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Julian Pe- 45 Which also our fathers that came after brought in Jerusale riod, 4746, with Jesus into the possession of the Gentiles, whom God VulgarÆra,
drave out before the face of our fathers, unto the days of 33 or 34.
46 Who found favour before God, and desired to find a tabernacle for the God of Jacob.
47 But Solomon built him an house.
48 Howbeit, the Most High dwelleth not in temples made with hands; as saith the prophet,
49 Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool : what house will ye build me? saith the Lord: or what is the place of my rest?
50 Hath not my hand made all these things ?
ACTS vii. 51-54.
Selden and Beger, either to be the same as Saturn, or to be
I have already, in another place (k) remarked the apparent
(a) Vitringa Observationes Sacræ. (6) Dnbia vexata, p. 948. (c) Hale's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. p. 450. (d) On the Minor Prophets; on Amos v. 26. (e) De legibus Hebræorum, p: 666. (s) Selden ii. 34. (g) Lightfoot's Works, vol. viii. p. 434. (h) Origin of Pagan Idolatry, vol. ii. p. 491. (i) Faber at sup. vol. ii. p. 86. (k) Arrangement of the Old Testament, note on the Idolatry of Jeroboam, vol.ii. p. 117.
REPROACHES THE SANHEDRIM-CHAP. IX.
lalim Pe- cuted? and they have slain them which shewed before of Jerusalem. red, 1746, the coming of the Just One, of whom ye have been now # 47 47. Falgar&ra,
the betrayers and murderers : 33 or 34. 53 Who have received the law by the disposition of
angels, and have not kept it.
37 Schoetgen (a), Whitby (6), Grotius (c), and others, would consider this passage as referring to the attendance of the angels at the promulgation of the law on Mount Sinai. The Jews founded this opinion ou the use of the word ordbx, in the Pentateuch, instead of 77n; which word, though it is a common name for God, is applied to the angels. Compare Ps. xcvii. 7. with Heb. i. 6. and Ps. viii. 6. with Heb. ii. 8. "The Jews were also accustomed to say of Moses, D'Ix51277 byx aby~He ascended to the angels, who neither eat nor drink, and with whom therefore he neither ate nor drank (d.)
Parkhurst would interpret the passage with reference to the fire and lightning and thunder, which attended the giving of tbe law. The learned Lightfoot, however, would interpret the phrase with reference to the succession of angels, i. e. messengers, or prophets, who successively appealed to the Jewish Church. I would not, he observes (e), render this 'Ayyedwy, by the Hebrew word boxbs, angels, as the Syriac and Arabic interpreters have done; but by O'nibw, 'messengers ;' so Tiar mbv is 'Ayyelog Exxlpoias, 'the angel,' or messenger of the Church.' The Jews have a trifling fiction, that those Israelites that were present at Mount Sinai, and beard the law pronounced there by God himself, should bave been like angels; that they should never have begot children, nor died; but, for the time to come, should have been like to angels, had it not been for that fatal and unfortunate crime of theirs in the matter of the golden calf. If εις διαταγας 'Αγγελων might admit of this passive construction, “that men might be disposed in the same predicament or state with the angels;" then I should think our blessed martyr might, in this passage, remind them of their own opinion, and the more smartly convince them of their avoua, “ transgression of the law,” even from what they themselves granted. As though he had said, “ Ye have received a law, which you yourselves confess, would have put men into an angelical state, and yet you have not observed it.”
But if this clause will not bear that interpretation, it is doubtful in what sense the word 'Ayyelwv must be taken ; and whether els diarayas, unto the dispositions,' be the same with èra olaraywv, or oa olarayns, by the dispositions, or disposition. That expression in Gal. iii. 19. agrees with this diaTayels de ayyelwv, ordained by angels ;' and in both those places it would be something harsh to understand, by angel, those heavenly spirits strictly and properly so taken: for what had they to do in the disposition of the law? They were present indeed at Mount Sinai, wben the law was given, as many places of the Holy Scriptures do witness; but then they were but present there; for we do not find that any thing farther was done or performed by them. So that the thing itself makes it necessary, that in both places we should understand by angels the messengers' of God's word; his prophets and ministers. And the particle els may retain its own proper force and virtue, that the sense may come to thus much ; viz." ye have received the law unto the dispositions of messengers," i.e. that it should be propounded and published by ministers, prophets, and others : and that according to your own desire and wish, Exod. xx. 19. Deut. v. 25. and xviii. 15, 16, and yet ye have
Jerusalem riod, 4747. VulgarÆra, Stephen praying for his Murderers, is stoned to Death.
ACTs vii. 54 to the end. viii. part of ver. 1 and 2.
55 But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up
56 And said, Behold I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God ".
not kept the law. Ye desired prophets, and ye had them, yet
If the severe language of the martyred Stephen was justly
(a) Horæ Hebraicæ, vol. i. p. 738. (6) Whitby in loc. (c) Ap Critici Sacri, vol. viii. in loc. (d) Midrasch in Jalkut Simeoni. Part II. fol. 118.--2 ap Schoetgen. (e) Works, vol. viii. p. 436.
40 The great High Priest, wbo bad passed into the boly of holies to intercede for man, looked dowu from heaven, and opened the veil of the firmament, that bis first martyr might gaze on his exaltation and glory. The bystanders were too much engaged with the work of destruction upon earth to look up to heaven ; and even if they had so done, it is by no means certain that the appearance of the Shechinah would have been manifested to them also. It is related by St. Luke as a fact, and not as a vision ; neither is it unphilosophical to believe that He who had visibly ascended into heaven, and had promised to prepare a place there for those who love him, should impart to his holy and suffering servant, in his hour of martyrdom, a prospect of those celestial scenes to which bis spirit would soon be admitted-the exceeding great reward of the righteous.
We do not yet understand the nature of the universe of God. The blue expanse that encircles our planet on all sides, prevents us from seeing much of space in the day time. Our view is then limited to the sun, whose distance is comparatively small. In the night our view is bounded by the magnificent fret-work, with which the God of Christianity and of creation has spangled the beautiful arch above us. The distance of the visible stars is so great, that the intellect of man is bewildered in the attempt to comprehend it. If we call in the assistance of
PRAYS FOR HIS MURDERERS-CHAP. IX.
Julian Pe- 57 Then they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped Jerusalem. risd, 1747. their ears, and ran upon him with one accord. Valgarðra, 34.
58 And cast him out of the city, and stoned him : and the telescope, we add to our wonder and embarrassment, and when we seem to bave arrived at the very verge of the visible creation, our reason still convinces us, that the telescope of the greatest power has taught us but little. The wildest flight of imagination, which delights itself with the theories of stars whose light has not yet arrived at the solar system; and of innumerable clusters of constellations, invisible to man, which extend to infinity, appears but the calm and sober effort of reason, when the subject of its thoughts is “so great a God, as our God (a).”
The Christian, however, must propose the question to himself: amidst all this waste of words (6), “Where is the heaven of his religion? Where is the abode of the body of Christ, which visibly ascended into another place through the firmament abovo us?" The Cbristian cannot be defrauded of bis consolations by the powers of the telescope, nor the loftiest flights of imagination. The God wbo made the noble universe, gave also Christianity to man, to direct him to an existence in a state of immortality. But if there is a state, or condition, there must also be a place, in which we shall dwell; and that place, we are repeatedly assured, is the same which the body of Christ now possesses. If St. Stephen was permitted to see the Sbecbinah in that place, bis visual faculties must have been so strengthened that the inconceivable distance between earth and heaven was, as it were, annihilated. St. Stephen, filled with the Holy Ghost, saw, in the flesh, bis blessed Redeemer. The heaven of heavens was brought near to man: and the first Christian martyr was enabled to behold it, as a pledge and earvest of his own immortal happiness ; and through bim a pledge to all those who by the same faith shall offer themselves living and acceptable sacrifices to God. When we consider the sublime and glorious realities to which we are destined, and the manner in which life and im. mortality have been secured to us by the crucified Saviour, the manifested God of mankind, surely we lose sight of our great and invaluable privileges, when we permit ourselves to be enthralled by the pleasures and attractions of this evil world. The faith of a Christian bas done very little for man, if it does not enable him to break the chains which kept the heathen in bondage, and deliver him from the galling tyranny of unrestrained passions.
Witsius, who has permitted few points of theology entirely to
(a) Psalm Ixxvii. 13.
On a poor breathing particle of dust-
YOUNG's NIGHT THOUGHTS.
Julian Pe- the witnesses laid down their clothes at a young man's " Jerusaler riod, 4747. feet, whose name was Saul. Vulgar Æra,
59 And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit “.
,השכינה מקבל כפשס Osculum; nam נשיקה mortis, sed tantum per
41 Many commentators have attempted, from a comparison of this expression with that in St. Paul's Epistle to Philemon, in which he styles himself Paul the aged, to discover the probable age of that apostle at this time. Others again think, that the latter passage ought to be rendered Paul the ambassador. No argument for the former supposition can be safely deduced from the expression here referred to, as the original word is used with great latitude. In the Septuagint, which is the best lexicon for the signification of words in the New Testament, the Greek word veaviokoç is used for soldiers, 2 Macc. xii. 27. or men of mature age. It corresponds also with Divox, men, Josh. ii. 1. and 23; and, among the classical writers, it is used in the same manner. Kuinoel quotes Phavorinus, to prove that it described any age between twenty-three and forty; and his authority is confirmed by Diogenes Laertius, 8–10. and Xenophon Cyr. viii. 3, &c. where the word veaviokog occurs, and avñp, s 11. is immediately after used as an exquivalent expression.
42 That the exclamation of Stephen is sufficient to prove his belief, and the belief therefore of the early Church in the divi. nity of Christ, appears further from the manner in which the Jews were accustomed to speak of death. Their common saying was, That was the most easy death, when the Shechinah received the spirit of tho just man. Schoetgen quotes Jalkut Rubeni, fol. 86. 2. Justi perfecti non moriuntur ab angelo
, ; , ipsa Shechipah animas eorum suscipit (a.)
I shall always insist, says Bishop Horsley, in his answer to Priestley, that the blessed Stephen died a martyr to the Deity of Christ. The accusation against him was
* his speaking blasphemous things against the temple and the law.” You have forgotten to add the charge of blasphemy “ against Moses and against God." The blasphemy against the temple and the law, probably, consisted in a prediction, that the temple was to be destroyed, and the ritual law of course abolished. The blasphemy against Moses was, probably, his assertion that the authority of Moses was inferior to that of Christ. But what could be the blaspbemy against God? what was there in the doctrine of the apostles which could be interpreted as blas. phemy against God, except it was this, that they ascribed divinity to one who had suffered publicly as a malefactor. That this was the blessed Stephen's crime none can doubt, who attends to the conclusion of the story : “He looked up stedfastly into heaven,” says the inspired historian, "and saw the glory of God,” (that is, he saw the splendour of the Shechinah; for that is what is meant when the glory of God is mentioned, as some. thing to be seen,) “and Jesus standing on the right hand of God.” He saw the man Jesus in the midst of his divine light. His declaring what he saw, the Jewish rabble understood as an assertion of the divinity of Jesus. They stopped their ears ; they overpowered his voice with their own clamours; and they hurried him out of the city, to inflict upon him the death which the law appointed for blasphemers. He died as he had lived, attesting the Deity of our crucified Master. His last breath