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good position, she thought, so she stayed to see that he didn't.
"When you see a movement in the crowd in the other room, that will mean she's coming. Watch her as she comes - watch her carefully it will be rather unfair to us if you let yourself be disappointed. Here she is! Mr. Drummond, she is here!"
Lady Cleeve came resolutely forward to her mother, and seeing that, the train of followers fell back a step or two.
"Mother," she said, in a low voice, "go a little farther off, I want to say something to Mr. Drummond. Keep all those people away from us for a minute or two."
"You good darling!" exclaimed Mrs. Tancarville Sympson, "I knew you would find some way to oblige us all. You un derstand how our hearts are set on this picture. Don't hurry, let Mr. Drummond have a good look at you. I have told him he is not to talk to you. I will keep every one out of the way. In fact, I will explain to them why you want to speak to him." And having said all this loudly enough to be audible to Drummond, she went to the nearest guests and eagerly explained that this was a hurried sitting for a really important work of art.
"Mother does not know why I want to speak to you so much," whispered Lady Cleeve. "I want to ask you to forgive me." She held out her hand but it faltered on its way to him. Seeing that he showed no disposition to take it, she drew back and said, " You will shake hands with me, I hope?"
"Yes; but how could you treat me so?"
"THE grand leading principle towards which every argument unfolded in these pages directly converges is the absolute and essential importance of human development in its richest diversity." These words, quoted from Humboldt's work on "The Sphere and Duties of Government,' form the key-note of Mr. Mill's treatise "On Liberty." They express the central idea which he takes up, and amplifies with all his wealth of argument and illustration. If Mr. Mill thought it necessary in his own time to address his emphatic words to the world, much more, we think, would he consider it so now. For in these days it would seem as if individuality and origi nality stood in as great danger of being dwarfed and crushed as they ever did under any tyranny or despotism, howsoever oppressive. "The absolute and essential importance of human development in its richest diversity " is a principle which is too much lost sight of; or, rather, is a principle which is in a great measure incompatible and inconsistent with that tendency or flow of things which marks our present social and political state. This tendency we may call the tendency to uniformity; the tendency which goes to develop humanity "in its richest diversity" we may call the ten
"Well, no, not quite all. There was such a pretty ringa sapphire and diamond one in a second-hand shop, and I couldn't afford to buy it out of my allow-it ance it was seven pounds. Come, Mr. Drummond, don't look so vexed with a poor girl on her wedding-day. I admit it was a stupid thing to do, but no one is a bit the worse for it."
dency to individuality. Now, it is the tendency to uniformity which crushes and dwarfs the spirit of individuality, and more and more seems likely to become supreme in our society. It is a tendency that, although felt as an indivisible whole, is made up of several elements. It is like a river that pours onward in a mighty flood, increased by many streams.
Of such a nature is the tendency to uniformity which we at present witness. It derives its whole volume from three distinct sources. The first source is of a political nature; the second is of an economic nature; the third is of an educational nature. In other words, the tendency which now crushes the spirit of individuality may be traced to these three sources. They are the fons et origo of the whole evil, for an evil this loss of individuality must certainly be called. The first source we have called political, because it is from our present polity that this tendency to uniformity in a great measure flows. And we will take the political source first, because it is the most important. It is important because politics (which are only a grosser form of ethics) have to deal with conduct; and conduct is the greatest part of life-three-fourths of it, according to Mr. Matthew Arnold-art and science being one-eighth each; therefore we will consider the political source first, because it deals with the moral part of our nature, which is the greatest part, and then take up the economic and educational sources, which deal with the aesthetical and intellectual parts, which are smaller, but still important.
monarchy) their servants; the governing body no longer make the people obey, but the governing body obey the people and do their behests. This is the well-spring of democracy, and from it flows at once one part of the stream that swells the volume of the tendency that makes for uniformity. For mark what happens. The people elect representatives of their own mode of thinking, and imbued with their ideas on matters of policy; and the representatives in their turns express the thoughts and ideas of the people, and try to model the policy and legislation of the country upon them. And so it comes about that the people get brought back to them in the concrete form of laws and policy the very ideas the working out of which they had entrusted to their representatives. And these very laws and policies engender like modes of thinking, and fresh ideas of a similar nature. Thus things work round and round in an unending circle. The people elect representatives of their own ideas; the representatives carry out the ideas of the people; the ideas thus carried out engender like ideas. And so the people move round and round over the same ground, like the prisoner of Chillon, chained to a pillar of fixed ideas and furrowing deep footprints in the sands of time. But it may be answered that this is not so, that the elected governors instil new ideas into the minds of the people. And truly this might be so in an ideal democracy. But is it not the fact that the representatives of the people are more and more reduced to the position of delegates and mere mouthAlthough our constitution has outwardly pieces and conduit-pipes? And, indeed, the form of a limited monarchy, it is in- this is what representative government wardly and essentially a democracy; it comes more and more to mean. Repreonly differs from a republic by having an sentative of what? Not representative of hereditary instead of an elective head; it the people themselves, in the councilis only a republic in gold trappings, with a chambers of the nation, but representative few more dashes of ceremony thrown in. of the ideas of the people. Time was When Philip II. reproved his ambassador when members of Parliament repudiated for forgetting substance in ceremony, the the suggestion of their being mere deleambassador replied: "Your Majesty for- gates; now comparatively few would vengets that you are only a ceremony your-ture on such repudiation. And, more than self." And if Philip II. was "only a ceremony," much more is the monarch of our time. In any case, the majority now rules; and this is an essential part of the matter, for where the majority rules there is democracy. It has been well said that democracy is a sort of inverted monarchy; the monarch and his ministers rule the people; but in democracy the people, or rather the majority of the people, make the ministers of government and the monarch (where the constitution is a limited
this, the representative now ventures to encourage this idea of delegacy, and tries to act the delegate to the utmost. It was a cynical saying of Drummond that there were only two ways of governing mankind: by force or corruption, by grapeshot, or French cookery. Now it must be admitted that if grape-shot has often been the method of the despot, French cookery has often been the method of the representative of the people. He has pleased the ears, if not the palates, of the people;
for it becomes his aim to give effect to the men have been great by reason of their ideas of those who sent him. The people originality of thought and power of will. hear their own ideas dressed out and And, even though a monarch may not be decked in language they never dreamt of, thus endowed himself, he may yet have and with a consequential air they plume the faculty (and a no mean faculty it is) of themselves on their wisdom. And so, un being able to discern character and select witting mortals! they get no new ideas at the best advisers. It is in this way that all; all they get is their own ideas gar- many of the greatest of statesmen have nished and served up to them. But it won'their way. They have been men of may be answered that this is not so. ideas, whom monarchs have had the wis. Surely the people will hearken to the dom to make their advisers. “My conwisest amongst them. And, indeed, this ception,” says Lord Beaconsfield, “of a might be so in an ideal democracy; we great statesman is of one who represents night then agree with Mazzini when he a great idea, an idea which may lead him speaks of “the great and beautiful ensign to power; an idea with which he may of democracy, the progress of all through, identify himself; an idea which he may all under, the leading of the best and develop; an idea which he may and can wisest.” But in sober fact is this the impress on the mind and conscience of a case ? Should we not rather give our nation.” So that, while our democracy assent to the saying of Hobbes that a may fail to produce men of original power, democracy is an aristocracy of orators it may be deprived of those great leaders sometimes interrupted by the monarchy of who might arise under other forms of govone? But what we would endeavor to ernment. Let any one ask himself, for make clear is this, that, whatever democ- instance, which has had the greater lead. racy might be capable of under favorable ers, Germany under the First Empire or conditions, democracy as it stands now in France under the Third Republic? The our country directly favors the tendency gist of our accusation against the democto uniformity, a tendency that is destruc- racy as we at present have it, and are tive of “human development in its richest likely to have for some time to come, is diversity.” For we have seen that our that it tends to crush individuality, to democracy practically means the carrying stifle original thought, and to produce preout and embodying the ideas of the peo cisely that sort of soil which is likely to ple, and that it becomes more and more be barren in the growth of ideas. To try the interest and aim of popular represen- to get much individuality from our present tatives to help to carry out these ideas; democracy is like trying to pluck grapes so that the people become more and more from thorns, or figs from thistles. And so enamored of their own ideas, and more it comes about that a writer in the Specand more tend to live and have their being tator can write on the “ Monotone of amid circumstances which are at once the modern life; and that Professor Max Mülproduct and the reproducers of their own ler can find himself able to say that in ideas. And not only does our democracy these days we are obliged to go to the tend to bring about the state of things we “Red Book” to find out who is who, have endeavored to indicate, but by its whereas in his earlier days the personality very presence it excludes what benefits of original men was a power that made might accrue from other forms of polity. itself felt amongst all grades of society. We are far from denying many of the So far we have dealt with that part of obvious advantages of democratic govern- the tendency to uniformity which flows ment; but we assert that in this particular from our political state; and, as we have respect, namely, in its tending to crush already seen, it is the most important individuality and make men work in a part, for it deals with conduct which is the groove, it stands condemned; whereas greatest part of life. It remains to disfrom other forms of government ideas cuss those two portions we have described may well up with a perennial freshness. as being economic and educational, which From democracy, as we have depicted it, have to deal with the æsthetical and intelwe can hope for little in this direction. lectual parts of our nature, which concern
Even tyrants and despots, not to speak art and knowledge, and are the remaining of constitutional monarchs, may, if en- part of life. dowed with powerful and original minds, And first as to the economic part. This infuse fresh vigor of thought and action part of the tendency to uniformity we have into a lagging world. It would be waste called economic because it arises from our labor to cite historical evidence, because economic or commercial state. Now, our it is obvious that all the great rulers of present commercial state and method of
trading are directly inimical to the spirit | placed in the position of recipients of
of individuality. And this arises in several ways. We find one cause in the extraordinary growth of capital. One of the most remarkable things of the age is the accumulation of capital and the development of big concerns in trade and business. This accumulation of capital directly favors the creation of big concerns; and with big concerns backed up by great pecuniary resources small concerns find it hard, if not impossible, to compete. The small producer and trader almost in despair throws himself before the Juggernaut-like car of capital that goes groaning and creaking along, bearing the golden idol of Mammon, amidst the plaudits of the onlooking shareholders. Not only do we witness the creation of great companies, but also the creation of what we might call a company of companies; such as syndicates and rings. We have seen examples of these in copper and salt, and rings are threatened in coal, matches, and other things. Small industries are crushed out of existence. This is notably the case in the brewing business. There are fewer brewers now than there used to be. Then, again, what may be called home or domestic industries are fast becoming a thing of the past. Brewing was once a home industry; it has now practically ceased to be one. Even fruit-preserving is falling into the hands of "large men." The Irish lace-making industry still lingers; but it, too, bids fair to become extinct. So that, evidently, in productive industries the tendency is to do things on a large scale, and to turn out goods in great quantities, all made after the same pattern, and of the same kind. Anything more destructive of originality in production, from which alone we can hope for variety, and indeed for ultimate improvement in our commodities, it would be difficult to conceive. And so it is also in the distributive branches of trade. Great shops and stores are now on the increase. The tendency is now not for the shopkeeper to conduct his own business personally over the counter, but for some manager in a barrack-like building to command an army of shopmen, shopgirls, clerks, and cashiers, who, with an unerring monotony, receive orders and make up parcels and bills "from morn to dewy eve." But the mischief is not so great in the distributive as in the productive branches of trade, for in the former there is obviously less scope for originality. But in the latter the influence of the system that tends to prevail is deadly. Those employed in production are merely
wages for so much work done. They have no interest in the quality of the products or in the method of their production. Nor even have the managers and directors in many cases any such interest. They are placed in their position to look after the interests of shareholders, and to take care that a dividend is earned. And, so long as the dividend is earned, it is no interest of theirs to make any improvements. Indeed, they would probably look askance at any suggested improvements or novel methods, and would adopt them at their peril. It may safely be said that we owe many of our greatest improvements in the industrial arts to men who worked with their own hands, and, from the intimate knowledge of the subject which they thereby gained, acquired those flashes of insight which suggested the improvements that subsequently revolutionized the world. And this brings us to another cause closely connected with the growth of capital. This is introduction of machinery. That many benefits have flowed from the introduction of machinery it would be idle to deny. But that is no reason why we should shut our eyes to the evils of the thing. It is an evil result of the application of ma chinery to the industrial arts that it tends to destroy individuality in production. Here again the tendency is to produce great quantities of goods all of the same pattern. The producer has no interest where his labor is merely mechanical. Labor and originality are divorced, and industry is reduced to a dull routine. "Life without industry," Mr. Ruskin says, "is guilt, and industry without art is brutality." It is this "brutality" that we lament; it is the sense of this "brutality" that has given birth to the National Association for the Advancement of Art and its Application to Industry. For this is what we read in the prospectus of the association prior to the holding of its first congress: "It is widely felt in the great manufacturing centres and the feeling has found expression in Liverpool - that the present conditions both of art and industry offer many problems which stand in pressing need of discussion. Machinery, by making less immediate the contact of the artisan with the object of manufacture, and by its tendency to specialize the artisan's work, has rendered obsolete, so far as many industries are concerned, the old traditions of design, and these have not as yet been replaced by new. Machinery has, moreover, been suffered to annihilate many minor handicrafts, the
place of which has not been supplied in | lies. And we refer here, not to that porany adequate fashion. The adoption, tion of education which inculcates moral therefore, of artistic design to modern teaching, or to that portion which deals methods of manufacture, and the cherish with conduct, but to that portion which ing or rehabilitation of many crafts which teaches the arts and sciences, and deals are independent of machinery, and in with the æsthetical and intellectual parts which the individuality of the workman's of our nature. That our present system touch is an essential feature, are matters of education tends to stifle individuality of high importance at the present time." and originality it would be idle to deny, What stronger testimony than this to the for we have lately had striking testimony tendency now prevailing in our industries to the fact. A short time ago there apcan any one ask for?
peared a protest against the sacrifice of There are some fine lines of Mr. Lowell's education to examination. And it was which felicitously describe the feelings part of the accusation against our present and the yearnings of those who reflect on system of education that it tends to stifle our present industrial state.
originality. This is what the protest says:
“ For it should be noted that under ihe Surely that wiser time shall come
prize system all education tends to be of When this fine overplus of might,
the same type, since boys from all schools No longer sullen, slow, and dumb, Shall leap to music and to light.
of the same grade meet in the same com
petition, and all teaching tends to be In that new childhood of the Earth
directed towards the winning of the same Life of itself shall dance and play,
prize. No more unfortunate tendency Fresh blood in Time's shrunk veins make could be imagined. The health and prog. mirth,
ress of every great science, such as eduAnd labor meet delight half-way.
cation, depend upon continual difference,
upon new ideas, and experiments carried That “labor shall meet delight half-out to give effect to such ideas, upon the way" is just one of the difficulties pre. never-ending struggle between many difsented to us, because our present industrial ferent forms and methods each to excel methods are absolutely hostile to such a the other. It cannot be too often repeated happy consummation.' Beneath the incu. that uniformity means arrest of growth bus of an inexorable capital, whose main and consequent decay; diversity means function it is to breed dividends, and life, growth, and adaptation without limit." amidst the hum and clank of machinery, The influential body of signatories to the there is scant prospect at present of labor protest state as their deliberate opinion meeting delight at all, much less half-way. that the present system of education is of It is to be hoped that the National Associ- such a nature that, if longer pursued, it ation will be able to do something to amel. will not only arrest the growth of educajorate this state of things, for surely there tion as a science, but will cause its ultimate must be a via medin somewhere. It is decay. not that abundant benefits have not flowed A greater calamity than this could from the use of capital and machinery. hardly happen to the nation ; for, with the Let there be no mistake about that. But decay of education, we could have no the benefits are largely discounted by the hope for future generations. Then, inevils we have considered, by the stilling deed, would the sun of our glory sink forand deadening of "human development in ever, and a darkness to be felt settle upon its richest diversity,” and by the drying up us. It is not merely that the science of of those fertilizing streams of fresh ideas education itself is at fault, inasmuch as it which, by stimulating progress, invigorate tends itself to decay; the system has a our civilization, and make it fruitful for prejudicial effect upon the minds of the good. Let us choose these streams, and taught by stilling their originality. As we divert, if possible, those other streams are told, “boys from all schools of the which now begin to flow round the roots same grade meet in the same competition ;" of our existence – the streams of dulness the result is that they are all brought up and forgetfulness, whose sluggish waters in the same way with their minds bent on cannot fertilize, and serve only to exhaust the same subject. Obviously, then, their the sources of life.
minds, turned out from the same mould, The educational part still remains. We will all bear the same impress. The rehave called it educational because it is in sult of this will be much uniformity in the our educational system that this portion minds of each generation as it grows up. of the tendency of which we are speaking Then, again, the system tends to direct the