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IN THE CHURCH OF ANTIOCH-CHAP. XI.
Julian Pe- solf (d). Lord Barrington's opinion, therefore, though derived Antioch.
riod, 4760. from other considerations, that a lower degree of prophecy is
Valgar £ra, here understood, appears to be correct; as is likewise bis ad-
ditional remark, that in the word prophecy must be included
the gift of teaching. As a necessary consequence, or as the in-
separable attendunt of this gist, was the power of discerning of
spirits; which was the talent or faculty of discerning both the
truth and certainty of what was spoken by other prophets, and
likewise of ascertaining the thoughts and secrets of the hearts
of those who might enter the Christian assemblies, and conse-
quently of knowing the precise mode of teaching which bis cir.
cumstances might demand.
The persons who possessed these lesser gists of prophecy, and
knowledge of the thoughts of men, are called 'Avruhyes, and
eubepvious. The first of which answers to any, help, Ps. xxi.
19. (ap. LXX,) and xxii. 19. of the English version.
The word kubepvýgers, says Lightfoot, is used by the LXX to translate mibann, (Prov. i. 5. xi. 14. 'xx. 18. and xxiv. 6.) which word imports not the act, but the ability to govern; and the words αντιλήψεις and κυβερνήσεις, in 1 Cor. xii. 28, 29, 30. imply helps to interpret the languages, and sense of those who spake with tongues (y).
The speaking with tongues was the gist more commonly imparted than any other, as we read in the narrative of the conversion of Cornelius and bis household. It was therefore of inferior estimation to those which were more rare. This consideration harmonizes with the rest of this perplexing division both of the miraculous gifts, and of those on whom they were conferred. The speakers with tongues were the assistants to the higher ministers, and were often of inferior degree; they possessed the ability to govern, and were thus prepared for the higher offices in the Church; they received the lower gift of prophecy, and the discerning of spirits.
The last of these miraculous gifts requires no discussion. It appears to refer to a further division, of a still lower and infe. rior miraculous endowment. The converts who were baptized with Cornelius spake with tongues. I should conclude, from this division of the miraculous gifts, not that every convert was able to speak every known language, but only a certain number :
: and, with respect to the interpreters here mentioned, we may conclude that they were persons who repeated to some of the people, in their own language, those addresses of the prophets which were spoken to another portion of the congregation, in their native tongue. As the Jews were every where dispersed, the congregations of the primitive Christians must have generally consisted, of the Israelites who spake the Aramaic or Syriac dialects, and of the natives of the countries where they sojourned. In commercial towns there would be frequently assemblies, composed of strangers from the most opposite quarters of the world, to whom these divisions of the miraculous gifts would be the most convincing of all arguments.
Whatever might have been the nature of the miraculous gists which were imparted by the Spirit of God to the first teachers of the Gospel, it is certain they were all subject to the apostles, and the apostles to each other, in council. Their powers were not derived from the people, thougb they were imparted for the instruction of the poorest, and meanest, and most despised among them. They were accountable to God and to his apostles. The caprice of the multitude was not their rule of action : and while they sedulously laboured for the common benefit, they never derived their doctrines from those whom they were ordained to superintend and leach ; nor did they allow their
Julian Pe- separate congregations to dictate to them as to the doctrines Antioch.
riod, 4760. they were to inculcate.
Vulgar Æra, The flocks did not then choose their shepherds; the children
did not ordain their spiritual fathers, Free from all inferior mo-
tives, unambitious of honour and popularity, careless of wealth,
undaunted by persecution, unsubdued by danger and difficulty,
the first teachers of the Gospel regarded with equal affection,
the favour or the hatred of the rich or poor. Bold, zealous,
tirm, and boly, their lips preserved knowledge, and the people
learned the law from their mouth. Happy is that Church whose
clergy are thus devoted to the service of the people committed
to their charge-who are faithful in the discharge of their sacred
duties, not with eye-service, as mon pleasers, but with singleness
of heart, as unto God.
Such were the gifts, titles, and offices, by which the Christian
Church was now united. It formed, at this time, wherever it
was dispersed, one large society. The persons who presided over
it (and no society can exist without some order or form of go-
vernment,) derived their authority not from the people, but
from God. These divinely appointed heads in the process of
time ordained fit persons, who were generally known to and
approved by the people, among whom they lived, to the office
of teacher. If these teachers deviated from the form of sound
words and the apostolic doctripe, they were responsible to the
authority which had empowered and commissioned them to
teach: and the apostles themselves, as in the instance of St.
Peter, were controlled by their equals in power. Christ was
the invisible head of the Church, and the supremacy of Peter, or
of Rome, was unknown ; all was rightly and efficiently organized
for the building up in this evil world the outward and visible
Church of Christ, by which the invisible and the spiritual
Church, as in the days of Noah, might be conducted safely to
the kingdom of Christ and God. Wicked and inconsistent
Christians, as we learn from the Epistles, were members of the
visible Church even in the apostolic age-it is so at present.
God alone can separate the good from the bad at the last. It
is our duty, while we are in the body, to continue to build up
the visible Church; to establish and to insist upon external
religion, the means of grace, the right administration of the
sacraments, the purity, honour, and independence of the Chris.
tian priestbood; and to maintain, “ in spite of scorn,” its
scriptural government in the world. Thus by obedience to
the example of the apostles of God, we may bring many mil.
lions of our forsaken brethren of mankind from among every
pation under heaven, within the visible Church on earth, and
lead them by the power of the Spirit of God to the spiritual
(a) Lib. i.cap. cxi. p. 151.3. 1na coronam sequuntur ordine ninaan and mod sapientia et intelligentia, quas ad caput referendas esse, res ipsa loquitar. Quis ignorat, binas hasce virtates Domino nostro Jesa Christo frequenter admodum attribui in Codice sacro? En verba Jesaiæ rby nn)
-et quiescet super ipsum spiritus Jehova: spi רוחיהוה רוח הכמה וכינה הכוח vel ,כינה solet jungi חכמה
ritus sapientiæ et intelligentiæ.
, ant πνο, μt et Ρaulus σοφίαν και φονησιν aut γνώσιν sepe conjungit. Sapientiæ comes est prudentia et circumspeetio, qna secundum sapientiæ regulas per amorem et timorem Dei reprobatur ma: lum et eligitur, quod optimum est, in bona conscientia. Et alibi na est prudentia, opovnous. Dexteritas Judicandi et eligendi secundum boni conscientiam, Nam prudentia utitur sapientia év mpak. τοϊς. Ηinc junguntur πονοι πoin σοφία και φρόνησις, Prudentia mater est sapientiæ, sapientia est virtus intellectus, qua res intelligimus in caussis et finibus : prudentia judicii, qua res et actus ad fines illis convenientes disponimas, et dirigimus.- Vitringæ Dissert, sccunda de
ST. PAUL'S SECOND JOURNEY-CHAP. XII.
St. Paul's second Apostolical Journey.
After remaining some time at Antioch, St. Paul proposes to
Barnabas to commence another visitation of the Churches.
ACTS xv. 36.
Antioch. 36 And some days after, Paul said unto Barnabas, riod, 4761. Valgarðra,
Let us go again and visit our brethren, in every city
where we have preached the word of the Lord, and see
how they do'.
St. Paul separating from Barnabas, proceeds from Antioch
to Syria and Cilicia.
ACTS xv. 37. to the end. xvi. 4, 5. 37 And Barnabas determined to take with them John, Syria and
Cilicia. whose surname was Mark.
38 But Paul thought not good to take him with them,
who departed from them from Pamphylia, and went not
with them to the work.
39 And the contention was so sharp between them,
that they departed asunder one from the other : and so
Barnabas took Mark, and sailed unto Cyprus :
Sepbiroth Cabbalistarum. Observ. Sacr. lib. i.cap. iii.vol. i. p. 151, 152.
See also Burnets Archæologiæ Philos. p. 48. (5) Etymol. ined. ap.
Schleusner, Lexicon in LXX-γνώσις σοφίας διαφέρεται. γνωσις μέν
έστι το είδέναι τα όντα σοφία δε και το τα όντα γινώσκειν, και το
την των αντιπιπτόντων λύσιν επίστασθαι. (c) In Arias Mon-
tanus Bible, in the Septuagint, and in our own Bibles this passage
is chap. ix. ver. 38. But in Bagster's small Hebrew Bibles it is
Nehem. x. ver. 1. (d) Alter Revelationis internæ modus est,--quo
vigilantes rapiuntur in ecstasin, cessante ad tempus usu sensoriorum
exterorum, dum a spiritu divino, aut Angelo Dei jussu imaginationi ex-
hibeotur et alte infigantar imagines quædam, sive figuræ rerum mysticæ
et propheticæ ; aut Deus ipse, vel angelus, verba veluti cum iis faciens,
eos de præsentibus aut faturis edocet. Hâc specie Deus se præcipue
prophetis, certe illustrioribus, manifestum fecit, diciturque ea stylo
Scripturæ V.T. quin visio dfordlys.-Vitringa, Observ. Sacræ, lib.
vii. cap. i. p. 7. (e) Life of Lightfoot, by Strype. The assembly of
divines wished to justify the lay eldership of the Presbyterians from the
word kubepvýceus, in this passage, which Lightfoot answered by the
above criticism. (f) Lord Barrington's Miscellanea Sacra, vol. I, p.
166, 167. This treatise is one of the tracts in the collection of Bishop
Watson.-Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ij. part ii. p. 968.--
Doddridge's Family Expositor, vol. iv. p. 67.—Morgan's Platform of
the Christian Church.
The principal reason which prompted St. Paul to com-
mence bis second apostolical journey at this time, was probably
his learning that the Churches in the provinces were divided in
opinion; and that the harmony of the infant Church was disturbed
on account of the controversies on the subject of conformity to
the Mosaic law. They were anxions to ascertain, twç éxovou
quomodo se habeant, ac constantes sint in profitenda doctrina.
2 Their dispute about John Mark, is a proof of human infir
Julian Pe- 40 And Paul chose Silas, and departed, being recom- Syria and riod, 4761.
Cilicia. Vulgar Æra,
mended by the brethren unto the grace of God. 50.
41 And he went through Syria and Cilicia', confirming
ACTS xvi. 4, 5.
4. And as they went through the cities, they delivered
them the decrees for to keep, that were ordained of the
apostles and elders which were at Jerusalem.
5 ‘And so were the churches established in the faith,
and increased in number daily.
St. Paul proceeds to Derbe, and Lystra in Iconium-
Timothy his Attendant.
ACTS xvi. 1-6. 1 Then came he to Derbe and Lystra: and behold, a Derbe and certain disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a Lystra. certain woman, which was a Jewess, and believed: but his father was a Greek :
2 Which was well reported of by the brethren that were at Lystra and Iconium.
3 Him would Paul have to go forth with him; and took and circumcised him, because of the Jews which were in those quarters : for they knew all that his father was a Greek.
mity, which cannot be justified, though it admits of extenua.
tion. There was some breach of charity between them; on one
side it may be said that Paul's zeal carried him too far, and on
the other that Barnabas was too indulgent to his kiosmau-
ο Παυλος έζητει το δικαίον, ο Βαρναβας το Φιλανθρωπον. This
rupture, however, did not end in hatred, as appears from the
manner in which Barnabas is mentioned by Paul in his Epistles.
Barnabas went to Cyprus, and Paul into Syria and Cilicia.-
Witsius Meletem. Leidens. de Vit. Pauli. cap. iv. sect. 15.
3 It is probable that St. Paul went from Cilicia to Crete; and
having preached there, left Titus to complete bis work, and to
ordain elders.-See Witsius, Meletem. Leidens. de Vit. Paul.
* The fourth and fifth verses of chap. xvi, are added to the end of chap. xv. on the authority of Lord Barrington, whose opi. nion is advocated by Dr. Paley and Dr. Clarke.-See Miscel. Janea Sacra, Paley's Horæ Paulinæ, and Dr. Clarke's Commentary.
5 In order to judge rightly of Paul's conduct in this affair, which some have censured as they do other things in Christianity), because they did not understand it, we must always re. collect that he always openly avowed, "that the Gentiles were free from the yoke of the Mosaic ceremonies, and that the Jews were not to accept salvation by them" and he also taught, that they were pot in conscience obliged to observe them at all, except in cases where an omission of them would give offonce. But because bis enemies represented him as teaching people lo
TO GALATIA, TROAS, AND SAMOTHRACE-CHAP. XII.
SECTION IV. riod, 4761. Vulgar Æra,
They proceed from Iconium to Phrygia and Galatia. 50,
ACTS xvi. 6. 6 Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia.
From Galatia to Mysia, and Troas.
ACTS xvi. 7-10.
7 After they were come to Mysia, they assayed to go Mysia and
into Bithynia : but the Spirit suffered them not.
Troas. 8 And they passing by Mysia, came down to Troas.
9 And a vision appeared to Paul in the night; There stood a man of Macedonia, and prayed him, saying, Come over into Macedonia, and help us.
10 And after he had seen the vision, immediately we endeavoured to go into Macedonia, assuredly gathering that the Lord had called us for to preach the gospel unto them.
From Troas to Samothrace.
ACTs xvi. part of ver. 11.
11 Therefore loosing from Troas, we came with a Samothrace.
straight course to Samothracia.
despise the law of Moses, and even as blaspheming it, he there.
fore took some opportunities of conforming to it publicly him-
self, to shew how far he was from condemning it as evil; an
extravagance into which some Christian heretics early ran.
And though, when the Jewish zealots would have imposed upon
him, to compel Titus, who was a Greek, to be circumcised, even
while he was at Jerusalem, he resolutely refused it, (Gal. ii. 3-
5.) yet bere he voluntarily persuaded Timothy to submit to
that rite, knowing the omission of it in him, who was a Jew by
the mother's side, would have given offence; and being the
more desirous to obviate any prejudices against this excellent
youth, whose early acquaintance with the Scriptures of the Old
Testament (2 Tim. iii. 15.) might render him peculiarly capable
of preaching in the synagogues with advantage ; which, bad he
been uncircumcised, would not have been permitted. Grotius
observes, thịs was probably the beginning of Luke's acquaint-
ance wiih Timothy, though Paul knew him long before.-See
Doddridge's Family Expositor, in loc.
6 Much service would be rendered to the world by any stu.
dent who would write a history of Samothrace. This island
was the earliest European seat of the ancient idolatry which
overspread Europe from India, Canaan, and Egypt. Mr. Faber
has prepared the way for the successful prosecution of all re-