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pact majority, and offered a gallant but | At this point (May, 1885) we close the fruitless resistance to nearly every pro- history of the resorni movement in Mauposal. These brought forward a complete ritius, having no occasion to follow it any scheme for the lowering of the property farther. It is hard to say to which of the qualifications, for the scrutin de liste, and three parties chiefly concerned it is least other alterations, which they embodied creditable — to the Liberal colonial minis. in a protest addressed to the secretary of ter, or to the Liberal governor, or to the state. Another member, otherwise at one Liberal Mauritians. Lord Derby first with the dominant faction, also drew up a rightly declines to grant elective instituprotest against the educational test, setting tions; then he agrees to concede thein forth its folly and futility in remarkably though adhering to his opinion that Mau. forcible language. Finally, the aged ritius is better without them. Too late he Nestor wrote a long letter to the Colonial finds out that he has been hoodwinked, Office, recounting with biting sarcasm the and he is then very indignant. It is all of secret history of the sessions of the Com- a piece with the policy of the then goveromission, with all the absurdities, negli-ment - weak, vacillating, always too late. gences, and ignorances thereof. It was Sir John Pope Hennessy is fully assured he who proved the worthlessness of the in Mauritius in 1884 that chattering power two returns on which the Commission re- is a sure index of political capacity, and is lied for an estimate of the number of prepared to support a grant of elective in. voters; no very difficult task, inasmuch stitutions in virtue thereof; though he was as the returns were based on no particular fully convinced of the contrary in Barbados calculations, and differed from each other in 1876, where he turned three of the Windto a considerable degree for no particular ward Islands into crown colonies, and enreason. The first set down the probable deavored to do the same with a fourth. number of voters at nine thousand ; the Then, again, the Liberal Mauritians, second hastily increased it to twelve thou were loud in their protestations of fairness sand. Appended to this letter was a and friendliness to the Indians at first, but speech of the protector of immigrants, far steadily hostile to the same Indians when the best authority in the island as to the the time came to make their professions condition of the Indians, stating that the good. In Jamaica, also, where the Afri. franchise proposed would utterly exclude cans have an enormous numerical prethe poorer Creoles and Indians, many of dominance, we found loud outcry for whom were capable of giving an intelligent representative institutions but the same vote. This speech, it is needless to say, attempt by the same means to exclude the was unheeded by the majority of the blacks. in both cases there is something Commission.
suspiciously like a tampering with figures. Sir John Pope Hennessy, in forwarding The Jamaica Commission, after impos. this letter, treated it with indifference, as ing educational restrictions, estimated the unworthy of serious notice ; but Lord probable number of electors at twelve thouDerby took a contrary view. His eyes sand. Sir Henry Norman, after removwere by this time pretty well opened to ing these restrictions, set it down at no the true intent of the so-called Liberal more than nine thousand. The Mauritian movement, and to the manner in which the Commission reckoned the voters first at governor had treated it. Lord Derby re- nine thousand, and then increased the jected the proposal to grant the vote to estimate to twelve thousand, while sober journalists, etc., cut down the property calculation could not set them down at qualifications by about one-third; and, more than three thousand. while approving of an educational test in Now, what is the true meaning of these the abstract, objected to any scheme which two reform movements ? It is simply should require Indians to read and write that the dominant white oligarchy is tremin any language but their own, or postpone bling for its supremacy, and, in order to the enforcement of the test to some future maintain it, has appealed to the weak side period. He accepted the proof of the of every English statesman (though some worthlessness of the estimates showing English statesmen have nothing but weak the number of voters, and, as a final warn- sides) by a clamor for representative ining to headlong spirits, ordered the gov- stitutions. The details of such a reform erdor to inform the Nestor of the Council must necessarily be left to these same that the latter's observations had been whites as the only persons competent to considered by the Colonial Office with the deal with them; and forth with the opporattention to which his experience and zeal tunity is seized to assume, or reassume, for the public interests of Mauritius en the sway which the white man claims as titled them.
his right over the black.
Nor are (such fears unfounded. The | Trinidad (a riot only put down by firing raison d'être of crown-colony government on the mob, ten of whom were killed and is the impartial nurture and protection of a hundred wounded) shows that Indian blacks and whites alike; and hence the immigrants of all kinds will unite for mis. black population advances far more rap. chief. In Jamaica, where the blacks are idly both in numbers and influence under of African and not of Indian blood, there it than under a white oligarchy - in num- is the recollection of a former outbreak to bers, because immigrants feel secure un- keep alive resentment against the now der the shadow of the crown; in influence, dominant whites. What they may lack in because more attention is paid to their religious fanaticism may easily be supmoral and physical welfare. Further, plied by demogogic eloquence, which has while the blacks have increased in num- a singular charm for the African. But bers, the whites have decreased. The here, again, the change may be made white French population has, according to without bloodshed. One thing is certain. figures in the blue-books, diminished from If the blacks do obtain the upper hand, eight thousand in 1831 to a little over two the whites will diminish rapidly, until thousand in 1883, while the blacks have their influence and ultimately their pres. increased as we have seen. Nor is this ence is a thing of the past. This may otherwise than natural. Where the black be judged from the example of Marti. and the white man live side by side within nique, Guadeloupe, and Réunion, to which a small area, the climate that favors the islands the fanatical folly of Gambetta one must necessarily be injurious to the conceded, by a stroke of the pen, the privother. It is well known that the third ilege of universal suffrage. generation of Englishmen born on the come, then, no one can tell. We have the plains of India is worth nothing; while dismal story of Haiti to give us some that degraded race," the mean whites,” in clue; but perhaps it would be unjust, as Barbados, and doubtless in other tropical well as rash, to draw inferences too colonies also, clearly shows that the deca- hastily. dence of the white men in a hot climate is The one conclusion to which these con. not unexampled in other places besides siderations lead us is that in countries of lodia. Add to this the fact that color, in small area, where men of white and colspite of all the speeches ever made in ored races live together, there is no safe Exeter Hall, remains the strongest barrier medium between crown colony (i.e., absobetween man and man; and it is not diffi- lute government) and the fullest developcult to account for the reform movements ment of the representative principle. The in Mauritius and in Jamaica.
first means the supremacy of the whites, That the Mauritians are alive to the order, peace, and prosperity at the exdanger is shown by the whole story of the pense of a small garrison. The second agitation, without need to examine the means the supremacy of the colored, and sociological researches of an actual mem- what further we cannot pretend to say. ber of the white community. How long Anything between the two must lead to a the whites may retain their supremacy constant struggle of races, with all the now that they have, in spite of themselves, rascality, folly, and violence which colorrelaxed their hold on the colored popula- hatred,' ignorance, jealousy and faction tion, it is not easy to say. Mr. Broome can generate - - an eternal effort on the reported that, with the best intentions, he part of the whites to keep political power had been unable to find a single Indian fit to themselves, and ceaseless striving on to sit even at the Council of Education; the part of the colored to wrest it from but it is possible that the Indian voters them. If we are content to let these tropmay succeed even where Mr. Broome ical islands pass to the colored races well failed. If Indian natives find it worth and good; let us give them not sham but while to come to England to seek a place real representative institutions. If we in the Imperial Parliament, it is hardly wish to retain them, and uphold the wel. likely that they will let pass such a chance fare of both blacks and whites, we must as Mauritius offers to their ambition. govern them autocratically. That pseudo. There, the qualifications are the same for representative government has failed in electors and candidates. If the Indians, such communities may be seen from the therefore, bide their time, they can hardly history of the British West Indies in gen. fail, unless checked by British bayonets, eral and of Jamaica in particular; that to rise ultimately to supreme power in the true representative government has failed, island. Diversities of race and religion from that of Martinique, Guadeloupe, and may cause delay; but recent experience in | Réunion ; that enlightened despotism has succeeded, brilliantly and signally suc- 1 yards in full autumnal beauty, ascends ceeded, is plain from the history of Mau. steep brown hills, every turn showing en. ritius. Would it not be better for colonial chanting glimpses of sapphire sea. After ministers to obey the teaching of expe. many miles of hot and weary work for the rience rather than the clamor of noisy willing litile Turkish horses, we halt in pseudo-Liberals ? Is it not the duty of the shadow of some giant oaks which colonial ministers to set crown colonies overhang a bubbling spring, their great right, when selfish oligarchies therein green branches just touched with autumstrive, for their own ends, to lead them nal gold. A little wooden booth looks astray? “Reform" does not always mean cool and pretty, with boughs of ripe lemprogress, nor“ Free Institutions "liberty. ons and glasses of rosy syrups, presided J. W. FORTESCUE. over by two solemn Asiatics, who drive a
good trade with the dust choked and thirsty travellers. As the afternoon shad. ows lengthen, the white domes and black
cypresses of Broussa appear through the From The Cornhill Magazine.
crystalline air as if but a stone's throw A GLIMPSE OF ASIA MINOR.
beyond us, though in reality several miles The rugged coast of Asia Minor which away. A nearer approach discloses the borders the blue Sea of Marmora suggests full beauty of the situation; the city nesan infinity of fascinating ideas to the trav- tling under the mighty shadow of the eller who longs for some truer picture of Bithynian Mount Olympus, which towers Asiatic life than that presented by the up in the immediate background, the hybrid Orientalism of Constantinople. blue beights soaring into the brightening The lovely city of Broussa, the earliest gold of the sunset sky. Brigands lurk in capital of the Turkish sultans, still con- the dark ravines which cleave the flanks tinues to be a perfect type of the un. of the mountain with sharply cut hollows changed and unchanging East. This may of violet shadow, and this fact deepens in a great measure be due to its fallen the mental impression of awe conveyed by fortunes, as well as to a position of com- the solemn peaks. Bubbling fountains parative isolatior. from the beaten track of and brawling brooks begin to make music the aggressive Frank.
on every side, for Broussa is a true city of The tiny steamer ploughs its way across waters. The foaming cascades and swift the tranquil Marmora, which resembles a rivers which dash from Olympus not only mirror of deep blue glass, motionless as turn mills and spout upwards from street the azure heaven reflected in its transpar. fountains, but each little lemon-booth and ent depths. A merry but motley company fruit-stall improvises a tiny fountain of its of Greeks, Armenians, and French is own from a neighboring spring, to in. varied by stolid-looking Turks engrossed crease the attractions of luscious grapes in their hubble-bubbles, and a sprinkling and juicy lemons in a thirsty land. Even of gaily clad Asiatics in boldly contrasted the Turkish soldiers have done the same robes of scarlet, orange, and green. Even for their sentry-boxes along the dusty the little port of Moudanieh, which forms highway, and jets of sparkling water dart the entrance to the enchanted region of upward, reflecting prismatic colors in the fancy, soon to be translated into fact, offers transparent atmosphere. Across an old an attractive surprise to eyes unfamiliar stone bridge which spans a tumbling torwith Asiatic life pur et simple. White rent we clatter into the steep street which veiled women and turbaned men, girt with leads from the city gate - the battlemented brilliant Persian shawls, surround the di. walls and crumbling towers climb the lapidated wooden quay; but only a hasty lower slopes of the Olympus, and termiglimpse of kaleidoscopic coloring can be nate in an old Turkish fort surmounting a obtained, a general stampede being re. cliff bristling with aloe and cactus. "A quired without delay to obtain carriages picturesque medley of domes, minarets, from the little khan for the drive to cypresses, and flat-roofed houses lies beBroussa. With much cracking of whips, fore us. Above a green thicket of fig. jingling of bells, and mysterious exclama- trees rise the twenty white cupolas of the tions in an unknown tongue, the cavalcade great mosque Ilu Djami, looking in the sets off. Choking clouds of dust rise be sunset glow like rainbow-tinted bubbles neath the blazing sun of an atmosphere blown into the air. Crowds of people are already several degrees hotter than that returning from the bazaar to the country of sea.girt Constantinople. The broad villages. Donkeys with green amulets road, bordered by silvery olives, and vine | round their necks, and gay trappings of blue beads p!aited with string, are ridden , Mahometan architecture, forcibly conveys astride by white-veiled women wearing ihe prevailing Moslem idea of the Divine wide blue trousers. The panniers, now unity. An air of desolation ayd desertion emptied of their loads of fruit and vegeta- surrounds mosque and tomb. Mahome. bles, are full of brown children in gay tanism in Broussa has evidently cooled attire; while patriarchal figures in brilliant down from the white heat to which it coloring lead the way with staff in hand. burns in the modern Turkish capital, Here a string of camels sails past with where devotion is deep in proportion to ill-tempered groans and grunts, making its narrowness. Perhaps the stimulus of occasional vicious plunges at a tiny boy opposing creeds, which acts as the sharp in an orange tunic, who tries to keep the spur to fanaticism, is unfelt in a city long line in place. Children in pink, yel. which has ceased to be a centre of either low, and purple play in the streets; men ecclesiastical or secular interests. Very with jackets and turbans stiff with gold few worshippers are to be seen; bere and and silver embroidery, or with powing there a dervish and his disciples sit on robes of many colors, smoke or grind cof-their prayer.carpets rocking to and fro, fee at every corner; dignified Jews, in and chanting in the comical nasal twang fur-lined gaberdines, stroll up and down; which appears to be the approved tone of women in tinsel-covered veils, with shining Oriental worship. They are not too much coins wound in hair and bodice, throw absorbed in prayer for a pause and a good back the shutters of the low, white houses gossip at the entrance of strangers; and to admit the evening breeze. The orange when the cradle-like shoes provided for sunset heightens the brilliancy and deep- infidel feet slip off unobserved by the ens the tints of the wonderful coup-d'æil wearer, who returns for them in terrified presented by each arcaded street. It haste on discovering their loss, the chant resembles some magic vision of Arabian of the neophytes relapses into an unmis. Nights rather than a reality of the present takable giggle. Exquisite tiling of softest century; and the dreamlike impression is color adorns dome and tomb; each tomb intensified as the broad sun sinks below surmounted by the turban and sword of the horizon, and the sudden darkness of the sultan who sleeps below. Green banthe South falls upon the scene. The little ners, bearing the sacred device of the silver inn, gay with Oriental rugs and divans, crescent, droop in heavy folds from the and sweet with pungent grass matting, roof, and shields with inscriptions from makes a pretty picture, with its colored the Koran surround each building. The lamps gleaming through the night, their mosques are so identical in character that rosy light falling upon hangings and interest soon flags, monotony being the prayer-carpets of lovely, blended hues. keynote of the faith of Islaṁ. The cry The courtyard is full of fountains, which of the turbaned muezzin from minaret to make pleasant lounging-places in the star. minaret, as we emerge into the sunny lit evening; for doors and gates are bolted street, seems to echo every phase of the and barred at sunset, and Broussa, in true Moslem creed, as one turns impatiently Oriental fashion, is wrapped in absolute from a deism so remote from human symdarkness — the stillness of the streets only pathies, and so destitute of connecting broken by the barking of dogs and the links between earth and heaven, occasional footfall of some mysterious Fortunately for the unappreciative figure carrying a tiny lantern, with which Frankish mind, the interests of Broussa he carefully picks his way across the nu. are not restricted to its mosques. The
snares and pitfalls of Asiatic beautiful bazaar is one of the most charpavements.
acteristic features of the city, and far The celebrated mosques containing the surpasses that of Constantinople in local tombs of the early sultans are our first color and undiluted Orientalism. The destination in the morning. They are dim arcades and shadowy domes of the large and elaborately decorated, but lack huge building which contains street after the grand simplicity by which the ideal street of varied merchandise, shelter us mosque is rendered impressive. The tur- from the burning sun. We join a dazzling, quoise-tinted tiles of the Green Mosque, many-colored crowd of veiled women, turthe shields and banners of Osman's tomb, baned men, and fantastically clad children; and the gaudy interior of Ilu Djami while donkeys, mules, and camels mingle produce a somewhat tawdry and theatrical with the throng, and add their quota to effect. The details are too insistent, and the pandemonium of noise which echoes not sufficiently merged in that unity of through the dusky corridors. Here a design which, in the best specimens of solemn Turk sits cross-legged on a stall
gay with radiant silks, and gauzes which | Among water-coolers and pitchers of rude seem woven of moonshine and mist. The earthenware, but of artistic shape, exquidark gallery behind him glows with the site brazen trays stand filled with tiny crimson and purple of the long sashes and coffee-cups, painted or set with turquoise, streamers which wave from the roof of the and inserted in filigree of gold or silver. silk-bazaar. He smokes a peaceful nar- Delicious scents of attar of rose from ghileh, and sips coffee from a jewelled pharmacy and drug-store mingle with uncup, exhibiting his treasures with a wave poetic odors from strings of gigantic of the arm, but not condescending to onions and drying herbs. Cobwebby speak. A youthful Asiatic, in gold-em- muslins, silver embroidery inlaid with broidered jacket and gorgeous shawl, pre- turquoise, and veils sparkling with tinsel, sides over stores of Turkish delight, jostle Manchester prints and calicoes; rose-leaf jam, and other marvellous con- and among Mahometan books, in quaint fections of the East. For the encourage- Turkish characters, stand hideous oleoment of the purchaser he inserts a lovely graphs of Western manufacture and crudinlaid dagger into one of his jam-pots, and est coloring. The spoils of East and from thence into his own mouth, to con- West are mingled, greatly to the disadvince us of the harmless nature of the vantage of the latter. unknown sweetmeats. This is so far satisfactory, but his disappointment is bitter indeed when we decline a savory morsel from the point of the same knife; and as he shows signs of tearing his gracefully draped shawl into shreds (an Oriental expression of regret), we beat a hasty retreat. Red and blue woollen horse-collars inlaid with white shells, and the beaded trappings of donkeys have a street of their own, in which gorgeously decorated scarlet saddles swing from the eaves. Then comes (oh, frightful anomaly!) a corridor of cheap china, petroleumlamps, lacquer, and tin, all freshly imported from Birmingham, that commercial Inferno of prosaic ugliness which casts its black and dismal shadow far and wide over the fairest lands of East and West. Judging from the excited crowd gathered round the hideous productions of the grimy manufacturing centre, the leaven of evil already begins to work in the Asiatic mind, and the coarse, machine-made wares win universal admiration.
The scent of late roses and ripe fruit lures us into a side street of such poetical beauty that we might suppose the flowery garlands and vine-wreathed grape-baskets arranged by trained artists rather than by mere Asiatic peasants. Stumbling over mounds of rosy pomegranates and green melons, we dive through an avenue of orange and lemon boughs to refresh ourselves in the street of the sherbet-sellers, who rattle their copper cups and shout at us in stentorian tones which our guide interprets as " Drink, and cheer thy heart." We gladly accede to the welcome exhortation, for sherbet of lemon and rose-water cooled by Olympian snows is not to be despised under an Asiatic sun. Peasants and farmers throng the grain-bazaar, a somewhat primitive corn exchange, filled with sacks overflowing with wheat, rice, and millet. Women, with creels on their backs, barter their loads of vegetables at a stall where provisions, cooked and uncooked, stand in miscellaneous confusion. Fish is frizzling, coffee being Our vexation is soothed by the pipe- ground, and huge dishes of pilau are bazaar, where every variety of hubble-handed about into which fingers and bubble, meerschaum, and narghileh is to be found, including the pinewood pipes covered with fir-cones, which are one of the Broussa spécialités. The coppersmiths' bazaar displays wonderful dishes and culinary utensils to those travellers who can endure the deafening clamor and din. The shoe-bazaar shows a long vista of dangling scarlet and yellow slippers, as well as wooden clogs lined with pink leather, and decorated with straps of vel vet and tinsel. The mysteries of Oriental headgear may be studied in the turbanbazaar, full of the wonderful paraphernalia of cap, fez, veil, and turban, which protect Eastern heads from the ardent sun.
wooden spoons are indiscriminately dipped on every side. Bakers are carrying about trays of flat bread, smoking hot from the oven, and the cries of the lemonade-sellers resound in every street, where syrups, liquorice-water, and tamarind-juice are pressed at every moment on the passengers. Even the butchers' shops are amusing from the extraordinary manner in which the meat is cut up for sale; the heads of the animals in close proximity to their curiously jointed anatomy, and often decorated with green boughs or pink paper streamers. Everybody must buy the local manufactures in the Broussa bazaar, and, laden with pipes, veils, mule-trappings,