classics and other subjects of general culture (as the report calls it) was roughly 57,000, but in 1903-4 the number had reached 65,000. In the earlier year the number of students in classes of pure or applied science was well on towards 26,000; in 1903-4 this number had increased to 32,000. The relative popularities of humanistic and practical studies may be said to have undergone little change at institutions of the rank under consideration. But in this connection it must be remembered that at the great technological institutions, which are not included in these statistics, large numbers of men are engaged entirely in studying branches of applied science.

The total value of property possessed by the institutions for higher education in the United States amounted in 1899-1900 to about 72,120,000l., and in 1903-4 this large sum had increased to 93,043,000l. The endowment funds in the former year were valued at 33,240,000l., while in the latter year this provision for future contingencies had grown to 41,313,000l.

The value of gifts and bequests received by institutions for higher education during 1899-1900 was 2,399,COOL.; in 1903-4 the amount had increased to 2,740,000l.; and last year as much as 5,000,000l. was raised in this way. Twenty-five institutions in the former year received from private donors gifts of as much as 20,000l.; and in 1903-4 as many as twenty-nine institutions were equally fortunate.

For the first of the years with which we are concerned in this comparison, the total income, excluding benefactions, amounted to 5,712,000l., of which about 2,234,000l. was received in the form of tuition and other fees. 1903-4 the total income had reached 8,066,0001. In connection with this sum, the Commissioner for Education remarks:-"It is a well-known fact


that the income derived from fees received from students forms only about one-third of the total income, the remainder necessary to meet the expenses of the institutions being derived from endowment funds, State aid, and miscellaneous sources."

In 1903-4 the State and municipal aid to higher education amounted to 1,984,600l., as compared with 893,0001. in 1899-1900.

It is thus seen that the striking disparity between public and private efforts in behalf of higher education in the United States and Great Britain, pointed out in the article to which reference has already been made, has, in the interval of four years with which we are here dealing, become more accentuated; and, instead of having made up leeway, we appear to have fallen even further behind.

The annual amount raised by private munificence for American universities and colleges has in a few years been doubled; and, as recent notes in these columns have shown, there is no sign of any decline in the generosity of the men of wealth in the States. The amount of money raised in this way in the United Kingdom during the period 1871-1901 was only one-eighth of that contributed in the United States in the same time; and if the present scale of American gifts be continued, the comparison at the end of 1931 will be such as to leave us at a still more hopeless disadvantage.

All the statistics here brought together tell the same story; alike as regards number of students, number of university teachers, total value of university property and total annual income, from whatever point of view looked at, there is evidence of a strong and healthy growth in the system of higher education in the United States; and, though it can by no means be suggested that similar work in this country has remained stagnant, the

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When Britain rose from out the azure main
With guardian flood her happy coasts that laves,
She loosed the soul enthralled by error's chain,
She smote the shackles from the hands of slaves
And spake unto the nations: "He who saves
His selfish life shall lose it. They who cast

The bread of liberty beside all waves

Shall surely reap a thousandfold at last."

She cried: "Go forth, my children, fill the vast
Unpeopled continents of north and south

'Neath freedom's banner streaming down the blast,
Its praise re-echoing from each patriot mouth

Prophetic of an empire of the free.

For Britain's boast shall still be liberty."


Throned in the West our Lady of the Snow
Welcomes the advent of these toiling bands,
The island mother's teeming overflow,
Who sow with smiling farms her prairie lands.
Fain would each settler wield a hundred hands
To win the golden harvest for his store,
Where Nature far surpassing all demands
Of greed, to those who covet most, gives more.
Still therefore, mother, still thy myriads pour
Eager yet sad, thou art so dear to them,
From the three kingdoms to thy daughter's shore,
Whose brow is crowned with tenfold diadem.

Rose, thistle, shamrock, ne'er from you they'll sever!
Your posy's twined with maple leaf for ever.


The Southern Cross with favor contemplates
Sons of its house whose fathers dwelt afar,
The constellation of six sister-states,

And yet another, still a single star,

Whose destiny no envious fate shall mar
Or quench the light of their imperial flame,
Full-orbed, rolled onward in immortal car,
But yearning toward the sun from whence they came,
Inheritors of Britain's lofty name.

The pride of self is nobler in the thought

Of high-born parentage whose worth and fame
Are priceless treasure neither sold nor bought.

Be proud, Australia, knowing well that she,
The heart that bare thee, is as proud of thee!


Peace cancels hate and freedom foes disarms.
Where now amid the peaceful and the free
Is need of swords and trumps and war's alarms
And guns with horse and chariot? Time shall be
When from the page of Afric's history
Rancor shall pass as mountain snows that melt
In springtime; fruit of friendly rivalry
Plenty shall crown the illimitable veld
And all the bloodless swords at wrong be dealt
For justice. War of race, an idle name,
Shall be like feuds of Saxon and of Kelt,
A dream forgotten and a schoolboys' game.
Still Boer and Briton, fated to remain
Unvanquished, shall their equal league maintain.

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chapters giving a picture of rural life sixty years ago.

The London Outlook is of the opinion that "in the two respects of screaming vulgarity of mind and what can only be called drunkenness of imagination, Mr. Lawson's 'Friday the 13th' is probably the most remarkable novel that was ever offered to the public above the level of those who read the Police News."

The Longmans are about to publish Mr. G. Macaulay Trevelyan's book on "Garibaldi's Defence of the Roman Republic." It is a history of the political and military events in 1849 which caused the final breach between the Papacy and the Italian national aspirations, and raised Garibaldi to the zenith of his popularity. It contains a full account of the siege of Rome by the French, and of Garibaldi's retreat.

For young readers the latest group of books in Everyman's Library provides two delightful volumes: Mrs. Gatty's "Parables from Nature"; and "Fairy Gold," a book of old English fairy tales compiled from many sources in prose and verse by Ernest Rhys, who is the general editor of the series. Robin Goodfellow, Tom Thumb, Fortunatus, Chicken-Little and other old favorites are to be found here, in company with many others not so familiar but not less diverting.

In the preface to his new story, "Frank Brown, Sea Apprentice," Frank T. Bullen vouches for the accuracy of all the incidents, though the hero-the fourteen-year-old son of an English counting-house clerk-is of course fictitious. The boy's apprenticeship begins on a barque bound for the South Sea Islands, his second voy

age takes him to Hong Kong, and his third to Calcutta. Besides an abundance of realistic detail relating to the routine of a sailor's life, there is a succession of stirring incidents, including a fire in the hold, an East Indian cyclone, a collision and the overhauling of a derelict. In spite of Mr. Bullen's well-known enthusiasm for the sea and his belief in its possibilities for the development of a robust and manly character, he describes the hardships of the life with candor and his book is a thoroughly wholesome one to put into a boy's hands. There is no question about the boy's enjoying it. E. P. Dutton & Co.

The Three Phi Beta Kappa Addresses" which give the title and furnish most of the material for a small volume by Charles Francis Adams were given in the years 1883, 1902 and 1906; and the first and third of them.— "A College Fetich" and "Some Modern College Tendencies" have a certain relation to each other in theme, though widely separated in time. The "fetich" dwelt upon in the first is an excessive devotion to the classics and especially to Greek. Concerning this it is to be remarked that Greek, at least, is not the fetich that it was. The modern college tendencies which Mr. Adams describes and criticises are the great increase in the number of students at the universities, and the extension of the elective system. Regarding these he speaks with force and candor. With these three addresses are included several shorter papers which are the fruit of Mr. Adams's long identification with the interests of Harvard, as student, alumnus and overseer, extending over a period of more than fifty years. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

No. 3279 May 11, 1907.


1. Some Reflections on the Colonial Conference. Milner, G.C.B.


By Viscount

Chapters VIII. and IX. (To be continued)

A Plea for the Popular in Literature. By J. A. Spender
V. The Modern Attitude Towards Belief in a Future Life. By
The Peacemakers. By Captain Frank H. Shaw, F.R.A.S.






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Leisurely America. By H. W. Horwill
The Enemy's Camp.

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A Tiller of the Soil. By Christian Burke .





XI. Spring in the Dale. By Augusta Hancock.
XII. The Hammers. By Ralph Hodgson
XIII. The Calm. By George Ives



322 322




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