Jalian Pe. 16 Then Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand, Antioch, in nod, 4757.

Pisidia. Vulgar Era, 46.

remember the wonderful gists with which the early converts
were honoured-tbe exceeding dignity attached to the word
presbyter--and the rapid increase of converts in the three first
centuries, which the Holy Spirit would have foreseen and pro.
vided for, it cannot appear impossible, but rather probable,
that the apostles ordained both bishops and presbyters, although
the distinct and strict meaning of these words was not originally
attached to them.

The apostles, for instance, set apart Timothy and Titus,
with power to ordain elders; that is, with powers which were
granted exclusively to bishops ; but it does not appear that this
appellation was assigned to either of these eminent disciples.
The persons to whom the power of ordaining was committed,
did not themselves assume any title, but were indiscriminately
called presbyters, bishops, evangelists, or disciples. Their
office, however, was eminently superior to those to whom the
power of ordaining bad not been committed ; and in the following
age, after the death of the apostles, they were distinguished by
the peculiar appellation of bisbop, as the power and authority of
the apostles seemed to devolve upon them. At this time an evi-
dent distinction was made between bishop and presbyter; and
here we clearly trace the three orders of the Christian mi-
nistry: first in the apostles-bishops, or presbyters, and dea-
cons-and, after the death of the apostles, in bishops, pres-
byters, and deacons. And as these three orders were so evidently
set apart by the Holy Spirit of God, for the service of the
Christian Church, it is advisable to look for the origin of the
Christian priesthood from God, and not from man. It was ap-
pointed by the delegated ambassadors of Christ, and not from
the customs of the synagogue.

The subject is too extensive to be further discussed in a note.
The reader who has leisure is referred to the laborious and
Jearned volumes of Vitringa, Lightfoot, and Grotius. It is,
however, well worthy the attention of the theological student.

(a) Biscoe on the Acts, vol. i. p. 271. (b) Mede’s Works, book 2.
p. 319. Treatises concerning Churches; that is, appropriate places for
Christian Worship, both in and ever since the Apostles' times. See also
p. 323, fol. edit. Erant autem illa privata 'Tepwa, loca a Judæis semper
sacris asibus destinata, saltem ex quo Daniel propheta ascendisse in
cenaculum ad orandum diceretar: και αι θυρίδες ανεωγμέναι αυτώ εν
τοίς υπερώοις κατέναντι ιερεσαλήμ. at et Sara filia Raguelis dicitur
descendisse łr ütepwa, ubi oraverat. Unde Judæi sapientes suos
appellabant .goby za filios cænaculi. In eo celebrabant Pascha, Marc.
14. 15. Et ipse vobis demonstrabit, avøyalov, cænaculum grande stra-
tum. In eo corpora mortuorum lavata prius reponebant, ut de Dorcade
legimas, Act. ix. 37. Quam cum lavissent, posuerunt eam in cænaculo.
Unde et Petrum venientem dicantur adduxisse in cænaculum Quare
Apostoli ab ascensione Domini reversi Hierosolyma, ávébnoav eis
i Repqov, ubi erant perseverantes unanimiter in oratione, et sapplica-
tione, Act. i. 13. Pearson. Lectiones in Acta Apostl. p.31. (c) Light-
foot supposes that these ten men were thus divided. *Three were the
apxiovvaywyou, who had the principal management of the synagogue ;
one was the fin, the episcopus, or bishop of the synagogue; three were
deacons, who managed the poor. The eighth he will not so confidently
affirm, but he believes was ibe 192777, the interpreter. The ninth and
tenth were united with another of the congregation, and were the trium-
virate which governed the rest. But see on these points Vitringa, Ar-
cbisynagogus, p. 22, &c. &c. and Pettit’s Oservation, p. 25. Modera-

Julián Pe said, Men of Israel, and ye that fear God, give audi- Antioch, un riod, 4757.

Pisidia. ence 5. Vulgar Æra, 46.

17 The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an high arm brought he them out of it.

toribus Synagogorum, minus recte annumerantur, eos vy, decem
otiosi, &c. &cr tales autem non erant, nisi in urbibus majoribus. Iken.
Antiq. Hebraicæ, pt. 1. cap. ix. de Synagogis, sec. 9. (d) Bingham's
Eccles. Antiq. vol. iii. book 8. chap. 3. (e) 12932 by NDIJN VRT

The ruler of the synagogue is he, by whose voice the
business of the synagogue is settled. R. Salomo in Annot. ad Sotæ, cap.
vii. sec. 7. ap. Vitringa Archisynagogus, p. 78. (f ) Ecclesia tamen
Christiana primæva, hunc titulum synagogæ reliqnit. Præpositos
suos non vocavit, άρχοντας της εκκλησίας και sed potius presbyteros
episcopos, pastores, ductores. Seque ob hanc manifestam rationem,
quia ecclesia novi fæderis nullam fert doxriv, nullum imperiun. De
Synag. Vetere. lib. iii. Part 1. p. 610. Præter bunc titulum, alius quidem
quantum mihi constat, in scriptis N. T. pon reperitur, qui directe ad præ-
fecturam synagogæ respicit. Vitringa de Archisyn. ap. De Synag. vetere.
lib. iii. part 1. cap. i. p.611. Syrus interpres toùs 'Apxlouvayúyos,
apod Lucam vertit per xnw7. Avup; presbyteros Synagogæ. Í
have, however, shewn that there is no analogy whatever between these
and the Christian minister. Vitringa De Synag. vel. lib. iii. part 1.
сар. . 614. (9) Episcopi vero an in primis ecclesiis pro ápxiouva.
yóywv, more sudaria agitarint, ego equidem fateor me ignorare, &c. &c.
&c. For the meaning of the phrase sudaria agitarint, I must refer the
reader to the treatise itself. (h) De Synag: vetere, lib. iii. pars. 2:
cap. 3. p. 909. (i) Schoetgen Horæ Hebraicæ, vol. i. p. 1089. (k)
Sallust says, the deliberative part of the Roman legislature were
called fathers-vel ætate, vel curæ similitudine.--See note 15, chap. x.
of this arrangement. (1) See on this point Vitringa, De Nominibus
Præfectorum Synagogæ et ecclesiæ-De Synag. vetere, lib. iii. pars. 1.
cap. 1. p. 614. (m) Fleury's Manners of the Ancient Israelites, by
Clarke, p. 162. and Schleusner on the word peobutépos.

.וברי הכנסת

1. p.

5 This oration of St. Paul, the last he addressed peculiarly to the former objects of his patriotic affection, is most wortby the attention of the sons of Israel at present. Nothing can be added to the arguments which the apostles have addressed in their reported sermons and their invaluable epistles, to their beloved countrymen : and their doctrines seem to be all comprised in this address of St. Paul. He reminds them of the former mercies of God to the family of Abraham, and the prediction that their Messiah should be descended from David ; avd asserts that this Messiab was Jesus of Nazareth. He appeals to the well-known fact of the resurrection of Christ from the dead, as the principal evidence of the truth of his declaralion, and concludes with enforcing that one important truth, in which the whole human race are so immediately interested, that forgiveness of sins is to be proclaimed through Him alone; and lbat Cbrist alone can justify the Christian, not only from those offences, from which they were typically purified by the ceremonial law, but from those sins also for which that law had made no provision. For we have now tbe comfortable bope that all manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven to men, through the mercy and intercession of Christ; on the condition of sincere repentance, amendment of life, and faith in the great atonement.




Jaliap Pe- 18 And about the time of forty years suffered he their Antioch, in riod, 4757.

Pisidia. Valgar Æra,

manners in the wilderness.

19 And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Chanaan, he divided their land to them by lot.

20 And after that, he gave unto them judges, about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet?.

• The word in the original ought rather to have been rendered, for forty years “ be carried them in bis arms, in the wil. derness, as a nurse." It is used in a similar sense in the Alexandrian septuagint version, Deut. i. 31. &popopópnoai ge Kúpios, ως εί τις τροφοφορήσαι άνθρωπος τον υιόν αυτού. The Lord bare thee, as a man doth bear his son, is the translation in the authorized version. For { potopópnoev, the common reading which our translators have rendered “ He bare their manners,” Griesbach would insert ét popopópnoev, as the undoubted reading. He is supported by the authority of Pfaffius, Casaubon, Hammond, Mill, Matthai, Ernesti, Roseomüller, and Valckenaer. Ap. Kuinoel, in lib. Hist. N. T. Comment. vol. iv. p. 445. See, however, Whitby in loc. who does not consider the alteration necessary; and interprets the words in the present Greek Vulgate, in the same manner as if Griesbach's reading had been adopted. He quotes Origen as explaining é poroφόρησεν, by αρμόζεσθαι σε προς το ασθενές, to accommodate himself to the infirmities of children.

7 The apostle seems here to contradict the account in 1 Kings vi. I. And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign, he began to build the house of the Lord.

Sir Norton Koatchbull, in his Annotations upon difficult Texts, bas considered the various solutions proposed by learned men, of the difficulty before us; and concludes, that the words of the apostlo should not be understood as meaning how long God gave them judges, but when he gave them ; and therefore proposes that the first words of this verse, Και μετά ταύτα ως έτεσι τετρακοσίοις και πεντήκοντα, should be referred to the words going before, ver. 17. that is, to the time when the God of the children of Israel chose their fathers.

Now this time, wherein God may properly be said to have chosen tbeir fathers, about four hundred and fifty years before be gave them judges, is to be computed from the birth of Isaac, in whom God may properly be said to bave chosen their fathers; for God, who had chosen Abraham out of all the people of the earth, chose Isaac at this time out of the children of Abraham, in wbose family the covenant was to rest. To make this computation evident, let us observe, that from the birtb of Isaac to ibe birth of Jacob are sixty years; from thence to their going into Egypt, one hundred and thirty'; from thence to the Exodus, two hundred and ten; from thence to tbeir entrance into Canaan, forty; from that to the division of tbe land, (about which time it is probable they began to settle their government by judges,) seven years: which sums make four bundred and forty-seven, viz. 60 + 130+210+40+7=447. And should this be reckoned from the year before the birth of Isaac, when God established his covenant between himself and Abraham, and all his seed after him, Gen. xvii. 19. at which time God properly

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Julian Pe.

21 And afterward they desired a king: and God gave Antioch, in riod, 4757. unto them Saul the son of Cis, a man of the tribe of Ben- Pisidia. Vulgar Æra, jamin, by the space of forty years, 22 And when he had removed him, he raised


unto them David to be their king ; to whom also he gave testimony, and said, I have found David the son of Jesse, a chose their fathers, then there will be four hundred and fortyeight years, wbich brings it to within two years of the four hun. dred and fifty; which is sufficiently exact to bring it within the apostles ws, about, or nearly.

Some have made the period four bundred and fifty-two years; which, though two years more than the apostles' round number, is still sufficiently reconcileable with his qualifying particle wis, about. And, it may be added, that the most correct writers often express a sum totally, but not exactly.

Calmet has paraphrased these passages nearly to the same sense : the text may be thus connected, ver. 19. And having destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he divided their land to them by lot, about one hundred and fifty years after. And afterwards he gave them judges, to the time of Samuel the prophet. The paraphrase of Calmet is the following: “ The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers in the person of Abraham ; he promised him the land of Canaan, and four hun. dred and fifty years after this promise, and the birth of Isaac, who was the son and heir of the promise, he put them in possession of that land, which be had promised so long before (a)."

Lightfoot remarks on this passage: amongst the many
things that are offered upon this difficulty, I would choose this;
that in this number are reckoned the years of the judges, and
the years of those tyrants that oppressed Israel, computing
them disjunctly and singly: wbich, at first sight, any one
would think, onght to be so reckoned, but that i Kings vi. 1.
gives a check to a too large computation.

The years of the judges and tyrants, thus distinguished, an-
swer the sum exactly:
The Judges.

The Tyrants.

8 Ehud ..... 80


18 Deborah.... 40








The Philistines 40

In all.. 111

Elon .. 10
Abdon.... 8



Othniel ......

In all.. 339

So that reckoning three hundred and thirty-nine, and one
bundred and eleven together, the sum amounts exactly to four
bundred and fifty.
(a) Hebrew and Talmudical Exerc. on the Acts. Lightfoot,

vol. viii.
p. 466. See Dr. A. Clarke in loc.—Whitby--Doddridge-Bowyer's
Crit. Conj. and particularly the Critici Sacri on 1 Kings vi. 18.


171 Julian Pe

man after mine own heart, which shall fulfil all my Antioch, in riod, 4757. will.

Pisidia. Vulgar&ra, 23 of this man's seed hath God, according to his pro16.

mise, raised unto Israel a Saviour, Jesus :

24 When John had first preached, before his coming, the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel.

25 And as John fulfilled his course, he said, Whom think ye that I am ? I am not he: but, behold, there cometh one after me, whose shoes of his feet I am not worthy to loose.

26 Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham, and whosoever among you feareth God, to you is the word of this salvation sent.

27 For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they knew him not, nor yet the voices of the prophets which are read every sabbath-day, they have fulfilled them in condemning him®.

28 And though they found no cause of death in him,
yet desired they Pilate that he should be slain.

29 And when they had fulfilled all that was written of
him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a
30 But God raised him from the dead :

31 And he was seen many days of them which came
up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his wit-
nesses unto the people.

32 And we declare unto you glad tidings, how that the promise which was made unto the fathers,

33 God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again ; as it is also written in the second Psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.

34 And as concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he said on this wise, I will give you the sure mercies of David'.

& The construction of this verse is difficult. The word ερίναντες should be taken with τούτον, and άγνοήσαντες, with tàs pwvd's. In which case it would run tbus-- They that dwell at Jerusalem, in condemning Him, not having known the voices of the prophets, which are read every sabbath-day, bave fulfilled (the prophecies.) But see more on the passage in Knatcbbull, Hammond, and the references and discussion in Kuinoel. in lib. Hist. N. T. Comment. vol. iv. p. 455.

• The sure mercies of David are everlasting life, of which the resurrection was a pledge, and the blessings of the redemption of Christ an earnest, even in this world. The expression tå ögra, holy, or just things, is the word used by the LXX in Isai. Iv. 3. and in otber places, for the word "Dn “ mercies." The covenant which Göd establisbed with David, 2 Sam. vij. !!!, 12. which is explained by Ps. Ixxxix. 3, 4. xxviii. 29–36. implies that the bouse of David should never be extinct. It should endure as the days of heaven, and as the sun, to all geperations. As far as relates to this earth, his family has long

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