for Goldoni's excellences lay ple.
in a widely different direction from "Sordello” and “The Ring and the Molière's. But Browning's “Sunniest Book” suggest another reason why of Souls” applies well to him who could Browning's fame is not as wide in see but innocent amusement and kindItaly as that of other English poets of ness in the French life at the close of less merit. Truly translation cannot the eighteenth century, and who never lead. It must follow in the wake of had a suspicion of the approach of that scholarship. But the follower can revolution which caused him to end his sometimes jostle the leader, and in any days in abject poverty. case translation can be a valuable In his last volume, "Asolando," the handmaiden. "Sordello" and "The failing powers of the poet do not im
Never doubted clouds would break,
worsted, wrong would triumph. Held we fall to rise, are baffled to fight
pair his interest in Italian subjects.
This is surely the spirit of that Italian who, when told to cease fighting because the gods were against him, cried out, “Cur ion proelia contra Jovem?"
THE GENESIS OF GOLF.
The archaeology of golf, as of other specifically named ball or instrument things, comes to an end just when the of percussion. The term soule pracgame appears. Under James II. of tically always has reference to the ball. Scotland (ascended 1437) the game was We shall see later the importance of developed enough to be proscribed by this fact. In the next place, though royal edict among “other sic unproffit. "playing at the soule" generally deable sportis." It was "the gouff" al. notes what we should style football, ready, but how long had it been in ex- yet as early as the thirteenth century istence and where did it come from? we find "playing at the soule with a
From the middle of the fifteenth cen. crosse." Ducange defines choullatury we have to fall back upon a globulus ligneus (qui) clava propellitur. group of European games, resembling, But the globulus was a large ball, comin some cases, hockey; in others, cro- paratively speaking, in soule proper, quet; and to imagine as best we can and either inflated or stuffed with the genesis of golf from their midst. moss and the like. In soule de la
According to Jusserand, our best au- crosse it was either stuffed or wooden, thority, all the games and sports of me- and probably tended to be of smaller diæval England came from France. size-globulus, whereas in soule proper We need not here dispute this proposi- it was often described as a ballon. tion, but neither need we accept it. For centuries the crosse was the main Let us glance at this group of stick- type of all the various forms of stick and-ball games played more or less or club used in the mediæval stick-andeverywhere in Europe before the fif
As the name implies and teenth century, but particularly in mediæval drawings prove, it was France.
"crook,” very similar to the modern There is first the game of soule, solle, hockey-stick. A stick of this shape choule, or cholle, still played as a is universal throughout the world; it form of village football, resembling the remains in use as a walking-stick, the Cornish hurling, in Brittany, Picardy, crook forming a handle, by which in and elsewhere in France. It was enor- the latest fashion it may be hung on mously popular by the fourteenth cen- the arm. Other applications of it, tury, and probably can be traced back both still surviving, are the shepherd's to the twelfth. We have to note that crook and the pastoral staff, the crozier, in these early times a game had as a of ecclesiastical shepherds. In both rule no specific name. The usual these cases the crooked end serves, litphrases were “playing at or with" the erally, or metaphorically, to jerk back
errant sheep to the fold or the narrow resembling a modern wooden putter but way. From it are derived the hockey- as large as a man's foot. The shape sticks and the golf-clubs of the present of the club or stick being an important time.
clue to the genesis of these games, it Leaving it for the moment, we pass is worth while looking into the possito another mediæval game. There is bilities of both artificial and natural extant a receipt, dated 1147, for ten forms. A croquet mallet with the martelli, and seven maximi ballones. head set at an angle may be used like Here is primitive croquet on the way a hockey-stick. But it is better, obvito its parallel development in pall mall, ously, without a heel. A hockey-stick le jeu du mail. Pall mall attained an with a hammer-headed toe may be extraordinary popularity, and was both used like a croquet mallet. But it is aristocratic and democratic by the six- better with a heel. The natural forms teenth century. It consisted in hitting of sticks, branches of young trees with a wooden ball about the size of a ten- a head formed by a piece of the stem, nis-ball with mallet lighter and saplings with a crooked root, suggest smaller and longer in the handle than both methods of hitting a ball. The a croquet mallet. Unlike croquet, it former, if heeled, is already a mallet, included long driving, the ball being but with an angle. The hammer would driven off the ground, and drives of suggest a right-angle setting. There 200 yards being recorded. For the is still another natural form, the clubdrive-off the ball was teed. The ob- shaped branch sapling. When ject of the game was to reach a mark, straight, it is a club for breaking heads, such as a stone or tree, in the fewest the war-mace; when crooked, it has strokes, and, as in golf, each player had the angle appropriate for hitting a ball his own ball and played for his own on the ground. From this our crickethand, except when more than two bat came.
Cutting the surface which played. In the case of, say, two meets the ball, so as to make a plane against two, the players formed sides, face, was an obvious improvement. Albut each man had a ball of his own. ready in the middle ages the crosse The game is still played at Montpellier. was shoed and faced with iron. Lastly, In mediæval times we find, e.g. in 1:350, the more the crook approaches the form the name chuque given to the ball. with a flat, instead of a semi-circular, Throughout we can detect the game by head, the more suitable is it for balls, the use of the mallet, the “hammer" of though not for sheep; and, clearly 1147, the mailhetus of 1350. There is enough, the hockey-stick type is eara curious sidelight on mediæval sport lier than the mallet type, for the latter in the fact that the documents which in nature has its head at an angle. mention the martel or malleus used to Golf, then, comes direct from a spepropel the ball are generally legal, cial method of playing ball with the dealing with summonses against play
But the crosse was not necesers who smote other players' heads in- sarily French; it is practically universtead of their own balls.
sal, as we suggested. Pall mall may Though crook and mallet are such be, as Mr. Lang describes it, "the sis. distinct forms, it is easy to realize that ter of golf," but that is all. Mr. Lang. in their earlier and cruder shapes they (in the Badminton "Golf") leans to a might be interchangeable. We actually derivation of golf from la soule, or at find in fifteenth-century drawings play. least 'to that of the name golf from ers aiming at a mark, a stick fixed in chole.' We have now to consider the the ground as at croquet, with a club etymological aspect of the problem.
Choule, chole, is still applied in Bel- but Scotland was particularly a Northgium to a sort of jeu du mail aux man's country from the ninth century grands coups. It has no other resem- to the thirteenth, the Lowlands were blance to golf. Nor, by the way, has largely Danish, the North and the the Dutch game, het kolven, played as Western Islands Norwegian. Now the a sort of croquet in the courts of inns, ancient Scandinavians, like many other any resemblance to golf, and the popu- peoples, had a ball-game played with lar notion that golf comes from kolf (a cudgels, the knattleike, soppleike, or bat or butt end) and golf from het sköfuleike, and the cudgel was knattkolven is a superficial error. Under brê (so Weinhold). But the Old Norse James VI. of Scotland (ascended 1567) and Icelandic usual term for a cudgel the Scotch bought balls from Holland was kolfr, from the old Teutonic root. to play golf in Scotland. But the The Northmen were great adapters if game was played in Scotland more not creators of games. But the Scots than 150 years before, and was not golf is probably older than their adplayed in Holland
when the vent, and so probably is the game. The Dutch made feather balls.
fact that it is first mentioned in Scots Of course in an earlier form, as seen documents goes far to show that it in the place-name Golfdrum, it was originated in Scotland, as is appropri“golf," and equally, of course, both golf ate. and kolf derive like the German kolbe The two salient features of the game, from an ancient Teutonic cholbo, and apart from the club, are the making of the hypothetical Gothic kulban. The the hole in as few strokes as possible, ancient terni means a stick with a and the use of holes as marks. The head, a club, and “club" is probably a latter seems to have belonged to early derivative. Mr. Lang suggests a Kel- varieties of crosse, and the former was tic form of this old word. Returning to common in the days of pall mall. soule, or chole, we may reject Du- Hence we cannot, with Mr. Lang, excange's derivation from solea, “because clude French influence on account of the ball was hit with the sole of the the hole system. But everything else foot," which of course it was not. As points to a Scots origin of the game for its derivation from cholbo, we must and a Keltic (Scots) origin of the remember that this meant a club, while name, unless percbance Scandinavian soule generally refers to the ball. Yet assisted in this. the German Kügel is ball, but the Eng- It may well be that, as Professor lish "cudgel" is club; and chole seems Patrick Geddes fancied, it was rabbitto be Belgian for stick. Such confu- holes (on the S. Andrews foreshore) sion is natural, and may have often that suggested a mark for the golfoccurred. Thus Ducange notes that ball. He imagined a shepherd tending crosse sometimes meant "ball." All sheep on that narrow strip of pasture; the same, choule might just as well de- his Viking blood (Scandinavian influrive from the Teutonic word which ence again) prompted him to combine gave the German Kügel. In any case
exercise with his meditative occupagolf does not come from la choule, nor tion. He therefore swung his shepthe word golf either.
herd's crook at the white pebbles. The But how do we get the Teutonic rabbit-holes, at first by accident, sugword in Scotland ? In Scots dialects gested a mark. Certainly the singlegowf occurs, meaning a blow with the handed character of golf is an element open hand. Is the word Keltic (orig- that needs more explanation than the inal Scots) or Teutonic? It is very old, Continental games supply. When