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hardened in sin. Therefore, even this, which is your only ground of hope, can afford you but a trembling, anxious hope. Notwithstanding this, you have reason to fear that you will die as you have hitherto lived, hardy, resolute, incorrigible sinners. And if so, you know your dreadful end; you shall suddenly be destroyed; your stiff neck shall be unexpectedly broken ; and there will be no help, no remedy.
And if you are indeed in so much danger, will you not now lay it to heart, and endeavour to escape while you may ? Alas ! shall this admonition also, this admonition for your disregarding all past admonitions, be lost upon you like the rest ? O! will you not at length take warning, before it is too late ! Perhaps the voice that now warns you, may not long sound in your ears. But O ! let me find this day, that those whom I have reproved in vain for so many years, regard me at last, and submit and yield. Then, and not till then, you will be safe from the vengeance denounced in this alarming proverb, He that being often reproved, hardeneth his neck, shall suddenly be destroyed, and that without remedy.
THE NATURE OF LOOKING TO CHRIST OPENED AND EXPLAINED.
ISAIAH XLV. 22.-Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of
the earth ; for I am God, and there is none else.
IT is the peculiar sin and unhappiness of the christianized world, that, while they profess and speculatively believe Jesus to be the Messiah, the Saviour of sinners; and while they harbour some kind of high esteem for him as a Benefactor that appeared upon earth about 1700 years ago, who should be still remembered with gratitude, yet that they are not deeply sensible of that intimate, personal concern which degenerate sinners have with him in every age. They do not make that eager, importunate, affectionate application to him, which his character requires as the Saviour of guilty men. Divine justice indeed was satisfied, the demands of the law were answered by the obedience and sufferings of our divine Redeemer long before we came into exist. ence, and God became reconcileable to a guilty world. But all this alone does not insure our salvation. Redemption must not only be purchased, but applied ; and though it was purchased without our concurrence, yet all mankind, in all ages, are concerned in the application of it. There was no need of the gospel and its ordinances to procure it ; but all these are necessary, and therefore appointed for our obtaining an actual interest in it. Hence Christ, as an almighty Saviour, is exhibited, and the blessings of his purchase are offered in the gospel ; and all that hear the gracious proposal are invited to entertain this Saviour with suitable dispositions, and to consent to the terms on which these blessings are offered, upon the penalty of everlasting damnation. Our personal consent is required as much in this age as when the gospel was first published to the world, and it is this which is solicited by all the means of grace ; it is to gain your consent to this gracious proposal, that the gospel is still continued among you. It is for this we preach ; for this you should hear, and perform every other duty; for this the Lord's Supper in particular was instituted, and has been to-day administered among you. It is to melt your hearts, and engage your affections to a dying Saviour, that he is represented both in words and in speaking actions, in all the agonies of Gethsemane, and in all the tortures of Calvary
But though these affecting means have been used from age to age, yet, alas ! they have not had the intended effect upon multitudes. They act like a sick person infatuated with the imagination that the mere grateful remembrance of Galen or Hippocrates, or some other eminent physician of past ages, will be sufficient for his recovery, without following their prescriptions, or making a speedy application to a living physician now ; whereas there is as much reason why we in this age should be pricked to the heart and cry out, What shall we do to be saved ? as there was for St. Peter's hearers. Acts ii. 37, 38. There is as much reason to exhort unregenerate sinners now to repent and be converted, as there was to exhort the impenitent Jews to it. There is as much cause to direct and persuade men now to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, as the heathen jailer, who had been an infidel. Acts xvi. 31. It is true indeed, when we now exhort men to believe in Christ, we cannot include all the ideas in it which were included in this exhortation when addressed to infidel Jews and heathens in the apostolic age ; for then it included, that they should renounce their former religion, and assent to this important truth, that Jesus is the Messiah, and take upon them the profession of christianity; and this is rendered in general, I hope, needless in our land, as we have been initiated into this persuasion by our education and other means. But, my brethren, all this is far short of that consent which we must yield to the gospel, if we expect to be saved by it. This faith is not that living faith which we are called to act upon the Redeemer ; and we must give him another kind of reception than multitudes do, who thus believe his divine mission, and profess his religion. We must have those affectionate dispositions and vigorous ex• ercises of heart towards him, which become guilty, perishing sinners towards an almighty and gracious Saviour, who deserves and therefore demands our supreme affection, our humble dependence on his merits alone, and our hearty consent to be his servants forever. We must be brought to believe in him with such a faith as will regulate our practices, and render the whole of our life a series of grateful obedience to him, who is an atoning Priest upon a throne of royal authority, enacting laws and demanding the dutiful submission of his subjects. And therefore, though it is needless to call upon you to believe in the same sense in which this exhortation was addressed to infidels by the apos. tles ; yet there is still room enough to urge you to this duty, only leaving out one ingredient then included, viz. a speculative belief and external profession of the christian religion, and that Christ is the Messiah. There is still reason to persuade sinners to consent to the terms of life established in the gospel, to renounce all dependence on their own righteousness, and to place their huinble confidence in his alone, to acquiesce with the warmest complacence in the method of salvation through grace, and in the mean time to surrender themselves to his government, to obey his will, with the most cheerful willingness, the most ar. dent devotion, and the humblest adoration : in short, to entertain the great Redeemer with those affections and dispositions which the nature and design of his mediatorial office demand, and which become our condition as guilty, miserable, helpless creatures ; all which are included in that faith in Jesus which the gospel enjoins as the grand condition of salvation.
This faith is one of the principal subjects of sacred scripture, and is expressed in various forms: sometimes in plain terms, but more frequently in metaphors borrowed from earthly things, and particularly from the actions of the body. This
method of expressing spiritual objects and intellectual ideas, in terms that originally and properly are applied to the body, is not only common in scripture, but intermingled in conversation, and authorized by the best authors in all ages and languages. We speak of the eye of the understanding as well as of our bodily eye, and to see an argument, or a meaning, is almost as common a phrase as to see a man or any other material object. The evidence by which the soul forms its determinations is called light, as well as the medium of proper vision. And as the metaphor is here borrowed from the eye, so it is frequently borrowed from the other organs of the body and their actions. This is owing to the penury of the language of mortals, who, as they are most conversant with material objects, and have the earliest and most frequent occasions of receiving or conveying their ideas of them in sound, are habituated to a dialect proper to these things ; and, when they would express their ideas of immaterial things, they are obliged to transfer these terms, originally applied to material objects, to express those immaterial things ; and there is not only necessity but reason for this, as there is a resemblance between those actions of the body from which these metaphors are borrowed, and those actions of the mind to which they are transferred ; yea, it is not only a reasonable, but a beautiful and moving method of representing divine things : in this principally consists the beauty of poetry, that it clothes intellectual ideas in lively material images, which make deep impressions on our imaginations.
In such metaphorical terms, as I observed, faith is often represented in sacred scripture. Sometimes the metaphor is borrowed from the feet ; and then to believe is to come to Christ ; to come to him as one oppressed with a heavy burden to a person that can relieve, Matt. xi. 28. to come to him as one perishing with thirst to a fountain of living water, Isaiah lv. 1. Rev. xxii. 17. or as the manslayer, closely pursued by the avenger of blood, to the city of refuge : hence it is expressed by the most emphatical phrase of fleeing for refuge. Heb. vi. 18. Sometimes the metaphor is taken from the conduct of a dutiful and loyal people towards their rightful Sovereign upon his entering among them in his own territories. John i. !1, 12. Sometimes the metaphor is taken from the ears ; and faith is expressed by hearing his voice, as an impoverished dying wretch would hear the offer of plenty and VOL. II.
life. Isaiah lv. 3. John v. 25. And sometimes, as in the text, the metaphor is taken from the eyes; and faith is represented as looking to Christ. My present design is,
1. To explain the duty here expressed by the metaphor of looking
II. To urge it upon you by sundry important considerations,
1. To explain the duty expressed by the metaphor of looking, we are to observe in general, that a man's looks often discover his condition and the frame of his mind. By virtue of the strange union between the soul and the body, the dispositions of the one are often indicated by the emotions and appearances of the other. The eye, in particular, is a mirror in which we may see the vari. ous passions of the mind ; and it has a kind of silent, and yet sig. nificant language, which conveys to others those inward exercises which the tongue does not, and perhaps cannot express. Hence we can understand a look of surprise and consternation, a look of sorrow and compassion, a look of joy, the look of a perishing supplicant, or of a needy, expecting dependent. If an agonizing patient casts an eager look upon his physician, we understand it to be a silent petition for relief. When a dying husband fixes a wishful, tender look upon his surviving half, or those little other selves his children, they know the melting language, and feel its resistless energy. And when we see a drowning man casting a wild and eager look towards a boat coming to his relief, we understand it to be the language of earnest importunity for speedy help. Hence it follows, that “ looking to Christ, implies those suitable dispositions and exercises of heart towards him, which are expressed by the earnest and significant looks of persons in a distressed condition towards their deliverer.” And in such a case it is natural to conceive a person as expressing by his looks a particular notice and distinct knowledge of his deliverer, an importunate cry for his assistance-a wishful expectation of it-a depen. dence upon him for it-an universal submission to him-an hearty love and approbation of him and joy and gratitude for his deliverance. And these dispositions and exercises of mind towards Christ are intended in the text by looking to him.
1. Looking to Christ, implies a particular notice and distinct knowledge of him. When we fix an earnest look upon an object, we take particular notice and a distinct survey of it, and so obtain a clear knowledge of it. Thus we are called to fix our intellectų. al eyes upon Christ, to make him the object of our contemplation,