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MANUAL

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MODERN HISTORY;

CONTAINING THE

RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN NATIONS,
THEIR POLITICAL HISTORY, AND THE CHANGES

IN THEIR SOCIAL CONDITION;

WITH A HISTORY OF

THE COLONIES FOUNDED BY EUROPEANS

BY W. C. TAYLOR, LL.D., M.R.A.S.,

OF TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN.

REVISED, WITH A CHAPTER ON THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES,

BY C. S. HENRY, D.D.,
PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY

OF THE CITY OF NEW-YORK.

WITH QUESTIONS ADAPTED FOR

SCIIOOLS

AND COLLEGES.

FIFTH EDITION,

CAREFULLY REVISED AND CORRECTED.

NEW-YORK:
D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 200 BROADWAY.

1853.

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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1844. by

D. APPLETON & CO,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.—Consequences of the Fall of the Western Empire.

PAGR.

SECT. I. The Gothic Kingdom of Italy....

.327

II. The Reign of Justinian...

.329

III. The Establishment of the Civil Law..

.334

IV. History of the Silk Trade.--Introduction of the Silkworm into

Europe ...

..337

V. The Monarchy of the Franks, under the Merovingian Dynasty. ..341

VI. The Lombard Monarchy..

.346

VII. T ne Anglo-Saxons....

.. 349

CHAPTER II.—The Rise and Establishment of the Saracenic Power.

Sect. I. Political and Social Condition of the East at the Coming of Mohammed.352

II. State of Arabia at the Coming of Mohammed.....

..355

III. The Preaching of Mohammed....

357

IV. Early Progress of the Saracens..

.361

CHAPTER III.-

Restoration of the Western Empire.

Sect. I. The Life of Charlemagne....

369

II. Decline and Fall of the Carlovingian Dynasty.

..375

III. The Foundation of the Germanic Empire...

..382

IV. State of the East from the Establishment to the Overthrow of the

Khaliphate

.387

CHAPTER IV.-Growth of the Papal Power.

SECT. I. The Origin of the Papacy......

390

II. The early Development of the Political System of the Papacy. 394

III. The Struggle for Supremacy between the Popes and Emperors. .398

IV. Revival of the Papal Power..

.401

V. Pontificate of Gregory VII...

.406

VI. The War of Investitures...

.412

VII. The Crusades.....

.416

VIII. The Crusade against the Albigenscs.

421

IX. Consequences of the Crusades....

. 427

X. Formation and Constitutional History of the Spanish Monarchy .430

XI. Survey of the Constitution of Aragon....

..434

XII. State of Western Europe at the Commencement of the Fourteenth

Century....

.437

XIII. Pontificate of Boniface VIII....

. 442

XIV. State of England and the Northern Kingdoms at the Commence-

ment of the Fourteenth Century......

..448

XV, Revolutions in the East in Consequence of the Mongolian Invasion...450

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