« ElőzőTovább »
Julian Period, 4742. Vulgar Era,
8 And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like Jerusalem. as of fire, and it sat upon each of them:
the present day the gifts of tongues would be disregarded, and
The extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit being vouchsafed
4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and Jerusalem.
eth all things, and hopeth all things," surviving the wreck of
A variety of opinions have been advanced respecting this
Others contend that it was but temporary, and intended to
Others attempt to do away the miracle altogether. Eichhorn
Byrom of Manchester, also, and others, have endeavoured to
Julian Pe- began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave Jerusalem. riod, 4742. them utterance.
(áxpoaraïs) eioarsσai. B. Schmidius-Syrus, loquebantur lin-
(a) See Nolan's Sermons on the Operations of the Holy Ghost; also
* The words here used by St. Luke, καὶ ἐν τῶ συμπληρᾶσθαι τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς πεντεκοτῆς· are thus happily translated by Β. Dn. Erasmus Schmidt (in not. ad loc.) et cum completum esset, tempus usque ad diem festum Pentecostes-" And when the time was fulfilled, even up to the day of Pentecost." The Jews reckoned the day of Pentecost to begin fifty days after the first of unleavened bread, which was observed the day after the Paschal Lamb was offered. The law relative to this feast is found in Levit. xxiii. 15, 16. Perhaps the Evangelist is thus particular in pointing out the time, on account of the striking analogy that exists between the old and new dispensations in this and other great events.
In the former the Paschal Lamb of the Passover was broken, and fed upon, in remembrance of the great deliverance of the children of God from the hands of their temporal enemies, by whom they were detained in bondage and subjection. In the latter at the celebration of this figurative feast, Christ our passover was slain to deliver all that would believe on Him from the great enemies of their salvation, Satan, sin, and death, and to rescue their spirits from the unhappy thraldom of these cruel task-masters. He died for us that we might be spiritually fed by his body and blood. In the former dispensation, at the day of Pentecost, God gave his law on Mount Sinai, with thunder and lightning, fire, storm and tempest, with all the awful demonstrations of an offended Deity. In the fulness of time, at the feast of Pentecost God again manifested himself, and revealed a more perfect law-on both occasions circumstances charac teristic of the peculiar nature of the law were observed-the same divine power was demonstrated, but in the latter instance robbed of its terrors. On both occasions the presence of God was manifested by the sound of rushing winds supernaturally excited, by fire descending from heaven, and as some suppose by the sudden thunder which accompanied the Bath Col. The account of St. Luke is so very brief, that we cannot be certain whether the latter proof of the presence of God was given; but it is the most probable opinion, and is very strenuously defended by Harenburgh, in the 13th volume of the Critici Sacri (a). At the passover, Christ proved his human nature by submitting to the most ignominious death to which that nature could be exposed: at the day of Pentecost he gave evidence of his divine nature and exaltation, by miracle, and by power, and by fulfilling to the utmost the promise he made to his disciples while with them upon earth. (John xiv. 16. 18.) “He humbled bimself, that he might be exalted."
In the Jewish tabernacle God testified his acceptance of the first sacrifice that was offered on the holy altar by the descent of fire from heaven. When Christ made a sacrifice of his body on the altar of the cross, thereby abolishing all burnt offerings of bulls and of goats: the apostles, as priests and ministers of his
Julian Period, 4742. Vulgar Æra,
5 And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout Jerusalem men, out of every nation under heaven.
6 Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language.
7 And they were all amazed, and marvelled, saying one to another, Behold, are not all these which speak Galileans?
8 And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born?
9 Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia,
10 Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,
new covenant, as the living sacrifices acceptable to God, re-
(a) The opinion is principally founded on the words in Acts ii. 6.
Various opinions have prevailed respecting the place where this miracle occurred. The temple, the house of Mary the mother of John, of Simon the leper, of Joseph of Arimathea, of Nicodemus, have each been alternately fixed upon. This point must ever remain in a great degree a matter of doubt; I am however induced, by the arguments of the celebrated Joseph Mede, to think that this miracle took place in an upper room of some private house, set apart for religious services, rather than in the temple which was so soon to be destroyed, and its figurative service superseded by a spiritual worship and purer discipline.
It is not probable that the despised followers of the crucified Jesus should be allowed, as an associated body, to assemble together in the temple, for the purpose of joining in a new act of devotion, by those priests who had so short a time since, been the persecuting instruments of their blessed Master's condemnation and crucifixion (a).
(a) See Schoetgen and Mede's Dissertation on the Churches of the Apostolic Age.
11 Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our Jerusalem. the wonderful works of God.
12 And they were all amazed, and were in doubt, saying one to another, What meaneth this?
13 Others mocking said, These men are full of new wine 10.
Address of Peter to the Multitude.
ACTS ii. 14-36.
14 But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and said unto them, Ye men of Judea, and all ye that dwell at Jerusalem ", be this known unto you, and hearken to my words:
10 Markland supposes that instead of "these men are full of new wine," the passage should be read, "these men are, without doubt, under the strong inspiration of the Goddess Tεvkó. He would read yλɛvкovç as derived from yλɛũкoç, “must.” For the sake of ridicule, the person or goddess гλɛvкù (Gen. óos, ēc,) formed as áλλw, Aůžu (Poll. viii. 9. Segm. 10.) is used. So likewise 'Aɛtésw, and Eves, Deæ Politicæ. Those who opposed the apostles intended by this expression to sneer at the mean appearance and obvious poverty of the fishermen of Galilee, as no one opened their vessels of last year's yλɛvкog, so early as June, unless impelled by necessity (a).
This, however, seems to be a strange remark of Markland: the witnesses of the miracle at Pentecost were Jews; and though some of them who were Hellenists, had resided in Greece or Rome, it does not appear probable that they would make an allusion to the mythology of the heathens in preference to their own traditions. In which they read that there was a demon called op, which possessed those who were drunk with new wine, which gave the drinker not only wit and gaiety, but the power of speaking other languages (b); and to this agent we may justly suppose the Jews would have ascribed the eloquence and fluency of the apostles if they had attempted to account for the effects of the Holy Spirit by any supernatural influence. But as we find that this was not the case, and as the only evidence that a reference was made to the Heathen Mythology can be derived from the word yλɛuкOÇ, the present translation of the passage may be considered, Í think, as giving its genuine signification (c).
(a) Ap. Bowyer in loc. (b) See Lightfoot, Pitman's edition, vol. viii. p. 377. (c) Hesychius ap. Schoetgen, l'euros, тò áñosάyμa τῆς σαφυλῆς, πρὶν κατηθῆ, illud, quod ab uva distillat, antequam calcetur. See Schoetgen, Hore Hebraicæ, vol. i. p. 412. and the Dissertation on the word гλɛKoç, in the Critici Sacri.
11 St. Peter here particularly addresses himself to these repo (ver. 13.) who reproached the apostles as drunkards, to the Jews of Judea and Jerusalem, because those who were assembled from distant parts might not have been so well acquainted with the prophecy of Joel, (ii. 28.) which he now declares to have been fully accomplished on this occasion. And he urges upon those who hear him this predicted promise of the Holy Spirit, as a glorious evidence of the exaltation and resurrection of the crucified Jesus, who was "both Lord and Christ." Let those who doubt the inspiration of Peter, compare what he now