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writing, that on Refleccion I may be able to given some accompt of men and things. In reading I should observe (but my broken minutes will not permitt itt) this method. First to common-place NOTES:-' Notes and Queries -The Gates of 1 on, 1in a generall booke, under proper Heads, what I "Different":"Than," 3-More Family, 4-Severus and find remarkeable; 2dly, sett down what I finde Birth of Christ, 5- Vocabolario della Crusca'-Liberty of new, and fitt to be remembred, which one should Earl of Meath-" Winged Skye"-Fire in Crippbgate, 6. review at the end of the weeke, and then more QUERIES:-"Crear"-Portrait of Napoleon-Sir T. Lynch exactly digest it; 3dly, to sett downe in another -Dampier-W. Wentworth-Rev. W. Edwards-De Ros little booke queries that I know not, in order to be Family, 7-" Textile "-Heathcote-Reference to Story-informed, when I meete with men capable." J. G. Strutt-Thos. Eyre-Herald-Kentish Men: Men of Kent, 8-Philip II. of Spain-Medieval Measures-Bio- of Mr. John Cordy Jeaffreson, who edited the It is regrettable to learn, upon the authority REPLIES:—“Through-stone," 9-Era in Monkish Chrono-Hodgkin MSS., that this intention to make logy, 10-Enigma-Johnstone of Wamphray, 11-"British" a private collection in anticipation of our Life of St. Alban, 12-Portraits of the Wartons-Reynolds own 'N. & Q.' was not carried out, for -Bayswater, 13-Yorkshire Murder-Novel by Jean Inge"after working for a time on the common-place Low" Playing Hamlet"-Mazarin Family-Glass Fracture book, jotting down memoranda of dreams, meteoro-Cope and Mitre-Tortoiseshell Ware, 14-Angels as Sup- logical phenomena, social incidents, and political porters-Arabic Star Names-Grub Street-French Peerage, occurrences, Mr. Bulstrode changed his plan of 16-8t. Syth-Counterfeits and trinkets "Napoleon's operations, so that the book is far from correAttempted Invasion-Stevens-Etymology of "Tonn"sponding to the programme." J. C. H. Petit, 16—"Sni”—Princes of Cornwall-Superstition-Cold Harbour-Peter Thellusson-Canning, 17Featherstone —“Tirling-pin "—Sand-paper-In Memo riam,' liv.-Local Silversmiths-Strathclyde, 18-"Pot Lord"-Lee, Earls of Lichfield-" Camp-ball,” 19. NOTES on BOOKS:-Wright's English Dialect Dictionary,' 19-Tovey's Reviews and Essays in English Literature-Brewer's Medieval Oxford-Hooper's Campaign

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of Sedan '-Kielland's 'Norse Tales and Sketches,' 20. Notices to Correspondents.


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Mr. Leslie Stephen has characterized the
Athenian Mercury, established in London in
1690, as a kind of Notes and Queries," an
honour which, quaint and interesting as was
that periodical, it scarcely deserves; but Bul-
strode's idea was so close an anticipation of
the weekly journal which is a friend to so many
of us to-day that it deserves here and now to
be recognized.

(See 8th S. xii. 161, 485.)

Ir is not quite easy to tell from the note at the latter reference whether the writer believes that St. Giles's Church was founded on its present site because it was close to a gathering-place for cripples, or whether cripples took up their station at Cripplegate because of its proximity to the church of their tutelary saint. According to Stow, "Alfune builded the parish Church of S. Giles, nigh a gate of the Citie, called Porta contractorum, or Criplesgate, about the yeare 1090" (Survey,' ed. 1603, p. 34). This gate was certainly in existence a hundred

'NOTES AND QUERIES.' THE honoured motto of 'N. & Q' from its commencement has been Capt. Cuttle's famous injunction, "When found, make a note of." But just as there were brave men before Agamemnon, so were there counsellors for note-making before our venerable friend. "I will make a prief of it in my note-book," exclaimed Sir Hugh Evans in 'The Merry Wives of Windsor'; and many of us have taken that immortal Welsh parson as our exemplar. Yet a more precise instructor in the art to be cultivated by every reader of and contributor to N. & Q' was one Whitelock Bulstrode, of the Inner Temple, contro-years previously. versialist and mystical writer. There is preserved among the manuscripts of Mr. J. Eliot Hodgkin, F.S.A., of Richmond, Surrey, a"Book of Observanda," ranging from 8 April, 1687, to 25 June, 1692, written by this Prothonotary of the Marshalsea Court and Commissioner of Excise, author also of A Discourse of Natural Philosophy,' published in the lastgiven year. And the purpose of this "Book of Observanda was thus indicated in an entry upon an opening leaf:


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"Sept. 1687: Observanda. In the World what I meet with, extraordinary or usefull, I committ to

Very little is known of London before the Conquest; but there is scarcely any doubt that the walls followed the line of the present City limits. The massive character of those walls is known from the few relics which are still in existence. They were pierced on the landward side by at least four gates, which in modern times were known as Aldgate, Cripplegate, Aldersgate, and Newgate. those days commerce and the Church shared the city between them. The little stream of Walbrook, which was navigable as far as the Cheap, or great market-place of the city,


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