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Fifth Series, Volame LXXVII.
No. 2484,- February 6, 1892.
323 331 340
CONTENTS. 1. THE RUSSIANS ON THE PAMIRS,
Blackwood's Magazine, II. “DESDEMONY,"
Nineteenth Century, VI. THE CANDIDATE, .
Cornhill Magasine, VII. THE RELIGIOUS OPINIONS OF ROBERT
BROWNING. By Mrs. Sutherland Orr, Contemporary Review, VIII. BROWNING'S THEOLOGY,
Spectator, IX. BIRDS ON THEIR TRAVELS, .
Sunday Magasine, X. THE YEOMEN OF THE GUARD,
All The Year Round, .
365 374 376 381
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Single Numbers of The LIVING AGB, 18 cents.
THE LANGUAGE OF THE SEA. She came, an angel in our sight,
WHERE'ER, beneath the scudding clouds, We took her as a gift from Heaven; The good ship braves the blast She gave our home a new delight,
That, roaring through the quivering shrouds, Our hearts' best love to her was given. Flies furiously and fast
Where Stars and Stripes and Union Jack, We harvested her every look,
To every sea-gull known,
Our English holds its own.
Flies onward, safe and free;
It creeps not on from door to door,
Its highway is the sea!
Oh! glorious days of old renown
When England's ensign flew,
Amid the dauntless crew-
When Rodney, Howe, and Nelson's name
Made England's glory great, Her name, a lily name of love,
Till every English heart became To match her loveliness of life;
Invincible as fate. Or some dear name one, now above,
God rest the souls of them that gave Has left with fragrant memories rife.
Our ships a passage free,
Till English, borne by wind and wave,
Was known in every sea!
Our ships of oak are iron now,
But still our hearts are warm; The mandate of her outstretched hands,
Our viking courage ne'er shall bow When first she knew a loving face,
In battle or in storm. Was mightier than a queen's commands,
Let England's love of freedom teach And dearer than her proffered grace.
The tongue that freemen know,
Till every land shall learn the speech Her keen delight, her artful ways,
That sets our hearts agiow.
Float widely, safe and free;
The language of the seal
WALTER W. SKEAT. How oft, the babe upon her knee, The mother sighed with yearning kiss,
“When will my darling speak to me!' The first sweet sounds of broken speech, The first dear words that love inspires,
TWO LITTLE FEET.
Oh life, so prodigal of life !
Oh love and destiny at strife! The eager questions, quaint replies,
Oh earth, so full of busy feet! The awakening of the childish mind,
Oh woods and hills and all things sweet! The queries that perplex the wise,
Was there no room amidst you all The griefs and joys that children find. For two more feet, so soft and small ? And so she grew still more and more,
Didst envy me, where thousands sing, Our angel guest, our gift from Heaven,
The one bird that made all my Spring, Our first-born child, for whom the store
My dove, that had so many ways Of love waxed more, the more 'twas given.
Of making beautiful life's days?
No room! Or rather it may be Nor this alone; but, like the cruise
Earth was too small t’imprison thee. That fed of old the prophet guest,
God only knows. I know I miss No danger now that we should lose
Thy sweet caress, thy loving kiss, The mated love of either breast.
The patter of thy dear small feet,
Thy hand in mine through lane and street; Nay more, — by subtler creeds beguiled, While all that now remains to me
We learnt with joy the simpler word, Is just a precious memory. That he who tends a little child
Two little feet, 'neath earth's brown sod, Is worshipping our blessed Lord.
Two white wings somewhere safe with God. Macmillan's Magazine. Chambers' Journal. LAURA HARVEY.
From Blackwood's Magazine. and the difficulties in consequence created THE RUSSIANS ON THE PAMIRS. between the Peking government and the The Russian advance towards India great civilized powers. The possibility has been compared to the opening of par. tion in Chinese waters has for some time
of a European and American demonstra. allels against a besieged city. The first parallel, a line of observation, was the old
been in prospect — may even yet become Caspian and Orenburg frontier of half
a political necessity. In the interchange century ago. The second, from the south of diplomatic views which has taken place of the Caspian along the Persian and among the powers, Russia has, we believe, Afghan frontier to the head-waters of the been careful to keep aloof from any proj. Oxus - a line of menace. A third paral
ect for coercing the Chinese. When the lel is now being attempted, from the north- moment arrives for the powers to call eastern corner of Afghanistan along the
China peremptorily to account, Russia has north of the Indian Empire - a line in
her own card to play. What her aims are
on the Primorsk frontier we do not profess tended to cut off communications and check a sally of the garrison. Such are that as soon as China finds her hands full
to know; but there can be little question the strategical aims we assign to the recent display of restless activity by Russia elsewhere, Russia will endeavor to make on the Pamirs and in the direction of For some years past there have been sig.
herself mistress of eastern Turkistan. eastern Turkistan.
nificant indications in the straws that float A brief survey of the present position of central Asia will help to an under- upon the surface of her Asiatic currents,
of standing of the opportune nature of Rus
workings in that direction. Not the
least notable of these was the selection sia's recent movements. Obtaining her
of General Kuropatkine for the central own way along the Russo-Persian frontier,
Asian and working by assimilation rather than
government. As long ago as 1876 by absorption, she has as yet failed to
Kuropatkine made himself thoroughly acmake any impression save one of hostility quainted with eastern Turkistan when he upon the Afghans. The new boundary,
visited Kashgar as chief of the embassy jealously guarded as it has been by the despatched by General Kauffmann to Yaameer, has steadfastly repulsed all ad
kub Beg; and while there he distinguished vances; and Abdurrahaman's well-known
himself by compiling a very exhaustive severity has restrained his lawless sub. work on the country. Afterwards, when jects from affording pretexts for Russian occupying a post on the general staff at interference in a manner that is marvellous
St. Petersburg, Kuropatkine's duties were to those who remember what was the con
specially devoted to eastern Turkistan and dition of Balkh-Turkistan not very many
the Trans-Oxus region; and his intimate years ago. Repelled all along the line knowledge and experience of the countries from the Zulfikar Pass to Khwajasalar on
beyond the Himalayas mark his selection the Oxus, the superfluous activity of the for the most important post in central Russian adventurers has been driven to Asia with a significance which we cannot find an outlet in another direction. It is afford to overlook. The whole concluDo small triumph for the British govern
sions of Kuropatkine's work on Kashgaria ment that it should have so far succeeded pointed to a desire on the part of Russia in circumscribing Russia's action, in re
to annex Yarkand-Kashgar. gions where her activity was full of danger to the peace of Asia, as to force it to seek We saw in Kashgaria (he says] a powerful an outlet in a locality so futile as the Pa. Mussulman State, to which as to a centre mirs. But there are other reasons in the would be drawn the sympathy of the popula. air why Russia should at present cast her tion, not only of the weak Mussulman States eyes eastward from Khokand and Samar- also that of the population of the provinces
which had preserved their independence, but khand. Her keen perception has not failed which we had conquered. The importance of to notice the growing troubles of China, Kashgaria, in our eyes, was moreover in the internal turbulence of the Chinese, creased in consequence of the attempts of the
English to draw this country to their side, so I have been of much account to her. Such as to incorporate it (1) in a neutral zone of Kara-Khirgiz as are to be found in this countries which was to separate Russia from region are tributary to the Russian gove India, and (2) to acquire in Kashgaria a fresh ernment, who confirms the election of market for the sale of their manufactured their khans, keeps peace among the differgoods.*
ent tribes, and finds frequent employment At the time of Kuropatkine's mission for the men in pioneering and exploring there seemed every prospect of a Russian expeditions. In 1887 the Russians had a occupation of Kashgar being early and post established at Sufi-Khurgane, at the easily brought about. But the death of mouth of the Taldik Pass; and we may Yakub Beg, the reconquest of Kashgar by expect, when Captain Younghusband's full the Chinese, and the check administered reports are received, to hear of outposts to Russia over Kuldja, compelled the lat. much farther south than that. Practically ter to keep her designs on eastern Tur- there is nothing to restrain her energy in kistan in the background. But she has that direction until she reaches the Hindu been all the while waiting for her oppor. Kush. We believe that a superstition extunity, and there is reason to believe that ists in the For Office that Russia is in the increasing embarrassments of China confined by an agreement to the north of she descries that opportunity in the im- Lake Victoria, on the Great Pamir and the mediate future.
Panjah River. We much fear, however, But what, it may be asked, has all this that this pact, like so many of the late Lord to do with the Pamirs question ? Well, Granville's central Asian “
“agreements," the Pamirs question, like most other was more the expression of a pious wish questions, has two sides to it, and Kash- on the part of the British government that gar-Yarkand is one side, Badakshan-Wa- Russia would pause there, than a binding khan is the other, and a very important obligation that can stand the wear and tear side this latter is, as we shall see later on. of time and circumstances.
It is conMeanwhile let us bestow a little consider tained in a despatch from Prince Gortchaation on the Pamirs themselves, on Rus- koff in January, 1873, accepting the Afghan sia's relationship to them, and on the boundary which Lord Granville had sug. advantages which an established footing gested. Now, as Russia never took the upon them would afford her.
slightest subsequent account of Lord In 1865 the subject of the Pamirs was Granville's boundary or of its own assent mooted in a conversation between M. thereto, and as the agreement has been Stremoouchoff, the then director of the effaced in all other respects, it can hardly Asiatic Department at St. Petersburg, and be supposed that it will weigh heavily with Mr. Saville Lumley, when, in view of the her upon the head-waters of the Oxus and complete annexation of Khokand, the Rus- the shores of Lake Victoria. The agree. sian minister discussed the chances of ment was keenly criticised at the time by Russia having to enter the mountains the government of India, and most of its south of that khanate, at the same time objections have been fully sustained since ridiculing a possibility of any advance on
then by the conduct of Russia. More. Kashgar through the mountains. Russia over, when the government of India very was accordingly allowed to extend her soon after pressed upon Lord Granville sway up the defiles of the Alai Tagh and to make proposals to the Russian govern. on to the Kizil Art ranges, embracing the ment to have the frontier on the northern whole of the Pamir Khargashi, with its and western borders of Yarkand defined great lake of Kara-kul. To this acquisi
- a proposal which would have led to a tion as a natural adjunct to her conquest
further delimitation of the Pamirs - the of Khokaod no exception can justly be Foreign Office evaded the request. Rustaken, though does not seem as yet to sia has thus been left with a free hand on
the Pamir steppes, and it is idle now to . Translated by Major W. E. Gowan, Her Majesty's raise an outcry because she has availed Indian Army.
herself of it.
Of much more importance than any | are troops at Gilgit; but Kunjut is a petty
a imaginary line drawn through the Pamirs state lying towards the eastern side of is the clear recognition which her Majes- the Baroghil Pass that may occasion some ty's goveroment, both in London and Cal- trouble to Colonel Durand. M. Bonvalot, cutta, have of the presence of the Russians who was unable to penetrate into Kunjut, upon the Roof of the World, and of the dif. was told that the khan had killed his own ficulties which may arise in consequence. father for wishing to make over the counOn this occasion, at all events, we have not try to the English, and had sent messenbeen caught napping. If the Prjevalskys, gers to the Chinese Taotai at Kashgar the Pevtsoffs, and the Grombtchevskis with proffers of friendship, who sent him have been active, so also have the Young-back presents in return. Yet two years husbands and the Davidsons and other ago the khan received Captain Youngofficers, including those unobtrusive but husband with great kindness, while that valuable men, the native officials of the In- officer was on his exploring expedition to dian Surveys. Within our own sphere, and the regions beyond the Karakorum and not a little out of it, we are quite as well Mustaj passes, in the course of which, it informed about the debatable ground as may be remembered, he first encountered Russia is, and quite in a position to dis. Captain Grombtchevski on the Tajdamcuss with her disputable points of central bash Pamir. Asian geography. And we have already We may thus conclude that all has turned our knowledge to practical account. been done that is immediately neces. If General Medinski led an expedition sary to close the southern mouths of the into the Pamir in 1883, we on our side passes leading from the Pamirs to Kashcompleted a military survey of the passes mir, and that these routes are sealed leading into Kashmir, and soon followed against Russian explorers, as Captain this measure up by advancing our outposts Grombtchevski recently had occasion to to Gilgit. Sir William Lockhart's reports experience. This is all the more neceson the passes of the Hindu Kush is not sary, as the reports of recent travellers likely to be made public, but we may as- have shown that the difficulties of some of sume that while it guarantees us from an the passes, great as they are, have been attack in force being delivered against much exaggerated. In addition to the India by way of Kashmir, it leaves open explorations of MM. Bonvalot and Du. the possibility of annoyance in that quar. vergne, an English lady and gentleman, ter- annoyance that might amount to ab. Mr. and Mrs. Littledale, crossed the Baro. solute danger in the event of an Indian ghil Pass a year or two ago, under circum. army being engaged in high Asia. Mean stances that presented no overwhelming while our post of observation at Gilgit is difficulty; and it is reported that a horseour main security in this direction. We man can gallop through it from Wakhan have already been able to make our influ. to Chitral without drawing bridle. Where ence felt by the petty chiess of the Chitral such travellers can penetrate, the Cossack and Baltistan country, and we shall in no is not likely to be impeded; and a vigilant long time establish order and security up guard upon all the southern exits of the 10 the gates that lead to the higher waters Pamirs will henceforth be the important of the Oxus. The Hansa and Nagar work of our agent at Gilgit. chiefs who successfully defied the maha- But to return to the Pamirs themselves. rajah of Kashmir's authority, and who The reports of extensive annexations havholds the mouths of two important passes, ing been already made by Russia, amount. will be checked by running a military road ing almost to the whole of the plateaux through their territories. The Chitral between the Altai range and the Hindu chief's loyalty is testified to by M. Bonva- Kush, must, we are inclined to think, be a lot, who was stopped in his country until premature alarm. That Russian parties, permission to advance could be received more or less strong, have been freely crossfrom Simla. Yassin is another chiefshiping the Pamir steppes within the last few that may be counted upon as long as there / years, especially during the past summer,