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throue he is able by bithem
of the world." John,
27 him only can you obtain the pardon of your sins, through him only inherit the promise of eternal life; for “ he is able to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth 'to make intercession for them.” (Hebrews, 7th chap. 25th verse.) He is “the light of the world;" follow him, and you “ shall have the light of life.” (John, 8th chap. 12th verse.) He is "the good shepherd,” that laid “ down his life for the sheep.” (John, 10th chap. 11th verse.) Hear his voice, and he will “ gather" you " with his arm, and carry you " in his bosom ;” (Isaiah, 40th chap. 11th verse,) and bring you in the end to his everlasting fold.” To which blessed state that we may all come, may God of his infinite goodness and mercy grant, through the merits of the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
November 1, 1824. Sir, . Your correspondent on holly hedges reminds me of a subject, on which I will take the liberty of troubling your readers with a few lines. A sweetbriar hedge is most beautiful and fragrant, and may be made, by proper management, much stronger than quick; and it is much quicker in its growth than any other. Properly managed, I say, because it is a general complaint that it grows bare at the bottom, from its shooting so strongly at the top; but this is from people's not knowing, or remembering, that sweetbriar will take readily from layers, by means of which, with a very little trouble, it may be made perfectly thick and strong at the bottom.
How to make a sweetbriar hedge. Put in your plants any time from Michaelmas to Lady-day, in moist weather, and cut them with shears close to the ground soon afterwards; but if
the plants are large you may leave one stem, which should be shortened. Put in two rows, not less than a foot apart, and at least ten inches asunder in the rows, and more, if not very small, for the season that follows. The Michaelmas after, it will have made as strong shoots, if kept free from weeds, as whitethorn in two years: go over and lay in all the shoots, across and across each other in all directions; it is very quick and easy work with strong gloves, as they require no slitting nor pegging ; but they will strike all the sooner and lie neater, if you give each twig a little twist. You have only to scoop up a little earth with a trowel, lay down the twig, and press the earth over it. They are sure to take root in a few months. Go over the hedge in this manner once a year, autumn or spring, (but if you wish for a fence very soon, do it twice, in June and October) laying in all the long shoots, and clipping the rest ; and, when it gets tall, the top shoots may be wreathed together. If treated in this manner and kept clear from weeds, you will have a better fence in four years, than of whitethorn in eight, for by the laid-in shoots crossing each other, and holding fast at both ends, it will be so thick from bottomto top, that a rat could hardly get through; nor will you ever have a gap, because, if a plant or two be destroyed, you have only to lay down the branches of those on each side the gap. Hollies will also strike from layers, (whitethorn will not) and thus will make a hedge which will keep itself in constant repair, whereas all plants that will not take readily from layers, will in time get bare at the bottom, and must be cut down from time to time. Holly however is slow of growth, but nothing is so quick as sweetbriar. The seeds usually lie a year before they come up, but may be raised the first year by the following management. Gather the berries when full ripe, mash them in a tub with a log of wood, with a little water, so as to be a pulp that will just pour ; then let this stand a
· County of Northumberland. month or more in a room, often stirring it, and it will work like beer; then bury it along with a little fresh dung and some mowings, or chopt cabbage leaves, or the like, till spring, when, on digging them up, you will find many of the seeds sprouting : strew the whole on a bed of sandy earth, rake and spread a little earth over. This should be the latter end of March, and, by the middle or end of April, most of the seeds will be up, which saves one whole year. At Michaelmas, plant them either in the hedge, or what is better, a nursery bed, for a year or two, or more, for they will move very well, when of a good size. If you have once got a hedge, according to these directions, it will furnish as many plants as you want, because you may take up the layers that have struck nearest the outside.
N.B. Sweetbriar will not thrive in a stiff clay, but in any other soil it will do well, and best in the most barren sand on a dry bank, where nothing else would flourish; and you may have it up to six or seven feet if desired. I hope this is worthy of attention, being the fruit of real experience. And am, Sir, your humble servant,
'E. P. H.
· GÉOGRAPHY. Description of the County of Northumberlani. NORTHUMBERLAND, which derives its name from being situated North of the Humber, (a river in Yorkshire) is the most northern county of England. It is bounded on the north, and, in part, on the west, by Scotland, in other parts on the west by Cumberland, on the south by Durham, and on the east by the German Ocean.
The surface of this county is much varied. Along the coast on the eastern side, it is nearly level. In
the middle district it is more diversified, and is thrown into large swelling ridges. Nearly the whole of the western side is mountainous. The soil in the eastern and middle districts, is, with few exceptions, rich and productive, being in some places a strong clay, and in others a dry loam. The mountainous district comprises more than one-third of the whole county'; but this part is not all of the same character; the northern or Cheviot hills being mostly all green nearly to their summits, enclosing many narrow but fertile glens, and affording excellent pastures for the breed of sheep, to which they have given the name ; while those to the west and south are, in general, open solitary wastes, covered with heath. The principal rivers in this county are the Tyne, the Coquet, and the Tweed. The Tyne is formed of two branches; one, which rises near Alstone, in Cumberland, and the other, on Carter's Fell, on the borders of Northumberland and Scotland; these branches meet a little above the town of Hexham. The Coquet rises in the western hills of this county, and the Tweed rises in Scotland. The Tweed is celebrated for its salmon fishery. The fish are packed in pounded ice, and sent to London for sale. The Tyne used to be equally famous for its salmon fishery, but the quantity of fish now taken is inconsiderable. This decrease has been attributed to the establishment of many factories on the banks of the river, where lead ore is washed. The tide flows about sixteen miles up the Tyne, and about eight or ten up the Tweed. The Coquet is a small river well supplied with trout.
Northumberland is distinguished for its agriculture; it is conducted, particularly in the northern part of the county, by intelligent and opulent men. The system pursued by them combines almost all those branches of rural economy, for one or more of which other districts are celebrated. But it is
Counties in Wales. : 31 for its mineral riches that this county is peculiarly distinguished. It has, for many centuries, supplied London, and the whole of the eastern and southern coasts of England, and many parts of the continent, with coals. Excepting on the Cheviot Hills, coal is found over the greater part of this county ; but the finest kind, which is raised for importation, is confined to a district around Newcastle. There are several lead mines in this county, the chief of which is that of Allendale.
The principaltownsare, Newcastle, North Shields, Hexham on the Tyne, Alnwick on the Aln, Merpeth on the Wansbech, and Berwick on the Tweed. Newcastle is a large and well built town, containing about 40,000 inhabitants. Its principal support arises from the coal trade, but it also carries on a considerable trade in lead, wrought iron, grindstones, pottery ware, and glass. North Shields is a considerable town, situated at the mouth of the Tyne, supported by the coal trade. During the war it had a considerable number of vessels in the transport service.
N. C. T.
COUNTIES IN WALES.
Montgomeryshire. I Radnorshire. Wales is about 140 miles in length, and 60 in breadth.