licious atmosphere of success which they might breathe among their friends is tainted for them by jealousy, and the perpetual sense of an unfair handicap. The man, on the other hand, whom we may call the rich poor-man can stay with his most opulent friend and be perfectly happy. He lives at home as he lives a broad-after different fashions-at his ease. No doubt it takes some courage to disregard the conventional ways of life and determine to be unlike one's neighbors. It means the greatest of all the evidences of self-control, the power to break with habit. It means the rarest of all social qualities, social independence. It means, to be quite candid, the power to exact, on other scores than money, that regard and politeness which, cloak the fact as we will, money brings mechanically under our present social system. Certain advantages of birth and upbringing are no doubt in these particulars substitutes for money, and those who have them smile at the hesitation of less fortunate people who fear to give up these intangible concomitants of a particular way of living. We are all apt to smile at discomforts which can by no possibility be ours, and to see them, especially when they are connected with grade or cast, through a “satiric medium,” whereby sympathy is effectually sterilized.

But though men and women who find themselves suddenly poor,

who awake in middle life to the fact that an income which used to increase year by year has reached its highest point and is beginning to go down, have many hard lessons to learn, they try, if they are destined to become proficient, not to take the situation too seriously. It is not by determined renunciation, but by determined enjoyment, that the art of being poor is brought to perfection. They consider how best to dispose their energy for enjoyment so as to bring an outlet for it within their means. They

seek diligently for the kernel of happiness within the husk of pleasure, and, as a rule, they find the kernel is the cheaper part. After all, how many of the delights which money alone used to buy can now be had for next to nothing. Books are within the reach of all. Such libraries millionaires could not buy offer the treasures of their knowledge for nothing. Of course one does not need to be learned in order to make the best of being poor, but hardly any one is happy nowadays without books, Those who regard reading merely as a pastime need never be in want of the newest novel. The finest treasures of art are open to the sight of all. Any one who desires can hear music; any one can see plays. As to the pleasures of social intercourse, they reduce themselves, when our earli. est youth is over, to the pleasures of conversation, and to get all the pleasure out of talk th&'. an be got is certainly a great part of the art of being poor, and it is the easiest part to cultivate. The soul of all outdoor sports is to be found in the love of Nature and the love of exercise, and both these delights are within the grasp of comparatively poor people. It is one of the strangest things in life how few people have settled in their own minds what it is they really want, or who will take the trouble to be happy. “I have often thought how much I should like to do so-and-so,” we hear people say, and nine times out of ten it is something they could very easily have done, only they always put it ofl. Where the cultivated poor feel the pinch of poverty, and where no art avails them anything, is in the matter of health. The really poor man can have the most complicated, dangerous, and longest of operations performed at a hospital as well as it could be performed upon Royalty in a palace. The poor gentleman is in a very different position. "But doctors are so kind," we



hear some one say. No doubt that is true; but to accept kindness is not always easy, and to ask it is seldom possible. Paying wards and systems of insurance will mitigate the evil in the end, but at present it is a crying one.

Given health, almost all the sources of happiness enjoyed by the wealthy man are now within the grasp of his cousin on a small professional income, only the poor man must make rather more effort to lay hold on them. If he wants to be socially popular, he must allow himself fewer lapses into grumpiness, and must make a greater effort not to be bored or opinionated. He must expect to be judged on his merits alone, and sought for nothing but his company. He must brace himself to go in search of those opportunities of enjoyment which the rich man finds at his hand. What is perhaps

The Spectator.

hardest of all, he must be content to let his children have only the essentials of a good education, without the conventional stamp. Nothing is dear as conventionalism. Learning is cheap and play is not expensive, but public schools are prohibitive for a poor man with several sons. All departures from the usual are attended with increased consciousness of risk; but luckily these departures, when prompted by necessity, appear to be more often attended by good results than those undertaken for the sake of experiment. The comparatively poor man will nerer be able to forget that nothing is to be had for nothing; but as we watch the careers of those who have succeeded in the art we have been considering, we shall perforce admit that out of their extra trouble springs an extra vitalization, an extra capacity for happiness.


Some years ago when the bracken ferns were, just as they are now, unfolding their crozier-like stems towards summer maturity, the writer was passing late in the evening along the more secluded parts of a Surrey common. Advancing suddenly through some thick cover on to a narrow island of short turf, he disturbed two brown birds, just smaller than pigeons, which were instantly recognized. They flew uneasily away. On the turf where one of the birds had been seated lay an egg rather under the size of a blackbird's and mottled somewhat after the saine fashion. It was quite warm and had certainly just been laid. It was a cuckoo's egg, and the mother had evidently intended to dispose of it in the remarkable fashion which is now known to be the habit of the bird.

As spring advances into early suinmer there is enacted every year throughout the land the drama of the cuckoo. There is not one of the habits of this strange bird which has not been so much a matter of doubt as to be. come the subject of the warmest controversy. But its life history has now been well worked out, and many observers have, like the writer, followed the creature through all the stages of its habits from the egg onwards. The cry of the cuckoo as it is heard in the land at this season is undoubtedly a mating call. Each of the instincts of the cuckoo forms but part of a single study, and the first noteworthy peculiarity of the bird when it visits us in the mating season is that the males greatly outnumber the females. While it has been known from time imme.



morial that the cuckoo builds no nest, mon consent known as Oliver Twist, it was until recently supposed that she and never

name better delaid her egg in the nest of the bird served. The kind of appeal which the chosen as the foster-parent. It has bird made in every movement to those been found, however, that the mother- around it to be taken care of was a very bird as a. rule lays her egg on the evident and taking characteristic, and ground and carries it in her bill to the it no doubt proves a potent quality in chosen nest afterwards. One of the its wild state in securing the devotion characteristics of the cuckoo is that of its foster-parents. she is continually on the move, and A very short acquaintance with the eggs are possibly laid at various places young cuckoo in real life soon conin the stages of her migration. The vinces the observer that the wellyoung cuckoos which are found in the known habit by which it obtains for nest in this country usually have had itself the sole care of its foster-parents their foster-parents chosen for them by is neither accidental nor superfluous. the mother-bird with an instinct which It is absolutely essential to its exis remarkable in its consequences. The istence. The foster-parents being foster-parent is nearly always insectiv- nearly always insect-feeders, and thereorous. Birds which feed on bard veg- fore much smaller than itself, any rival etable seeds, like the town sparrow, are or nest-fellow would be impossible. scarcely ever chosen. The soft in- Not so long ago writers of such experisect feeders, like the hedge-sparrow ence as Mr. Seebohm seemed inclined and reed-warbler, are on the contrary to throw doubt on many of the tales great favorites, and this despite the of the young cuckoo's murderous disgreat disproportion in size between the position towards its fellow nestlings. little foster-parent and the huge There can, however, be no question as cuckoo progeny.

to the instinct which drives the young The young cuckoo of a few days old, cuckoo to swiftly and effectively get as it sits in the nest-completely over- rid of the young birds with which it at shadowing it-of a small bird like a at first shares the nest. All the delibhedge sparrow, is one of the most ex- erate acts which culminate in the ejectraordinary sights in Nature. The tion of the other birds have been obyoung creature, which soon becomes served again and again. Very soon most uncannily tame' and familiar, after the young cuckoo is hatched out opens its mouth for food at the slight- it begins to exhibit a curiously irritable est movement. Its gape is remarkably and restless disposition. It will try to wide, and all the inner parts of the get underneath anything that is placed mouth are of the deepest orange color, in the nest, pieces of wood, lumps of the whole appearance being quite un- earth, or any eggs that may be placed like that of any other young bird. This with it. It tries to get all objects beyellow gape, which is a striking specta- tween its shoulders, and it will then cle, even to the human observer, ap- climb backwards up the side of the pears to exercise a kind of fascination nest until it is able to hitch them over on the foster-parents. They are driven the edge. Its fellow nestlings are com. to a kind of frenzy to keep it supplied monly disposed of as early as the secwith food. It clamors ceaselessly for ond day, and if there are eggs and more and more. One which the young birds in the nest at the same writer assisted in bringing up enlisted time it puts both over the edge indisthe whole household in the continued criminately. service of its wants. It was by com- There can be little doubt that the


clue to the mystery of the habits of the cuckoo is the difficulty the bird finds in obtaining a sufficiency of its proper food. The instinct which prompts the young bird to throw its competitors out of the nest must evidently go very deep down in the nature and structure of the bird. But so also evidently must numerous other peculiarities which are equally significant of the severity of the struggle which the cuckoo has to maintain its place. Every egg collector knows how exceptional is the cuckoo's egg in the remarkable variations to which is subject, both in size and in markings. All other birds have eggs of a certain average size or a certain color. Not so the cuckoo. It can hardly be said with truth of the cuckoo's egg that it has any particular size or any particular color. In size the eggs of various cuckoos vary in the most bewildering fashion from the size of a house-sparrow's egg to that of a sparrow-hawk. It is the same as regards coloring. They are often mottled-gray mottled, brown mottled, and green mottled. But they have also been found pure white, green, gray, and blue. The explanation of this peculiarity in the cuckoo's egg cannot be far to seek. Birds will throw out of their nests strange-looking eggs or eggs larger than their own. In the long effort of the cuckoo to provide its young with suitable insect-feeding foster-parents, nearly always smaller than itself, there must have been much weeding out of unsuitable sizes and colorings. It is the opinion of many keen observers that the effects of the struggle for life

The Outlook.

on the cuckoo have, in consequence, here also gone very deep.

The cuckoo which has been brought up in a hedge-sparrow's nest because the egg from which it originated so closely resembled that of its fosterparents as to pass scrutiny, will tend itself to lay in the nest of the same species of bird and so transmit the peculiarities of its egg. Hence it is held that the family of cuckoos tends to be split up into a number of sub-varieties, each of which inclines to be parasitic on the species of bird in whose nest it lays. All observations of the habits of the cuckoo agree in one particular. They point to the extreme difficulty with which the bird maintains itself. Any one who has seen a tame cuckoo in the autumn at the season of migration standing apparently at rest, and yet with every muscle of its wings tense or quivering with the instinct of flight, will realize what extraordinary distances the species has to cover in its seasonal migrations after suitable food. Hence the great preponderance of males over females to make the mating process easier during flight; hence the instinct of the mother bird which tells her she cannot stay to build a nest; hence the remarkable peculiarities of the eggs directed to give the eggs them. selves the best chance in the nests into which they must be dropped. And hence also the extraordinary instinct of the young bird which at the very beginning of its career leads it to feel that it can tolerate no rival or competitor in maintaining its precarious hold on life.



The conclusions reached in Professor Second, the outlines of Altrurian prinClarence Augustine Beckwith's vol- ciples given in the earlier book are ume, “Realities of Christian Theology," filled in with details of every-day pracdedicated to Bangor and Chicago The- tice as seen by a feminine observer, ological Seminaries, are in harmony and the introduction of a yachtful of with the known trend of thought in shipwrecked Americans is used to prothose two schools, in the latter of duce a succession of effective conwhich the writer now holds the chair trasts. None of our American writers of Systematic Theology. Designed as

has been a more consistent preacher oť a fresh interpretation of Christian ex- the gospel of good-will and fellowship perience in terms of modern intelli- than Mr. Howells, and his presentagence, placing unqualified reliance tion of social ideals is especially welupon psychology as revealing the laws come for that

Harper & of consciousness, upon ethics as dis- Brothers. closing the ideal to be realized in personality, and upon evolution as the con- The average American contemporary stant method of the divine action in essayist is such a bundle of affectations nature and in human historical life, as sorely tries Christian charity. As a and aiming to be constructive rather rule, he considers himself a Lamb, and than controversial, it will be found ad

thanks Heaven that he is not savage, mirably adapted to its purpose.

like Poe or Mr. Swinburne; or sensible, Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

in Bagehot's sledge-hammer fashion. If

able, with the assistance of the FamilIn “Through the Eye of the Needle," iar Bartlett, and a Concordance, and Mr. W. D. Howells takes up the story old Burton, to quote many authors, he dropped some ten or twelve years ago, permits one to see that he fancies that and relates the experiences of his Montaigne faces him in his mirror, and “Traveller from Altruria" upon leav- altogether he is such an one that when ing the summer-hotel where we first he writes a book one buys one by some met him and going to New York to English author, for the Englishman study conditions there under the tu- can write essays. So could the oldtelage of the sprightly Mrs. Makely. fashioned American who had pastured In the present volume, the story is told

on his natural food of the elder essayby letters—in the first series, written ists, but the later American has almost by the Altrurian himself to a friend in lost the trick. In this condition of aftbat happy island; in the second, by fairs Mr. Arthur Stanwood Pier's "The the American whom he marries to her Young in Heart" is a real benefaction. friend in America. Part First gives Here is an author entirely indifferent Mr. Howells abundant opportunity for on the point of resembling some classic satire of characteristic quality, in model, and yet a respecter of customs, which his description of the mod- with no eccentricity to advertise, no ern apartment house, the up-to-date apparent wish for aught but brisk disThanksgiving dinner, and, incidentally, cussion of his chosen subject. The the amused-but-indulgent husband, will

eight which he has selected: The be particularly appreciated. In Part Young in Heart, Lawn Tennis, Work

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