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is true, but by whom are we taxed most? Let a man reckon whether many are not taxed twice as much by their folly, and three times as much by their drunkenness, and four times as much by their idleness, as they are by government, and then say whether they have any right to complain because the shoe pinches, when they made it on their own last.

Desire not riches, they bewitch;

Contentment makes a poor man rich. Industry will make a man a purse, and frugality gives him strings to it, the purse will cost him nothing, they that have it need only draw the strings as frugality directs, and they will always find a useful penny at the bottom of it. The servants of industry are known by their livery, it is clean and wholesome.

Were many women and servant girls to take as much time in mending their clothes as they do in eurling their hair, there would not be half so many rag shops every where. .

Look at the ragged and dirty slaves of idleness, and then ask who serves the best master. The fear of God will make a man think and act well, and when he needs it, God will find him a friend; the man who tells you to laugh at the fear of God, is your worst enemy, and teaches you to your injury also.-Beware of such. · Remember sin is the greatest evil, salvation by Christ is the greatest good, and grace to change the heart a poor man's greatest treasure. Let the poor inan find his way to the cheapest market on Saturday, to a place of worship on Sunday, and, like an honest man, to his labour on Monday. Follow these simple rules, and you will be in a way to be happy twice over, happy in time, and happy in eternity.

Drunkenness expels reason, and drowns the memory; defaces beauty, diminishes strength, inflames the blood, causes external and internal

Holly Hedges. ..

469 wounds, is a witch to the senses, a devil to the soul, a thief to the purse, a beggar's companion, a wife's woe, and children's sorrow. He is the picture of a beast, a self-murderer, who drinks to others good health, and robs himself of his own.

HOLLY HEDGES.
To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor.

SIR, .

The variety of subjects with which you treat your readers, can hardly fail to afford something that may interest them, according to their different pursuits and situations. Your 4th volume has some letters on the excellence of Holly Hedges, and on the best means of quickening their growth. This last consideration seems to me to be important, as objections are likely to be made to them from the slowness of their growth ; and your correspondent, therefore, who has shown the quickest method of bringing them forward deserves, our thanks. At the time of reading these letters, I own that I did not take much interest in them, never having had much opportunity of witnessing the beauty and advantage of these hedges, and moreover, being, like many other stupid people, more willing to go on in our old way than to try a new one, although it should be likely to be better. We do very well, I thought, as we are ; quick hedges, and stone walls, or brick walls, or rails.or palings did very well for our grandfathers, and they may do for us. The truth, indeed, is, that a quick hedge is an excellent fence, if it be properly attended to,—but a holly hedge is a better, and much more ornamental, especially for gardens, and pleasure grounds. A wall is expensive, and therefore

beyond the reach of many; and a wooden paling is good, as long as it lasts, but nothing can be more shabby when it begins to decay, besides requiring constant expence or repairs. Now a holly hedge, if well kept, is as compact and close as a wall; it comes perpendicularly down to the ground leaving no straggling branches to make litter, so that a gravel walk may be swept close up to it, giving altogether a fresh and beautiful appearance. The greenness of the holly, in winter makes it a delightful refreshment to the eye, and on a sunny day gives us a sort of foretaste of spring. Travellers on the Portsmouth road may see a specimen of the compactness and closeness of a holly hedge, as they pass through the pleasant village of Esher. There is a still better one in that part of the village which is a little out of the road. There is also a noble holly hedge, some hundred yards in length, surrounding the grounds of Lord Henry Fitzgerald, at Thames Ditton. It is so close, and compact that it seems as if à mouse could hardly get through it. Whoever sees this will, I think, soon wish to have a holly hedge, and will thank your correspondents for having put them in the way of getting one.

Yours,

VIATOR.

ON RINGING FRUIT TREES,

In reply to A CORRESPONDENT. To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor:

Sir, The practice to which your Correspondent refers, (P. 415,) is technically called Ringing. The operation is usually performed by cutting, with a sharp knife, two rings completely through the bark, and

1. Ringing Fruit-Trees. :. 471 from a quarter of an inch to two or three inches distant, from each other; the bark between the rings, is then removed. The space thus freed from the bark, must not be larger than what, in stone fruits, will heal the same year, and in other kinds, in two years, or the life of the tree will be en-. dangered. One or more branches, or the whole tree, may be operated upon at once. The result will be, that luxuriant branches, by having their growth checked, will be brought into bearing, and that bearing branches will set their fruit better, and bring it earlier to maturity, and to a larger size, than branches which have not been thus treated.

Ringing is decidedly injurious to all kinds of stone-fruit trees, and, with regard to other trees, if too frequently repeated, occasions premature old age, and even death. The practice is not, however, to be condemned altogether, as it may, under a variety of circumstances, be resorted to with ad. vantage ; for instance, if a young tree is to be brought into early bearing when from a growth too luxuriant a branch does not bear, or when a tree does not bring its fruit to maturity.

Du Hamel once removed the whole bark from the trunk of a cherry tree, and yet the tree not only survived, but was covered with a fresh bark the same year.

Your Correspondent asks—Why on a branch which has been rung, the fruit is more abundant, and attains to larger dimensions, than on one which has not been rung *? The sap of trees ascends through the white wood, between the heart and the bark, and, after circulating through theleaves,flowers, and fruit, descends through the bark. Now it is evident, that, if in any particular branch, the

* I fear that it will very seldom bear a double portion, as stated by your correspondent.

descent of the sap be prevented, as by ringing, (though that branch be not more abundantly supplied with sap than the rest), it will contain a larger quantity than any other branch, and, therefore, can support a larger crop of fruit, and bring, it to a greater size.

A tight ligature, for instance a copper wire twisted round a branch so firmly as to compress the bark, will prevent the descent of the sap, and consequently produce the same effect as dividing the bark. This method of ringing is, perhaps, preferable to that mentioned by your correspondent.

E. W. B.

.. MUSHROOMS.. Before mushrooms are eaten they should be carefully examined ; as persons are sometimes made ill by eating those poisonous fongi which resemble them. Mushrooms have sometimes soft fibrous stems, but not tubular ones. The gills are pink. In decay, chocolate coloured. The skin is not slimy, is rather scaly, and separates easily from the flesh. The scent of the whole plant is peculiar, and quite different from that of fungi in general.

The species which is most easily mistaken for it, is slimy to the touch, and has rather an unpleasant scent. It also grows in woods, and is very seldom met with in open pastures.

. B.

SELECTIONS FROM DIFFERENT AUTHORS. JESUS Christ is our Saviour; the end of our journey; the hope of our travel, and the port whereunto we ought to direct all the course of our life : if we seek after pleasure, He is pleasure it

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