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37 Nay, in all these things we are more than con- Corinth. querors, through him that loved us.

38 For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come,

39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

§ 31. ROM. ix. 1-5.

The Apostle having now shewn the full claim of the Gentiles
to the Privileges and Blessings of the Gospel, cautiously
introduces the subject of the Rejection of the Jews-This
truth he assures them, as in the Presence of Christ, the
Holy Spirit bearing him witness, fills St. Paul with so
much Grief and Anguish, that to prevent it he would wil-
lingly be cut off himself from the visible Church of God,
or submit to the temporal Destruction that awaited them
for their Disobedience, if by that means he could save his
Kinsmen according to the Flesh-To conciliate them,
and to engage their attention, he enumerates their glori-
ous Privileges, their Adoption, as the Family of God, in
the Covenant made with them at Horeb, the Glory of the
Shechinah, with the Pillar and Cloud, the Covenants,
and the giving of the Law, with its Ordinances and Rites
-the Promises of Canaan, and of the Messiah's King-
dom-and their unblemished Genealogy, from whom the
human Nature of Christ descended, who is God blessed
for ever.

1 I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also
bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost,

2 That I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in my heart.

3 For I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh :

4 Who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises:

5 Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

$ 32. ROM. ix. 6-9.

The Objection that had been already proposed (chap. iii. 3.)
that the Rejection of the Jews would be contrary to the
Veracity of God, the Apostle here again introduces, and
fully answers-He affirms, that although the Jews are
rejected, the Promise of God would not fail-In the first
place, he assures them that all the Children of Abraham,

Julian Period, 4771. ValgarÆra,



according to the Flesh, as in the case of Ishmael, were Corinth.
not Abraham's Seed; for in Isaac was his Seed to be
called-The word of the Promise itself demonstrates that
not Abraham's Seed, according to the Flesh, but accord-
ing to the Promise, are to be his spiritual Children.

6 Not as though the word of God hath taken none
effect. For they are not all Israel which are of Israel:

7 Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called.

8 That is, they which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.

9 For this is the word of promise, At this time will I come, and Sarah shall have a son.

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By the instance of Esau and Jacob, the Apostle proves that
God's fidelity is not impeached by the Rejection of the
Jews, as he has a sovereign Right to elect, or call,
according to his own good Pleasure-the Children who
were the Representatives of Nations, being yet unborn,
could neither merit God's preference, nor deserve to be
left out of his Covenant-such distinctions, therefore,
evidently depend on God's free Choice, and illustrate the
Purpose of God according to Election-His chosen Peo-
ple are elected by God's free Choice, according to his own
merciful and pre-ordained Decree, and not of Works in
the Nations themselves.

10 And not only this; but when Rebecca also had
conceived by one, even by our father Isaac ;

11 (For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God, according to election, might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth ;)

12 It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger :

13 As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.

$ 34. ROM. ix. 14-18.

The Apostle continues his Argument by affirming, that the
free Election of God, as it regards Nations, is perfectly
consistent with his Justice, as he has a sovereign Right to
dispense his free-will Blessings and Mercies as he pleases,
which is illustrated in the instance of the Israelites of old,
whose transgressions, as a Nation, of his own free Mercy
God pardoned, after they had worshipped the golden
Calf, (Exod. xxxiii. 9.) as he declared unto Moses-For
Man can never merit, or claim as a right, the Mercy of


Julian Period, 4771. Vulgar Era,


God The Israelites, after their Apostacy, might, had Corinth.
it been God's pleasure, continued as a Nation, as the
Egyptians were, for the Purpose of demonstrating, in
their Destruction and Punishment, the Almighty power of
God, and his hatred of Sin-The Apostle then intimates
the rejection of the Jews, by asserting that the same free
Gift of Mercy is still exercised, and the same exemplary
Punishment will be inflicted, on those who continue and
harden themselves in Sin, resisting, as the Egyptians did,
the Evidences that were vouchsafed to them.

14 What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness
with God? God forbid.

15 For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on v.hom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.

16 So then it is not of him that willeth, or of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.

17 For the Scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth.

18 Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

§ 35. ROM. ix. 19-29.

The Apostle here introduces a Jew, as saying, if God acts
thus, why does he then find fault? for who can resist his
Will, if he is determined to destroy Nations ?-Nay,
answers the Apostle, but who art thou that presumest to
argue against the Decrees of God?-He vindicates
the Justice of God's dealings towards the Jews and Gen-
tiles, and shews his absolute Power over Nations, exalt-
ing one and rejecting another, by a reference to Jere-
miah's Type of the Potter-The Apostle then applies
the Type more immediately to the present Condition of
the Jews and Gentiles-The Jews, like the Egyptians,
after continued proofs of God's forbearance, became
Vessels of wrath fitted for Destruction, making known
the Power of God unto Salvation-The believing Gen-
tiles were prepared by their means for the Glory of
being admitted into the visible Church of God, and with
the believing Jews were called to be God's People, and
the Vessels of his mercy-The same Truths predicted and
enforced by their own ancient Prophets.

19 Thou wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet find
fault? for who hath resisted his will?

20 Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus ?


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21 Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the Corinth. same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?

22 What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction;

23 And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory.

24 Even us, whom he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?

25 As he saith also in Osee, I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved.

26 And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be called the children of the living God.

27 Esaias also crieth concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved.

28 For he will finish the work, and cut it short in righteousness: because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth.

29 And as Esaias said before, Except the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a seed, we had been as Sodom, and been made like unto Gomorrha.

$ 36. ROM. ix. 30, to the end. x. 1-3.

The Apostle having clearly represented the Rejection of the
Jews, and reconciled it with the Divine Truth and Justice,
introduces a Jew, inquiring if the Gentiles, who have not
followed after the Rule of Righteousness given in the Mo-
saic Law, have now attained to the Righteousness of Faith,
and to the Privileges of God's chosen People, while the
Jews, who have followed the Righteousness of the Law,
have not attained to Righteousness by faith in the Gospel
-The Apostle declares that the cause of their rejection
was their want of Faith, and their dependance on the
Works of the Law, which led them to look for Justification
from its observances, as had been predicted by one of
their own Prophets-The Apostle repeats his anxious
desire that the Jews would believe and be saved-He con-
fesses their zeal for the Glory of the Law, but it was
without the Knowledge of the Object and End of its Rites-
Their ignorance of the Plan of God's salvation through
Faith, made them endeavour to establish their own method
of Justification, through the Sacrifices and Ceremonies of
the Law, and prevented them from submitting to the
righteousness of Faith, which God requires as the only
means of salvation.

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30 What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, which Corinth. followed not after righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith.

31 But Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness.

32 Wherefore? Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law: for they stumbled at that stumbling-stone;

33 As it is written, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumblingstone and rock of offence: and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.

1 Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.

2 For 1 bear them record, that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.

3 For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.

§ 37. ROM. X. 4—13.

In order to convince the Jews of their error, with regard to
Justification by their Law, St. Paul describes the Nature
of the Righteousness which is required by the Law, and
that which is required by the Gospel-He affirms that
Christ himself was the End or the perfection of the Law—
the great Object of all its Rites and Sacrifices-Moses
has declared, that by the Law none can be justified, be-
cause it was not possible for Man to live up to its Pre-
cepts-But the Law or Principle of Faith, as described
by Moses, (Deut. xxx. 11-14.) requires not those Signs
from Heaven, which the Jews demanded, that Christ
should descend again from Heaven, and rise again from
the Dead, for the Word was always nigh them, and power
was given them to fulfil it-Thus it was with the Gospel,
it requires a confession of our Faith in Jesus Christ,
and an inward conviction of the Truth of his Resurrection,
producing Righteousness of Life-The Scripture has de-
clared that none shall be ashamed or disappointed of
their Confidence, that the Plan of Redemption extends to
all, both Jew and Gentile; for all who believe in Christ
and call upon him shall be saved.

4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to
every one that believeth.

5 For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man which doeth those things shall live by them.

6 But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above :)

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