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still be without an ally, as we still are ropean war had the effect of stopping without an army of our own.
the almost open hostility of rival shipIt is plain from the history of Euro- building, it might confidently be hoped pean diplomacy before 1895 that Ger- that the ancient friendship between man statesmen sincerely desired, and England and the German Powers would even insisted upon, the resurrection of return, but in existing circumstances the British Army before the decision such friendship is impossible. For let was taken to challenge our naval su- briefly consider the alternatives periority. At the end of the nineteenth open to us under our present scheme of century the power to mobilize 250,000 armament and alliances. Even if we British troops for service in Europe beat Germany in the shipbuilding race, would have secured the peace of Eu- the feeling of hostility will certainly rope as well as the safety of the Father- remain. At any moment we may find land. How would the same event af- ourselves committed to a war with fect the issue to-day? It would ren- her, as so nearly happened last autumn. der the invasion of the British Isles a The friends of peace assert that such a very remote contingency, even in the war would settle nothing. This stateevent of British defeat at sea at the ment, however, is one more proof of beginning of the war. The landing of how the friends of peace misunderstand such a force on the Continent would the world they live in. Wars nowaprobably be sufficient to turn the scale days are apt to end decisively, and at in a war between France and Ger.
any rate they all effect important setmany, and it would render the complete tlements. If France and Russia deand rapid victory of the latter almost feated Germany in the next war, and impossible, provided the British com- England assists the victors, the new mander was of even moderate ability. situation is not likely to be even apFinally, it would enable the British proximately as favorable to Britain as Government to abate the oppressive the present.
The balance of power, taxation, which has otherwise been in fact, would be wiped out, and there rendered unavoidable by the competi- would be no guarantee of its renewal. tion in naval armaments. It is prob- Moreover, if France took the place of ably too late to recover the lost confi- Germany as the acknowledged rival of dence of the German people, or to in- Britain, her antagonism would threaten duce them to trust the guardianship of
British security even more directly their interests at sea to the British than the enmity of Central Europe, on Navy, but directly the British military account of her geographical position. forces have been revived so as to turn It would become imperative to re-esthe scale in the decisive struggle, the tablish the balance of power destroyed Powers of Europe, and Germany most by our own connivance; for a real balof all, can be compelled to listen to rea- ance of power now exists approxison in the question of limiting naval mately, and would exist actually, if armaments if the demand is made by England resuscitated her military our Government. It may be added strength. that no other argument is likely to Whichever way we consider the probhave the least weight in the matter. lem of British relations with Germany,
If the British people ceased to fear the military weakness of our country German hostility, if they could depend must be considered a grave danger. It on their army to render invasion im- is at once a provocation and a temptapossible, even after naval defeat, and tion, it leads us into alliances and enif the power to turn the scale in a Eu- gagements which we are too feeble to
support and make good, but the con- of all history is that a nation must rely şideration which may appeal most pow. on its own strength both for immediate erfully to our House of Commons is safety and to secure advantageous althe inordinate cost of the present polliances. There is also one other lesicy, which guarantees nothing. The son of equal importance which the Brit. revival of the British Army on the ish people have still to learn, namely, scale indicated, that is, to mobilize that an island Power can no more disfrom 250,000 to 300,000 troops for Eu- pense with an army than a Continental ropean service, demands, not increased Power in these days can disregard expenditure, but improved organiza- naval development. Land and sea power tion and more economical administra- must be proportional and symmetrical, tion. No one need expect that Ger- like the muscular power of the human many will be bought off by cessions of body. An Empire with naval superiorterritory and similar claims on her grat- ity, and which also possesses land itude. The Goths were not grateful to forces in proportion, can count on the Romans for paying ransom, nor are maintaining the record of England unthe Germans grateful for the surrender der the Plantagenets and of modern of Heligoland. If they were presented Japan. But a naval Power without with Gibraltar, Malta, and Egypt by land forces inevitably goes along the Viscount Haldane on his next trip to broad and easy path followed in turn Berlin, they would still remain ungrate- by Tyre and Carthage, Holland and ful; but they would certainly become Venice, by all the purely naval States hungrier than ever before. The lesson of the world's history. The Fortnightly Review,
REVELATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL LIFE.
To say that the general description the average middle-class writer are not of the British workman one reads in at all conducive to a full comprehension the Press is distorted or exaggerated is, of the secret troubles of industrial comin my opinion, a generous way of ex- petition. A naturalist will devote half onerating the average writer from the a lifetime to studying the habits and charge of gross inaccuracy. I know of food and life of a microscopic insect. A no author or journalist who has yet ac- geologist will delve and scrape and chip curately portrayed the inner domestic and weigh tons of strata to resolve a life or the everyday experiences of the problem of crustacea. A historian will British working man. Whether the revel in mountains of books and dry-as. ability to describe the working man dust records to discover the genealogtruly pertains to literary acumen or to ical origin of an ancient royal family. the science of Psychology, Physiology, But when an account of the most wonor Philosophy I know not; but I do know derful of all human beings is called for that as a theme for an essay it is of en- a half-hour's visit to a so-called typical trancing interest, deep study, and cir- family and an investigation of the brilcuitous and almost labyrinthian involu- liancy of the kitchen fire irons is contion. It is not because of these seem- sidered sufficient to dub the author ingly monumental difficulties that so "one who knows." many fail in the work of description, It is quite true that there is a general but because of the extreme difference condition of existence for all human beof environment. The surroundings of ings-food, clothing, shelter, rest, rec
reation, and so forth—but the differ- proximately three fundamental condience in details between that of the tions necessary to
strong, working man and of his middle-class healthy, intelligent children; (1) Wholebiographer is as marked as that of a some food; (2) intelligent care; (3) genial caged bird and a free bird of the and healthy surroundings. In connection woods. The average middle-class man with No. 1, the fulfilment of that conlives to eat. The working man eats dition in the vast majority of cases borto live. The former has his clothes ders on the impossible, because the made to fit his limbs; the latter makes amount of wages paid to the breadhis limbs fit the clothes. The former winner is seldom sufficient to procure has his house built and furnished to wholesome food, even if the worker suit his taste and his comfort; the lat- had the necessary knowledge of the ester subordinates his taste and his com- sential constituent qualities of foodfort to the limits of his purse and his proteids, carbohydrates, fat-to know home. In every phase of life this gen- which to buy. And though he may eral differentiation is conspicuous, and know what is required, and purchase no writer, so far as I know, has yet his foodstuffs accordingly, it by no fully elaborated the hidden details of means follows that he will get wholethe working man's life. I propose to do
some food even then. The amount of this. Not as a scribe revelling in a yo. adulteration practised by manufacturcabulary of floral phraseology, nor as ers of foodstuffs is alarming, notwitha biographer versed in romantic inci. standing the efforts of our legislators dents of historical data, but as "a plain and administrators to check the evil; blunt man, that love my friend.”
and the worker is, of course, the vicBorn fifty-eight years ago, in the
tim. Walworth Road, I started as a bread- As to No. 2-intelligent care-this winner at nine years of age, and am also depends greatly upon the social still struggling for a bare subsistence status of the parents. If the parents in the ranks of the great industrial of the parents had been in a position to army. To me, as to thousands of oth- give their children a good training and ers, the tragedy of industrial warfare comfortable home, then the babies we has been a constant source of anxiety are referring to would probably fare and worry, and the unconsidered trifles,
better. Heredity plays an important which most writers would dismiss as part in these matters, and the hereditary n'importe, have impressed and op
taint of child-slavery in the “forties" pressed me seriously.
has not by any means been entirely To begin with the birth of the child. eradicated, so there is a further diffiEvery child of working-class parents
culty from this source. is
No. 3—genial and healthy surround
ings. In London this factor is almost Born to trouble as the sparks fly up
impossible of acquirement. For is it ward.
not true that for a radius of two miles The amount of trouble to which the beyond London habitations the air reworkers' children are born varies con- mains impregnated with more or less siderably. If the parents are in com- poisonous gases ? And certainly the fortable cicumstances, the likelihood of social environment in many workingthe child being well cared for is tol- class neighborhoods is far from being erably good. If the parents are poorly conducive to intellectual health. The off, then the child has less chance of genial chacacter of the surroundings is being properly reared.
There are ap
not less doubtful than the healthy.
Rows upon rows of flat, lifeless bricks anthropists and charity donors; who and mortar, an entire absence of any. are themselves too proud to show the thing approaching art or nature, the distress they endure; and who, as a remixed stench of numerous factories and sult, have to bear, in quiet patience, un. workshops, the distracting noise of in- known hardships and sufferings. In cessant traffic, and the look of anguish these families the baby never comes at and anxiety on everybody's face, are the right time. It is always either aspects not calculated to impress the when the husband is out of work, or young and inquiring mind with any the quarter's rent is due, or the taxes pleasant anticipations of future joy. have to be paid, or the other children
These, however, are the average con- want new clothes or boots, or some unditions under which the town-bred expected burden has been sprung sudchild (and I am not speaking now of denly upon them. The margin between the poorest class by any means) is distress and comfort is so fine that a reared into manhood. Amongst the natural function may be turned into poorest class of workers, in which, an unnatural disaster by reason of the strange to say, the production of off- period at which it takes place. The spring is most prolific, the conditions of maternity clause in the National Insurbirth alone are hard enough to mar any ance Act may help to alleviate, in a child's future. The mother has to very slight measure, the anxiety felt in work-either at home or out, or both- these cases. It will not remove the till within an hour or so of her delivery. trouble altogether. At these times
Then either the parish doctor or a and, as far as possible, all arrangemidwife is called in to prevent, if pos- ments are made beforehand-the capacsible, the death of either the mother or ity of the family income is strained to the child, but is apparently unable to the uttermost. Out of the pound or do anything more than sit by and ad- thirty shillings which is received from vise the poor woman to be patient and the coffers of a benefit society the docbrave, and so forth, and to administer tor's charges have to be met, the fort. some drug, or a prescription for a drug, night's pay to the monthly nurse has and, at the last moment, perhaps, to to be made, and the extra cost of livrender physical assistance. The rooms ing, in the shape of little delicacies for in which these “incidents" occur are as the woman, have to be borne. Imagvaried as the rates of wages in the dif. ine what that means, when every ferent branches of industry, for the penny of wages is swallowed up every worker is taught to cut his coat ac- week to keep the family on the better cording to his cloth. Sometimes the side of the poverty line. It is not that woman has to go to the lying-in hos- this class object to the struggle, but pital, sometimes she is confined in the that, struggle as they may, they never same room in which she and her hus- seem able to escape from the necessity band and family sleep and eat and play; of a continuous and incessant struggle. and during her actual hour of trouble No sooner does the mother leave her the rest of the family are turned out to bed and start on her household duties shift for themselves as best they can. than one of her other children falls ill
But it is not of this unfortunate class --possibly because the nurse, in order I want to speak.
Their sorrows and that the child should not cry and diswoes are pretty well known. I want to tress its mother during her illness, alreveal the state of mind and body of lowed the little one to do certain things that class of workers whose wages are it ought not to have done. The father too high to attract the attention of phil. returns from work, and his wife meets him at the door with uplifted finger en- teens. All the while father and mother treating silence. “What's the mat- have little else than worry. ter?” is his suppressed query. “Why, A new form of anxiety now presents Florrie doesn't seem very well. She is itself to the heads of this industrial sleeping now, so don't wake her." household. "What shall we do with This man, strong, powerful, and cour- our boys?" "What shall we do with ageous, who would have battled against our girls ?” Every morning, every fire and water, would have faced a night, every dinner-time (that is, if the raging wild beast, or have wrestled father goes home to dinner) this vexaagainst any odds to have saved one of tious question is raised, discussed, and his family from pain, is, like Samson of adjourned; and, suggest what they will, old, shorn of his locks of courage and nothing seems to be suitable to the strength by the insidious poison of con- physical or mental capabilities of either scious financial inability to meet any the boy or the girl. Ultimately the greater burden. He creeps softly to the boy becomes a clerk, because Mr. Amos side of the bed and looks at his child. at the chapel has a vacancy for one in Her face is hot and scarlet; she is burn- his office. He starts at five shillings a ing with fever. "Have you sent for the week, and works about sixty hours for doctor?” he inquires, knowing all the it! He is not really worth the money while what the answer will be. "No, but Mr. Amos is a very nice man, and dear," his wife replies; "we owe so kind. Later on the girl is engaged him" But there is no need to fin- for a twelvemonth to learn the typeish the sentence. A cry of agony is
writer, and she has to serve six months kept back with a choking effort, and for nothing. The net result of all this he turns away from the bed, sick and is that the amount from father's weekly sad and ready to do anything. Some wage, usually devoted to food and men fly to drink, others lose their tem- clothing, has to be reduced to meet the per and say things to the wife, while extra cost of keeping these two chilothers sit and brood and finally aban- dren at work. Cheaper and better to don all effort. A few are indifferent send them into the woods and fields to and callous, and allow things to take develop their physique and establish their course; and a very, very few fight their health, but—they must begin to on and win.
do something to earn their living. Oh, But let me return to the children. the wickedness of it! Oh, the irony of They live and grow into boyhood and it! Do you wonder at the cry of phygirlhood. They are thin, pallid, and
sical degeneration ? more or less anæmic. They fuss with Meanwhile the trials and anxieties their food, and never seem to have a of the parents are growing more and healthy appetite. Colds are in constant more. What appear to be mere twoattendance upon them. Their livers penny-halfpenny incidents to the ordiare so weak that the sight of a piece nary person not engaged in industrial of fat meat produces all the symptoms
strife of any kind are, to these anxious of a bilious attack. Headache and parents, a source of uneasiness, dedrowsiness are as common as the day. pression, and hopelessness. They have no desire to learn, and a
This does not exhaust the list of famgenuine physical effort is entirely be- ily troubles by any manner of means, yond their capacity. With constant although, perhaps, it is one of the most illnesses and ailments, with oceans of trying. When children come into the drugs, emulsions, poultices, and quack
world it is only natural that parents remedies, they manage to reach their should desire to see them grow up