Julian Pe

Dr. Hales objects in this arrangement of Lord Barrington, to Antioch, riod, 4760. the supposition that "helps" answer to "prophecy," and "goVulgar Era, vernments" to " discerning of spirits."




Bishop Horsley has classed the gifts of the Spirit nearly in the same manner as Lord Barrington. He thus contrasts the nine gifts described in ver. 8-10, with the ecclesiastical offices enumerated here.

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The fourth and fifth gifts, miracles and healing, scem, he ob-
serves, to have changed places in the 9th and 10th verses.
racles, it seems, must take place as the genus, and healing must
rank below it as the species. Accordingly in ver. 28. miracles
or powers are mentioned before healings, with this slight altera-
tion, the list of gifts in ver. 8-10. seems to answer exactly to the
list of offices in ver. 28.

Dr. Doddridge and others, in consequence of the difficulty
which has been experienced in the attempt to classify these
gifts, have been of opinion that the same persons might have
possessed many of them, and sustained several of these charac-
ters, which were not stated distinct offices, and might be called
helpers, in reference to their great dexterity and readiness to
help those in distress; and governments, in regard to that ge-
nius for business, sagacity in judging the circumstances of
affairs, and natural authority in the councils and resolutions of
societies, which rendered them fit to preside on such occasions.
This opinion is in some measure defended by Mr. Morgan,
who has made the subjoined arrangement of the holy gifts, titles,
and offices.


Eph. iv. 11, 12.

Knitting together of the Saints.

Edifying of the body of Christ. Work of

Deacons the Minis


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The writers in the Critici Sacri are very unsatisfactory on this subject. Though Lord Barrington appears to have given the best explanation, much light will be thrown on the meaning of the various gifts, if we endeavour to ascertain from the Septuagint, the received signification of the words which are used to express them. This version was generally adopted during the apostolic age, and must have been well known by the persons to whom St. Paul addressed the Epistle in which these gifts are enumerated.


Julian Pe The miraculous gifts enumerated by St. Paul are all described riod, 4760. (1 Cor. xii. 7.) by one term, pavέpwoię roũ πvεvμaroc. The Valgar Era, word pavipwog is not found in the LXX, but in Jer. xl. 6. of the division in the Oxford edition of the Septuagint, which corresponds to chap. xxxiii. ver. 6. of the authorized English translation, and the Hebrew, we meet with the word from which φανέρωσις is derived; καὶ φανερώσω αὐτοῖς, which is the literal rendering of ons mɔ “I will reveal unto them." Our translators have rendered the word "The manifestation of the Spirit." I cannot but believe that the full meaning of the whole passage is, "That to him who has been favoured with the miraculous gifts of the Holy Spirit, in whatever degree they may have been imparted, the power is also granted of manifesting to others the nature and extent of those gifts."

The whole clause of this passage in Jeremiah is on

which our translators have literally and justly עתרת שלום ואמת:

rendered "I will reveal unto them the abundance of peace and
truth." In which they are supported by the authority of the Sep-
tuagint; which however does not in all instances give the accu-
rate meaning of the Hebrew. Dr. Blayney rejects the literal
interpretation, and translates the passage "I will also grant their
prayer for peace and truth." He defends this rendering by ob-
serving, "ny signifies to pray in a devout, fervent manner.
Hence ny may well be construed a devout and fervent prayer;
and to manifest to any one his petition seems to be the granting
of it." The learned author should have been fully warranted in
thus interpreting the phrase nyn, to grant a prayer. It
is not sufficient in endeavouring to ascertain the meaning of a
passage in Scripture, to inquire what may be the possible sense;
but what is first the literal, and then the secondary meaning.
If we render the word ny by" fervent prayer," instead of
"abundance," we are still unwarranted in rendering the word

"I will grant," which is unsupported by any authority.
Even if we adopt its usual primary meaning "I will reveal,"
and translate the rest of the passage as Dr. Blayney proposes,
we shall obtain only a probable signification. The prophet is
predicting the future prosperity of Jerusalem, and its temporal
recovery of wealth and prosperity. From this prediction he
passes, as is usual, to a more spiritual promise, and prophecies
the full manifestation of their devout prayer for peace and truth
in the latter days. Peace and truth were spiritual blessings, of
which the restoration of the Jews from their captivity were
highly typical and illustrative. Neither is it improbable that
the apostle alluded to this prediction when he used the word
pavépwors, which is only found twice in the New Testament, in
the Epistles to the Corinthians, 1 Cor. xii. 7. 2 Cor. iv. 2. I
cannot, however, remember any authority for thus rendering
the word лy. Buxtorf supports the sense given by our trans-
lators, who, it should ever be remembered by the proposers of
new meanings, were among the most eminent Hebrew scholars
of a very learned age.

The gifts which are thus represented as bestowed for the common benefit are first arranged under three general heads, (1 Cor. xii. 4-6.) and are then divided into nine particulars. The three general heads are

διαιρέσεις, διακονιῶν

χαρισμάτων ( differences ( of gifts
ενεργημάτων S diversities





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Alaipέotic is only used in the New Testament in this passage.
It frequently occurs in the Septuagint in the same sense in


Julian Pe- which our translators have rendered it. It corresponds with Antioch. riod, 4760. the Hebrew words лpnn 1 Par. 24. 1. chap. xxvi. 1. 12. 19. Vulgar Era," The divisions," or "classes," which would be possibly a bet


ter word to express the meaning of the apostle than either "dif-
ferences" or "diversities."

The word xapioua does not occur in the Septuagint. It is
however derived from xapıróoμau, which is frequently used. Its
evident meaning is a spiritual gift, or endowment of the mind,
which could not be mistaken for the natural or cultivated talent
of the teacher, upon whom it was conferred.-See Rom. i. 11.
2 Cor. i. 11.

Aiakovía does not occur in the Septuagint, but it is found in 1 Maccabees xi. 58. where it is used to describe the service or furniture which Antiochus sent to Jonathan the High Priest, for the service of the temple, in addition to the golden vesselsἀπέστειλεν αὐτῷ χρυσώματα καὶ διακονίαν. Schleusner quotes from Athenæus, lib. v. t. ii. p. 342. a passage in which diakoviai is used to denote the instruments which are in daily use.

In the New Testament the word is repeatedly used to describe the general office or ministry consigned by our Lord to the apostles and teachers of the Church. (Acts i. 17. xx. 24. xxi. 19. Rom. xi. 13.) The services they were commanded to perform were the appointed means of grace, for the perpetual and common service of the Church.

Evépynua is not to be found in the Old Testament, but in the Apocrypha only, Sir. xvi. 16. see Compl. It is derived from Evepyew, and is well translated by Macknight, In-workings—it is used but twice in the New Testament. Is it not possible as these in-workings are ascribed to God the Father, that they may mean both those ordinary influences which proceed from the holy Spirit of God, by which we alone can become the children of God, and say Abba, Father, and the right efforts of reasoning and the natural powers of the mind, which God as the Creator has implanted in all human beings. They appear to be different from the xapioμára of the Spirit, and to be distinguished from them.

It will be observed that the various gifts which build up the Christian Church, though they are all called the gifts of the Spirit, are ascribed in their arrangement by St. Paul, to the three persons of the Holy Trinity. This is done, however, in such a manner, that the character under which each has been revealed to mankind, is carefully preserved. The Father is the Creator of man, to Him is assigned the internal natural energy or operations which he originally implanted in the human creation, or creature, and upon which, and with which the Spirit of God acts. The Son of God is the Redeemer; to him are ascribed the ministrations or offices which himself established as the appointed means of grace. The Spirit of God is the Sanctifier, to Him are assigned the gifts which produce holiness within, and convince the world of the truth of the Gospel, of righteousness, and judgment. And all these are rightly said to be the gifts of the Spirit, as it is the Spirit of God alone, which by its sacred office, overrules and changes the natural energies of will, understanding, and all the powers of mind which God has given us, and which makes all the means of grace appointed by Christ effectual; and by pouring into the soul of man its own purifying, consoling, peaceful influences, makes us spiritually fit to become for ever the companions of superior beings.

From this general classification of the gifts of the Holy Spirit, or of the Holy Trinity, we proceed to the particulars.

The first is óyos oopias, which seems to have been peculiar to the apostles. The word ropía is repeatedly used in the LXX.

Julian Pe- It corresponds to 2, Prov. ii. 3. and iii. 5. understanding— Antioch: riod, 4760. to лy, knowledge, Prov. i. 7. and to non, wisdom, Isa. xi. 2. Vulgar Era, where copía is described as one of those gifts of the Spirit which


should rest upon Christ. In the enumeration in the passage in
Isaiah, are three words, which in various other passages of the
LXX. are rendered by copía, na, na, ny, and which are in
this place respectively rendered by the LXX σοφία, συνέσις, and
yvuog. This circumstance might appear at first sight to destroy
the validity of any argument as to the meaning of the word oopiag
from the LXX, if we did not take into consideration the diffi-
culty which the Septuagint translators unavoidably found in dis-
covering a variety of phrases to express the synonymous terms
in the Hebrew.

Some further light may be thrown upon the meaning of the
word oopía, in this passage, if we consider the use of the word
nnan, to which it corresponds in Isa. xi. 2. in the description
of the Sephiroth of the Jewish Cabbala (a). The learned Vir
tringa is of opinion, that the Sephiroth was an emblematical
description of the Messiah. Whether this hypothesis be tenable,
we cannot now stop to inquire. The first of the ten Sephiroth
was the, or crown, which was placed on the head of the
personage, whom Vitringa has represented as the emblem of the
Messiah. The two next were on and na, wisdom and pru.
dence, or knowledge.

The word oopia is likewise used in the Apocryphal book of "the Wisdom of Solomon," to express, as Schleusner conjectures, the art of governing: in which sense it is peculiarly ap plicable to the apstles. Πρὸς ὑμᾶς οὖν ὦ τύραννοι οἳ λόγοι μου, iva μálŋte oopíav-Unto you, O rulers, my words are addresscd, that ye may learn wisdom. As the word is used in these various significations, each of them so peculiarly applicable to the powers and gifts with which the apostles were endued, we may conclude that each sense was intended to be combined by the apostle in the passage before us. The word of wisdom, therefore, would imply all supernatural intelligence, and the highest endowments of mind, by whatever name they may be distinguished; together with the skill, talent, and power of governing as wise men, the Churches they had already planted.

The next gift of the Spirit is yvwog. This is a gift inferior to wisdom (b). It corresponds to y. As it was the gift pos sessed by the prophets of the New Testament, it must denote the knowledge of future events; and, as they were teachers also, it probably included the learning that was usually acquired by industry, the experience given by time, age, and long intercourse with the world, and other talents, demanded by the circumstances of difficulty or danger in which they were placed. Lord Barrington supposes that these prophets were likewise apostles. It does not appear that his proofs are decisive.

The third gift of the Spirit is misis, faith, and it was that which was imparted to the "didáσkaλo, or teachers. The word Tis is too well known to require explanation. In the New Testament it is variously used to denote conviction, firm belief, or unfeigned assent to the truth of Revelation. It denotes also the profession of religion, 1 Cor. ii. 5. xv. 4. 2 Pet. i. 5, &c. &c. and the mass or collected body of truths and doctrines taught by the apostles, Acts vi. 7, &c. 2 Tim. ii. 18. iii. 8. Titus i. 4. 2 Pet. i. 1. Jude 3.

All these we may justly assign to the first teachers of Christianity, who were neither honoured with the apostolic nor prophetic gifts. They would all firmly believe, profess, and prac tise, the doctrines and the duties of their new religion. The didáσkalo were not endowed with the same degree of inspira tion as the prophets.

Julian Pe

Пists, in the LXX, corresponds to the word ; see Deut. Antioch. riod, 4760. xxxi. 20. where it is rendered "faith" by our translators. The Vulgar Era, primary meaning of the word x, is steadiness, or firmness, constancy and stability. God is called, in Isa. lxv. 16. jan sbæ, The God of truth or faithfulness.


Another meaning is given to the word x, in Nehem. ix. 38, (c) where it seems to signify a sure or firm treaty. The Septuagint translate the phrase diarivéμela risw. Our translators render the word лx, adjectively. Their version of the passage is, " we make a sure covenant." In the book of Ecclesiasticus we meet with wisi, in the same sense in which it is used in the New Testament, chap. i. 33. xl. 12, &c. &c. In these senses the word may be considered applicable to the passage before us. It was necessary that the teachers of the new religion should have "stability and constancy," as well as belief and purity; neither was it less necessary that they should enter into cove nant with God, in consideration of the fulfilment of his promises in Christ; as the legislator of Israel had done, when he had recapitulated the mercies of God to himself, his people, and their common ancestors.

The fourth of these sacred gifts requires no discussion: the gift of healing was the power of curing diseases; the most common, though at the same time not the least wonderful of these mighty powers. Some confusion has been occasioned by the word ouváμets, which is used in two different senses, in ver. 28 and 29. But on referring to the Septuagint, it will be seen that the word is there used in the same manner. It corresponds to no, strength, power, &c. 1 Paral. xxix. 2. 2 Par. xxii. 9. and Esther ii. 18. to Tay, a servant. The persons invited by the king of Persia to his banquet, mentioned in this passage, were the great officers of his court; his higher and confidential servants. The officers of the Christian Church were peculiarly honoured, and received the same appellation which designated the companions of a sovereign

The fifth is evidently transposed in the three lists. The word vepynμa does not occur in the LXX, though it is found in Eccles. xvi. 16. as we have observed. It seems to refer to the highest possible enlargement of the natural faculties, by which the teachers of Christianity were enabled to perform wonderful cures. They were supernaturally instructed, perhaps, to anticipate the knowledge and discoveries of a future age; and to effect likewise wonderful healings of disease, by an agency superior to any efforts of medical science, past, present, or future.

In the next division of the miraculous gifts, prophecy, рoonreía, and the discerning of spirits, are classed together with Avriλneis, “helps," and Kubeρvnosis, "governments;" which titles are equivalent, according to the arrangement in the third list, with wooais daλsvres, speakers of tongues. This division, as we may judge from the order, which has hitherto proceeded regularly from the apostles to the lower gradations of the ministry, and the inferior gifts imparted to them, ought to signify something inferior to the gifts and titles which havo been already enumerated. If we may, as we propose, fix the meaning of these much controverted words from the LXX, we shall find this opinion most singularly confirmed. The word "poonreía is used in the LXX for the Hebrew pin, vision, or exstacy, 2 Paral. xxxii. 32. Dan. xi. 14. which was a lower degree of inspiration to that which was given to Moses, who talked with the Divine Leader of Israel "face to face ;" and consequently lower than was imparted to the apostles, who were honoured in the same manner by the Sacred Oracle him

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