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customs may be observed as formerly; anything herein contained to the contrary notwithstanding.

V. Provided always, and be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all ordinaries and every other person who by this act is enabled to make distribution of the surplusage of the estate of any person dying intestate, shall distribute the whole surplusage of such estate or estates in manner and form following; that is to say, (2) one third part of the said surplusage to the wife of the intestate, and all the residue by equal portions, to and amongst the children of such persons dying intestate, and such persons as legally represent such children, in case any of the said children be then dead, other than such child or children (not being heir at law) who shall have any estate by the settlement of the intestate, or shall be advanced by the intestate in his life-time, by portion or portions equal to the share which shall by such distribution be allotted to the other children to whom such distribution is to be made: (3) and in case any child, other than the heir at law, who shall have any estate by settlement from the said intestate, or shall be advanced by the said intestate in his life-time by portion not equal to the share which will be due to the other children by such distribution as aforesaid; then so much of the surplusage of the estate of such intestate, to be distributed to such child or children as shall have any land by settlement from the intestate, or were advanced in the life-time of the intestate, as shall make the estate of all the said children to be equal as near as can be estimated: (4) but the heir at law, notwithstanding any land that he shall have by descent or otherwise from the intestate, is to have an equal part in the distribution with the rest of the children, without any consideration of the value of the land which he hath by descent, or otherwise from the intestate.

VI. And in case there be no children nor any legal representatives of them, then one moiety of the said estate to be allotted to the wife of the intestate, the residue of the said estate to be distributed equally to every of the next of kindred of the intestate, who are in equal degree and those who legally represent them.

VII. Provided, That there be no representations admitted among collaterals after brothers and sisters children: (2) and in case there be no wife, then all the said estate to be distributed equally to and amongst the children: (3) and in case there be no child, then to the next of kindred in equal degree of or unto the intestate, and their legal representatives as aforesaid, and in no other manner whatsoever.

VIII. Provided also, and be it likewise enacted by the authority

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aforesaid, To the end that a due regard be had to creditors, that no such distribution of the goods of any person dying intestate be made till after one year be fully expired after the intestate's death; (2) and that such and every one to whom any distribution and share shall be allotted, shall give bond with sufficient sureties in the said courts, that if any debt or debts truly owing to the intestate shall be afterwards sued for and recovered, or otherwise duly made to appear; that then and in every such case he or she shall respectively refund and pay back to the administrator his or her rateable part of that debt or debts, and of the costs of suit and charges of the administrator by reason of such debt, out of the part and share so as aforesaid allotted to him or her, thereby to enable the said administrator to pay and satisfy the said debt or debts so discovered after the distribution made as aforesaid.

IX. Provided always, and be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That in all cases where the ordinary hath used heretofore to grant administration cum testamento annexo, he shall continue so to do, and the will of the deceased in such testament expressed shall be performed and observed in such manner as it should have been if this act had never been made.

29 CAR. II. CAP. 3. [A.D. 1676.]

An act for prevention of frauds and perjuries.

For prevention of many fraudulent practices, which are commonly endeavoured to be upheld by perjury and subornation of perjury; (2) be it enacted by the King's most excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, That from and after the four and twentieth day of June, which shall be in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred seventy and seven, all leases, estates, interests of freehold, or terms of years, or any uncertain interest of, in, to or out of any messuages, manors, lands, tenements or hereditaments, made or created by livery and seisin only, or by parol, and not put in writing, and signed by the parties so making or creating the same, or their agents thereunto lawfully authorized by writing, shall have the force and effect of leases or estates at will only, and shall not either in law or equity be deemed or taken to have any other or greater force or effect; any consideration for making any such parol leases or estates, or any former law or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

II. Except nevertheless all leases not exceeding the term of three years from the making thereof, whereupon the rent reserved to the landlord, during such term, shall amount unto two third parts at the least of the full improved value of the thing demised.

III. And moreover, That no leases, estates or interests, either of freehold, or terms of years, or any uncertain interest, not being copyhold or customary interest, of, in, to or out of any messuages, manors, lands, tenements or hereditaments, shall at any time after the said four and twentieth day of June be assigned, granted or surrendred, unless it be by deed or note in writing, signed by the party so assigning, granting or surrendring the same, or their agents thereunto lawfully authorized by writing, or by act and operation of law.

IV. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said four and twentieth day of June no action shall be brought whereby to charge any executor or administrator upon any special promise, to answer damages out of his own estate; (2) or whereby to charge the defendant upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default or miscarriages of another person; (3) or to charge any person upon any agreement made upon consideration of marriage; (4) or upon any contract or sale of lands, tenements or hereditaments, or any interest in or concerning them; (5) or upon any agreement that is not to be performed within the space of one year from the making thereof; (6) unless the agreement upon which such action shall be brought, or some memorandum or note thereof, shall be in writing, and signed by the party to be charged therewith, or some other person thereunto by him lawfully authorized.

V. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said four and twentieth day of June all devises and bequests of any lands or tenements, devisable either by force of the statute of wills, or by this statute, or by force of the custom of Kent, or the custom of any borough, or any other particular custom, shall be in writing, and signed by the party so devising the same, or by some other person in his presence and by his express directions, and shall be attested and subscribed in the presence of the said devisor by three or four credible witnesses, or else they shall be utterly void and of none effect.

VI. And moreover, no devise in writing of lands, tenements or hereditaments, nor any clause thereof, shall at any time after the said four and twentieth day of June be revocable, otherwise than by some other will or codicil in writing, or other writing declaring the same, or

by burning, cancelling, tearing or obliterating the same by the testator himself, or in his presence and by his directions and consent; (2) but all devises and bequests of lands and tenements, shall remain and continue in force, until the same be burnt, cancelled, torn or obliterated by the testator, or his directions, in manner aforesaid, or unless the same be altered by some other will or codicil in writing, or other writing of the devisor, signed in the presence of three or four witnesses, declaring the same; any former law or usage to the contrary notwithstanding.

VII. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said four and twentieth day of June all declarations or creations of trusts or confidences of any lands, tenements or hereditaments, shall be manifested and proved by some writing signed by the party who is by law enabled to declare such trust, or by his last will in writing, or else they shall be utterly void and of none effect.

VIII. Provided always, That where any conveyance shall be made of any lands or tenements by which a trust or confidence shall or may arise or result by the implication or construction of law, or be transferred or extinguished by an act or operation of law, then and in every such case such trust or confidence shall be of the like force and effect as the same would have been if this statute had not been made; any thing herein before contained to the contrary notwithstanding.

IX. And be it further enacted, That all grants and assignments of any trust or confidence shall likewise be in writing, signed by the party granting or assigning the same, or by such last will or devise, or else shall likewise be utterly void and of none effect.

X. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said four and twentieth day of June it shall and may be lawful for every sheriff or other officer to whom any writ or precept is or shall be directed, at the suit of any person or persons, of, for and upon any judgment, statute or recognizance hereafter to be made or had, to do, make and deliver execution unto the party in that behalf suing, of all such lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, rents and hereditaments, as any other person or persons be in any manner of wise seised or possessed, or hereafter shall be seised or possessed, in trust for him against whom execution is so sued, like as the sheriff or other officer might or ought to have done, if the said party against whom execution hereafter shall be so sued, had been seised of such lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, rents or other hereditaments of such estate as they be seised of in trust for him at the time of the said exe

cution sued; (2) which lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, rents and other hereditaments, by force and virtue of such exccution, shall accordingly be held and enjoyed freed and discharged from all incumbrances of such person or persons as shall be so seised or possessed in trust for the person against whom such execution shall be sued; (3) and if any cestuy que trust hereafter shall die, leaving a trust in fee-simple to descend to his heir, there and in every such case such trust shall be deemed and taken, and is hereby declared to be, assets by descent, and the heir shall be liable to and chargeable with the obligation of his ancestors for and by reason of such assets, as fully and amply as he might or ought to have been, if the estate in law had descended to him in possession in like manner as the trust descended ; any law, custom or usage to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding. XI. Provided always, That no heir that shall become chargeable by reason of any estate or trust made assets in his hands by this law, shall by reason of any kind of plea or confession of the action, or suffering judgment by nient dedire, or any other matter, be chargeable to pay the condemnation out of his own estate; (2) but execution shall be sued of the whole estate so made assets in his hands by descent, in whose hands soever it shall come after the writ purchased, in the same manner as it is to be at and by the common law, where the heir at law pleading a true plea, judgment is prayed against him thereupon; any thing in this present act contained to the contrary notwithstanding.

XII. And for the amendment of the law in the particulars following; (2) be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from henceforth any estate pur auter vie shall be devisable by a will in writing, signed by the party so devising the same, or by some other person in his presence and by his express directions, attested and subscribed in the presence of the devisor by three or more witnesses; (3) and if no such devise thereof be made, the same shall be chargeable in the hands of the heir, if it shall come to him by reason of a special occupancy as assets by descent, as in case of lands in fee simple; (4) and in case there be no special occupant thereof, it shall go to the executors or administrators of the party that had the estate thereof by virtue of the grant, and shall be assets in their hands.

XVII. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said four and twentieth day of June no contract for the sale of any goods, wares and merchandizes, for the price of ten pounds sterling or upwards, shall be allowed to be good, except the buyer shall accept part of the goods so sold, and actually receive the

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