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and meet the Mediterranean fleets of At no point, then, in the next three the Triple Alliance. To aid her in this years will France be in a position to task, the British fleet at Gibraltar is, meet, without very substantial aid we are told vaguely, to be strengthened. from England or Russia, the navies It is therefore of paramount importance of the Triple Alliance in the south. In to consider two points: (1) What naval pre-"Dreadnoughts” France has a force assistance France can give, and (2) of eleven effective ships launched not what reinforcements, without special

more than twelve years. Italy posmeasures, which, if taken at all, must sesses six such ships and Austria nine; be taken immediately, we can afford but, making allowance for the inferior to despatch to the south of Europe. quality of the older Austrian and Ital

In war the French Navy will have to ian ships, France is superior to Italy face serious liabilities in the protection

and Austria combined in the older of French interests, which must come types of ships. Still there is nothing first. It will have to cover the com

whatever to encourage hope in French munications between France, Corsica, victory at sea against these two Medand the French dominions in northern "iterranean Powers in the near future, Africa, including Tunis, which may even if we throw in the four old Britbe exposed to Italian attack.

ish battleships at Gibraltar. The have to guard the transfer of the nine- French programme, moreover, cannot teenth French army corps from Algeria

be accelerated, and for two reasons; the to Marseilles, in order to give France French slips are now fully occupied, the maximum of force to meet the vast

and the French armor-plate making rearmies which Germany will deploy in sources are fully tasked; while in view Lorraine. Its chiefs would have their of the danger on land which France hands full, even if the French navy

has to face in Lorraine, any diversion were overwhelmingly strong. But un.

of her resources from her army to her fortunately that navy is still suffering fleet is unwise, so long at least as the from the disastrous results of M. Pel

British people refuse to adopt compulletan's administration ten years ago.

sory service. Money is needed for the He has gone, but his evil works live French Army, and in the interests of after him. Not all M. Delcassé's efforts

the Triple Entente it can be best spent have been able to make good the accu

in that direction. Russia will have no mulated defects. An abundant supply “Dreadnoughts” complete in either the of trustworthy powder is lacking. The

south or north of Europe before 1915, investigation which followed the fear

if then. ful disaster in the Liberté proved that

So, then, the solution of the problem none of the powder in existence in 1911

depends on the force which England could be regarded as safe; and the man.

can detach to the south of Europe with. ufacture of the French explosive is a

out risking disaster in the north. That, slow and difficult operation. For the

again, depends on what Germany does time being, then, the French fleet is

and the number of ships she completes. greatly handicapped. In the imme- And that again, depends on whether diate future, it will compare as follows

Germany accelerates or does not; and with the Italian and Austrian Navies

that, again, depends on whether the in “Dreadnoughts":

German General Staff and the Kaiser

and Admiral Tirpitz determine to Complete in December 1912 0 1 1 April 1913

strike quickly or to "wait and see"

0 2 1 October 1913 2 4 2

whether the, fruit will not drop into April 1914

France Italy Austria

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2 6 3

their mouths without striking. April 1915 4 8? 4 dismiss from our minds the idea that

66

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any man or any policy can change have, that is to say, denuded the Par German intentions. The fatal fact is cific, for our old armored cruisers in that the British Empire stands in the Pacific waters are not to be taken seway of German oversea expansion, and riously, and the single Australian that the very geographical position of "Dreadnought" will hardly weigh in the British Islands is now construed the scale. Of our twenty-six "Dread. as an offence to German national feel- noughts," eighteen will be battleships to ing. The iceberg and the Titanic are the German sixteen, and eight will be moving, as in Mr. Hardy's strange and battle-cruisers to the German five. Our passionate poem, on convergent courses; margin in battleships will be two and the forces that guide Germany are cold in battle-cruisers three, making a total as ice, the momentum behind them, it of five. This is not one single ship seems to the writer, is as formidable as too many; it is many ships too few, if that of Nature herself; the Titanic has we are to be prepared to meet at our no captain on her bridge, and all warn- "average moment" an attack by the ings are ignored by those who are driv- German Navy at its "selected moment." ing her. The “unsinkable ship" and The pre-“Dreadnoughts" on either side the "invincible Navy”—what a strange will not count materially in 1913, so parallel.

vast has been the progress in ordnance, Because Germany has not accelerated armor, and design, and so great will be in the past, therefore our Pacifists con- our difficulty in finding officers and clude that she will never accelerate. men. We have nothing here to spare There could be no greater error, If for detachments to the Mediterranean her cold, calculating leaders see any without courting and provoking disas. chance of victory and mean to fight, ter at home. they will accelerate. We must be But special measures are still possiprepared for it; if not, we are court- ble, if the Government will act and not ing destruction. By pressing forward walk blindfold to doom. The hours · her “Dreadnoughts” of the 1911 pro- are precious, for the measures must be gramme, Germany can have twenty- instantly taken if they are to be efone ships of this type complete by Oc- fective; postponed till next year they tober 1913, and perhaps a little earlier. will come too late.

The necessary We may, then, have to meet twenty-one steps are these: "Dreadnoughts" in the North Sea in (1) Acceleration of our 1911 proOctober 1913, the date when in relation gramme of five "Dreadnoughts." By to France, the navies of the Triple Al- working overtime, and offering the con. liance in the Mediterranean will be at tractors special premiums for quick detheir maximum strength; and when the livery, it might be possible to add all Russian military reorganization will these five ships, or certainly four of not have been completed.

them, by October 1913. The step will Failing special measures, our force cost money, and much money; but the at that date will be twenty-six "Dread- funds are there in the six and a half noughts,” excluding the Australian millions of surplus. The five ships ship. To get twenty-six we have been could be sent south, and would do compelled to break our agreement of something to redress the balance and 1909 with the Dominions, to keep at give France the support which she will home one

"Dreadnought" cruiser, need. which we pledged ourselves to despatch (2) Commencement of the 1912 proto the East, and to divert from the gramme in July 1912, instead of JanPacific the New Zealand ship. We uary 1913, which would enable us to THE FOLK-SONG FALLACY. We have heard a good deal during upon the native folk-song. Only in this the last few years of the “national way, we are told, can English music spirit” in music, and the necessity of hope to rise as a whole to the level of founding a “national English school" that of France and Germany. The

detach an additional ship to the Mediterranean early in 1915.

(3) A supplementary programme of at least two “Dreadnoughts” to provide for the Mediterranean in the future. With the acceleration, that would impose on our yards as much work as they could carry out without delay.

(4) A supplementary programme of twenty destroyers for the Mediterranean, to replace the five ancient craft now marooned at Malta. We cannot replace them from our ordinary programme, for, as Mr. Churchill has himself admitted, our position in modern destroyers as against Germany alone is unsatisfactory. Germany, in actual fact, will have ready for sea almost as many modern destroyers as ourselves (German strength in 1913, probably 120, not more than twelve years launched; British strength outside Mediterranean in 1913, 143).

(5) Provision of light gun armaments for our larger mail steamers, to be always carried on board, and to be manned by naval reservists for whom a subvention would be paid. This is an essential step, as there is now no longer time to build cruisers for the defence of the trade-routes, which are exposed to a host of German commercedestroyers.

(6) Addition of six thousand officers and men, the maximum that can be trained, to be followed by a similar addition next year.

The conditions of payment and service in the new Imme. diate Reserve to be modified at once, as it is becoming evident that good men cannot be obtained on the terms proposed.

The National Review.

Were these steps taken this month, the cost would be no greater than that of a large addition to the garrisons in the Mediterranean and the reconstruction of the Mediterranean fortresses, and the peril of war in the immediate future would be decidedly diminished. No shift, no half-measure will give security. The British Empire is probably fast approaching the fatal moment when the efficiency of its national organization and of its national defences will be tested by the terrible shock of war. Our national credit, with Consols at 76, has been gravely shaken. Our naval predominance is in extreme danger. Our army has no relation to . our Imperial necessities, and is weak in numbers and indifferently armed. Our national spirit is such that our statesmen's one preoccupation is with votes; their one object to divide and disintegrate the United Kingdom. "Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he reap." Do not even they sometimes tremble at the thought of the crop which they are preparing?

One final word on the Committee of Defence. If the members of that body were worthy of their trust, all the non-politicians among them would ere now have resigned en masse as a protest against the errors of our defence policy. In the Morocco crisis of 1911 they never lifted a finger, so far as the writer can discover, to remedy the aber. rations and neglect of the Admiralty. In the spring of the present year, they sat still while the fleet was being withdrawn from the Mediterranean, and left it to Lord Kitchener to play the manly part.

H. W, Wilson.

people who talk in this way have ap- diction. Let us look at a few of Sir parently never stopped to examine very Hubert Parry's divagations in his exclosely the meanings of the terms they cellent “Art of Music.” He insists are using. The vaguer and more gen- more than once upon what he regards eral a word is, the more cautious we as a fundamental distinction between should be in our use of it, for it will the Italian" and "the Teutonic" way prove impossible to apply it with the of conceiving music. The former peosame validity in detail as in the mass. ple aim at "external beauty," the lat.

When we find Mr. Cecil Sharp, for ter at "internal beauty." "The bent example, telling us that “when every of the Germans,” he says, speaking of English child is, as a matter of course, the eighteenth century, "was not so made acquainted with the folk-song of much towards beauty as towards exhis own country, then, from whatever pression and character.

Their very class the musician of the future may type of beauty was different from that spring, he will speak in the national of the Italians. The Italians looked musical idiom" we are constrained to for beauty of externals, and the Gerask-What is the “national musical mans for beauty of thought.” This idiom"? It is a high-sounding term, distinction, he holds, is racial in its and an easy one to make a certain kind origin, being visible again in the works of merely verbal resonance with; but of the painters of the two nations. But can Mr. Sharp or any one else show us later on, when he is speaking of the that it has any meaning whatever in new spirit that Schubert brought into terms of concrete fact? If "the national the song, Sir Hubert Parry tells us that musical idiom” is so positive, unmistak. "Mozart, and the Italians among whom able a thing that it will come like sec- he represents the highest type, usually ond nature to any one who has ab. make long meandering passages of melsorbed a sufficient number of folk- ody with no very definite articulation. songs, ought we not to be able to iso- The true Teuton, aiming at concentralate the essence of it and express it in tion of expression, compresses his some simple verbal formula? Yet who thought into figures which are specially will undertake to do this in connection definite and telling." The typical with the music of any country? Who Italian, then, is a German! Mozart, in could ever hope, for instance, to find fact, though a German, is not a “true one common formula for the idioms of Teuton" like Schubert. It certainly Debussy, d'Indy, Berlioz, Bizet, Saint- looks as if Schubert's Teutonism were Saëns, Bruneau, and Massenet? Is safe enough; but on the very next page there, in fact, such a thing as a French Sir Hubert Parry rules him too out of “national musical idiom"? If so, will court. Schumann, he says, “was gifted some ardent partisan of nationalism with more of the familiar Teutonic diskindly tell us what it is?

position to reflect and look inwards The truth seems to be, as Mill and than Schubert, whose gaiety of the Huxley long ago pointed out, that of all Viennese type generally kept him in ways of accounting for the differences touch with the outward aspect of between the arts and customs and con- things." That is to say, the true Teustitutions of nations, that of attributing ton is not a true Teuton in comparison them all to "race" is the most superfi- with a truer Teuton! Nay, it even apcial. The lax habit of mind that al- pears that people who are not Teutons lows people to be satisfied with these at all can be truer Teutons than some pseudo-explanations almost invariably whose Teutonism is unquestionable. decoys them into a maze of self-contra- Sir Hubert Parry, in working out a

sense

was a

comparison between Mozart and wilder? What conclusion can we come Haydn, says that the latter “is through- to but that the whole theory of “racial out as Teutonic in spirit and manner characteristics" in music is flawed to as it was possible to be in those times, the very centre? and that most of his work has a high Is it not the mere beginning of readegree of personal characteristic vital- son in the matter to give up the notion ity; while Mozart, with more delicate that all the inhabitants of a nation are artistic perception, more

of tarred with the same brush, or even beauty, a much higher gift of technique that the "characteristic" work of the and more general facility, is compara- nation is being done by people indubitively deficient in individuality, and tably of one presupposed racial "type"? hardly shows any trace of Teutonism Would it not sober the "nationalists" to in style from first to last."

learn how many men who stand as the From the remark as to Haydn being “typical” Frenchman or German were "as Teutonic as it was possible to be in either not French or German at all, or those times" one would infer that even

only partially so? The greatest Teutons are not always as Teutonic on "Frenchman" of modern times—Naposome days as they are on others- leon-was a pure Italian, without a which is as if we should apologize for drop of French blood in his veins. the water not being quite so wet on The greatest "English" general-WelFriday as it was on Tuesday. But lington-was an Irishman, as Lord Robletting that pass, one has to point out erts is. The greatest modern "English" gravely that, so far as we know, Haydn novelist George Meredith was not a Teuton, but a slav. All the Welshman. César Franck—a “French” modern evidence points in that direc- composer-was a Belgian. Offenbach, tion. Dr. Hadow, after reviewing this who wrote the "typical" French comic evidence in the article on Haydn in operas, was a German Jew. Or look at the new "Grove," says that "not only is some of the great names of "German" the general impression of Haydn's mu- music. Beethoven was half Dutch; sic Slavonic rather than Teutonic in Liszt a pure Hungarian; Joachim a character, but many of his own mature Hungarian Jew; Mahler a Bohemian compositions

saturated with Jew; Mendelssohn German Jew; Croatian folk-songs, to which his own Nikisch is a Hungarian; Richter half most distinctive melodies bear, both in Hungarian; Weingartner a Dalmatian. curve and rhythm, a very noticeable re- Yet all these people are supposed, in semblance.

It is hardly too some mysterious way, to express a "namuch to say that he stood to the folk- tional idiom" in their compositions or music of Croatia as Burns to the peas

their performances! ant-song of Scotland; and it may be How, indeed, can any one who reflects remembered that, from his appointment for a moment imagine that complex at Eisenstadt in 1760 to his journey to nations are to be summed up in this England in 1791, he never (except for style under a single simple formula? short visits to Vienna) travelled outside What is "the" Englishman? What the limits of his native district.” And common denominator is there in the it was this pure Slav who was “as Teu- minds or the outlook of such people tonic as it was possible to be in those as Judge Jeffrey and Howard, Browntimes," while Mozart, an undeniable ing and Blake, Pope and Mr. ChesterTeuton by birth and environment, rep- ton, Spencer and Keble, Elgar and Ban. resents "the highest type” of the Ital. tock, Frith and Hornel? What is the ian! Could any argumentation well be peculiarly and solely “French” charac

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