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of five miles an hour, was very great, and caused
THE ORIGIN OF JEWELLERY uncomfortable vibration in the houses along main thoroughfares; on the other hand, light traction
Personal ornaments in civilised countries consist o engines were being successfully used, drawing from
| precious metals, stones, or imitations of stones, pearls four to five tons of market produce through the
(which are the product of shells), or shells themselves, streets of London without causing undue vibration, amber, jet, and occasionally various other objects, such and at a cost said to be about one-half that of as tiger's claws, &c. It has hitherto been held that horse traction. A far more burning question was / men and women were led by purely ästhetic considethat of the speed of motor-cars along our public ! rations to adorn themselves with such objects; but 2 thoroughfares. The struggle to maintain a trophy
| little research into the history of such ornaments at home, or to regain it from abroad, was one in
leads to a very different conclusion. The fact is that which every inhabitant of this country sympathised.
mankind was led to wear such objects by magic The great Gordon-Bennett Cup race in July last was
rather than by æsthetic considerations. The jewellery decidedly international in character--French, Germans,
of primitive peoples consists of small stones with Americans, and English contesting for the prize. M.
| natural perforations, e.g., silicified spones or joints of Jenatzy covered a distance of 327) miles in six hours
coniseræ, or of substances easily perforated, such as 39 minutes, or at the rate of 49 miles an hour,
od miles an hour. amber, the seeds of plants, shells, the teeth and clays though he attained to a speed of 61 miles an hour
of animals, bones, or pieces of bone, pieces of wood between the points of control. Even this speed was
of popular kinds. Later on they learn to bore hard exceeded at a trial in Phenix-park, Dublin, when
stones, such as rock crystal, hematite, agate, gamet, Baron de Forest attained to a rate of 86 miles an
&c., and to obtain the metals. hour. But between racing speed and ordinary travel.
All peoples value for magical purposes small stones ling speed there is necessarily a great difference,
of peculiar form or colour long before they can wear and our 20 miles maximum on country roads is in
them as ornaments; e g., Australians and tribes of New excess of that allowed in France, where it is now
Guinea use crystals for rain-making, although they fixed, though the author believed not enforced in the
cannot bore them, and crystal is a powerful amulet in open country, at 18! miles, and at 121 miles where
Uganda fastened into leather. Sorcerers in Africa there was much traffic. The use of motor-driven
carry a small bag of pebbles as an important part cí vehicles for road traffic was so intimately associated
their equipment. So was it in Greece. The crystal with improvements in prime movers that it would in
was used to light sacrificial fire, and was so employed terest the members of the section to be reminded of |
in the Church down to the fifteenth century. The the opinion expressed more than 20 years ago by Sir
| Egyptians under the twelfth dynasty used it largely, Frederick Bramwell, who presided over the meeting
piercing it along its axes after rubbing off the pyraof the British Association, at Bath, in 1888. In
midal points of the crystal, sometimes leaving the a paper read at the Jubilee meeting of the
natural six sides, or else grinding it into a complete Association, at York in 1881, Sir Frederick Bramwell
cylinder. From this bead came the artificial cylinsaid :-"However much the Mechanical Section of
drical beads made later by the Egyptians, from which the British Association may to-day contemplate with
modern cylindrical glass beads are descended. regret even the mere distant prospect of the steam
The beryl, a natural hexagonal prism, lent itself engine becoming a thing of the past, I very much
still more readily to the same form, e.g., the cylindrical doubt whether those who meet here fifty years hence
beryl beads found in Rhodian tombs. The Babylonian will then speak of that motor except in the character
cylinders found without any engraving on them on of a curiosity to be found in a museum.” To keep
the wrists of the dead in early Babylonian graves had alive the interest of the Association in this subject, Sir
a similar origin. It has been universally held that Frederick Bramwell had kindly offered, and the
Babylonian cylinders, Egyptian scarabs, and Nycenean council bad accepted, the sum of £50 for investment
gems were primarily signets; but as the cylinders are in 2! per cent. self-accumulative Consols, the resulting
fuund unengraved, and as many as 500 scarabs are sum to be paid as an honorarium to a gentleman to be
found on one mummy, and as Mycenean stones are selected by the council to prepare a paper having Sir
often found without any engraving, it is clear that the Frederick's utterances in 1881 as a sort of text, and
primary use was not for signets but for amulets. The dealing with the whole question of the prime movers
Orphic Lithica gives a clear account of the special of 1931, and especially with the then relation between
virtue of each stone, and it is plain that they acted steam-engines and internal-combustion engines.
chiefly by sympathetic magic ; e.g. green jasper and That paper would doubtless prove to be a very
tree agates make the vegetation grow, &c. The valuable contribution to the proceedings of the
Greeks and Asiatics used stones primarily as amulets, Association, and one could only regret that
e.g. Mithridates had a whole cabinet of gems as many of those assembled here to-day could not
antidotes to poison. To enhance the natural power hope to be present when it was read, and to
of the stone a device was cut on it, e.g. the Abraxas listen to an account of the nearest approach which had then been made towards the production of a
• Abstract of a paper read by Professor W. Ridgeway,
before the Anthropological Section of the British Assoperfect jr me mover.
ciation, at Southport.
cut on a green jasper, the special amulet of the commercial value, were indigenous to the New South Gnostics. The use of the stone for sealing was Wales coast, and that it was probable a systematic simply secondary, and may have arisen first for sacred investigation would prove the existence of other purposes.* Shells are worn as amulets by modern kinds of equal or superior commercial value savages, e.g. cowries in Africa, where these or some Many of the specimens had been washed ashore other kind of shells were worn in Strabo's time to during heavy gales, while others were waterkeep off the evil eye.
worn or dried up. Several kinds were obtained Red coral was a potent amulet worn by travellers from Sydney Harbour. The living sponge has been by sea, as at the present day in Mediterranean lands, seldom met with, but during some fierce gales in 1901 and if pounded up it kept red rust from corn. Pearls the heavy seas cast on the hai bour and ocean beaches are a potent medicine in modern China. Seeds of an enormous amount of marine products. Seaweed plants are medicine everywhere; for example, the was piled up to the depth of three or four feet, and ratti (Abrus precatoria) is used in India for rosaries, with it a vast quantity of animal life. Several of the and also in Africa; the seed of wild banana is heaps, composed of the smaller organisms, were especially valued in Uganda, &c. The claws of lions simply large, brilliantly variegated mounds, containing are worn as amulets all through Africa, and are “ great representatives of the New South Wales marine fauna medicine," and imitations of them are made. So and flora. In addition to the large and varied accumuwith teeth of jackals, which are imitated in wood if | lation of seaweeds, the beaches were strewn with the real ones are not to be bad, and boars' tusks in fish, molluscs, crustacea, worms, alcyonareans, echinoNew Guinea. When gold becomes first known it is derms, zoophytes, ascidians, and sponges, the two regarded exactly like the stones mentioned. Thus | latter being the most abundant. The beaches in the Debæ, an Arab tribe, who did not work gold, some places were carpeted with organisms resplenbut had abundance in their land, used only the dent with all the colours of the rainbow. Here Mr. nuggets, stringing them for necklaces alternately Whitelegge was enabled to secure numerous living with perforated stones.f Magnetic iron and hematite specimens of sponge, and found them beautifully were especially prized, the power of attraction coloured-reddish orange, dark terra cotta, madder in magnetic iron, as in the case of amber, causing a brown, dark yellowish stene, orange buff, yellowish belief that there was a living spirit within. Hence cream, and pale cream. The tints changed after death, ron in general was regarded with peculiar veneration, one kind, a canary colour, becoming bright purple. and not because it was a newer metal, as is commonly Among the commercial sponges, a new species, the stated.
Euspongia illawarra, is declared to be “ quite equal” It is thus clear that the use of all the objects still if not superior to many of the kinds used for domestic employed in modern jewellery has primarily arisen purposes. Mr. Wbitelegge found the dried skeleton from the magical powers attributed to them, by which soft and extremely elastic; when wet it was tough, they were thought to protect the wearer.
elastic, and apparently very durable. In colour it is a light-yellowish brown. The main fibres are entirely free from foreign bodies such as sand grains and
spicule fragments, which are present in nearly all the AUSTRALIAN SPONGES.
sponges purchasable in Sydney. In fact, it may be Although the existence of various kinds of sponge said that all sponges, economic and non-economic, : 0 on the Australian coast has been known for many far examined, have foreign bodies in their compositior, years, the possibility of cultivating those descriptions but the Euspongia illawarra is superior to all prepossessing a commercial value has only recently viously known in this respect. To use Mr. Whiteattracted attention. It appears that in August, 1900, legge's own words, “ This sponge is by far the be: t the trustees of the Australian Museum, in Sydney, occurring on the coast, and is equal if not superior to received from the New South Wales Fisheries' Com many of the commercial sponges procurable in missioners a donation of a large collection of sponges
Sydney." The discovery that sponges of commercial obtained by their inspectors stationed on the sea value are abundant on the New South Wales coast board of the State, the object being to ascertain the has raised the question of their systematic cultivation, number of species suitable for commercial purposes,
and here it has been ascertained that it can be readily or that might be rendered such by cultivation. The propagated, as on the coast of Florida, by placing small work of investigation was entrusted to Mr. Thomas living cuttings in suitable places. The most favourWhitelegge, the Museum Zoologist, who devoted able location seems to be anywhere within the bays considerable time to the work of classifying the collec. and lagoons free from heavy seas, too strong currents, tion, consisting of about six hundred and thirty and too much fresh water; and in moderate depths specimens, of which forty belonged to the commer for easy handling and observation. The growth is cial kinds, seven being regarded as possessing an taster in strong currents, but in such a case the shape economic value. The result was to show that at | is apt to be poor and the quality harsh. Under least eight species and varieties of sponge, having a | favourable conditions the cuttings double their size in
six months, consequently eighteen months to two • Cf. Herod. ii. 38.
+ Strabo, p. 778. years will produce marketable sponges. The growth
is naturally regulated largely by local conditions, such detracts from the quality of the oil. It is said that there as temperature, food supply, and situation ; and Mr. | are between 3,000 and 4,000 of these presses in Spain. Whitelegge advises that “after fixation the material Formerly the pulp remaining in the presses was used with the attached sponge could be transported to as fodder or fuel, but now it is sold, and a second explaces calculated to encourage rapid growth." His traction of oil is made from it. There are sixty-three own experience teaches him “that the finest speci: | mills in Spain for extracting oil from this pulp. The mens of sponges . . . . are generally found largest oil manufacturers, especially those in the prosuspended under stones or from the roofs of caves. vince of Catalonia, have been the first to recognise Under such conditions they are shaded from excessive the importance of improving their machinery ; the light and possibly have a more abundant food supply, old crushing mills and wooden presses have been reor the inverted position gives the sponge a better placed by steel cylinders and hydraulic presses, so chance of obtaining food.”
that not only is a greater yield obtained, but the quality of the oil is better. Nearly all the machinery in use is of Spanish make. After being extracted, the oil is run into earthenware jars or tin tanks, and
after a certain time, strained. It is then poured out SPANISH OLIVE OIL.
into receptacles to be kept until required, alcohol During recent years efforts have been made to being sometimes used to keep off the action of the improve the quality of the olive oil produced in Spain, air. The lower grades of oil are used in the manuso as to enable it to compete in foreign markets with facture of common soap. the French and Italian oils, which are so universally appreciated. Some measure of success has already attended these efforts, and this has encouraged the leading Spanish oil crushers to spend money on im
General Notes. provements in their machinery with, it is said, every prospect of a good return. In Barcelona, the pickling of green olives is an important branch of industry; besides the home consumption, which is ALUMINIUM AS AN ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR. large, about 7,000 tons are, according to Consul Lay, | In a paper read before the Engineering Section of the annually exported. The olives are packed either in British Association, Mr. J. B. C. Kershaw gave the bottles or kegs. For pickling, the olives are care results of tests of the suitability of aluminium as an fully selected; all those that are in the slightest degree electrical conductor for bare overhead transmission bruised or damaged are rejected, as only the perfect lines, as a substitute for copper. These tests were fruit is capable of being preserved. The selected made in order to ascertain the resistance to corrosion olives are then placed in fresh water to soak for a few offered by commercial aluminium rod and wire under days, care being taken to change the water fre- the conditions obtaining with exposed bare overhead quently; they are then put into the pickling mixture, wires. Samples of aluminium rod and wire were ob which is a solution of common salt and soda, the olives tained from the principal English firms, and in order being entirely covered. This is the general method to make the series of observations more complete. adopted, and though some may slightly alter the samples of galvanised iron wire, and of copper and solution used, and add to it certain aromatic sub-' tinned copper wire, were also submitted to atmostances to flavour the olives, the basis of the pre spheric exposure in two localities in Lancashire. The paration is invariably common salt and soda. Ripe and tests extended from October, 1899, to December, 1902. hall-ripe olives are preserved only in small quantities, All the samples of aluminium gained in weight during as there is little demand for them. Until quite exposure, and all were pitted and corroded, especially recently litce attention was paid to the method on the under side where the water drops had collected of extracting oil in Spain, and consequently in many and dried. The rods appeared to have suffered rather parts the most primitive methods are still in use. It less than the wires, and it is therefore probable that is usual for the small grower himself to extract the | in the course of drawing down, aluminium wire oil from the olives grown on his land ; and as be undergoes physical change. The author concludes frequently does not own the necessary appliances, he that some of the aluminium rod and wire which was borrows them from the nearest town, paying for their being manufactured and sold in England for electrical use either in money or oil. These machines are of purposes in the years 1899 and 1901, was not able to the most primitire description. The olives are first stand atmospheric exposure on the coast of Lancashire crushed in a mill turned by a horse or a bullock. without corrosion, and argues that it is only a fair deThey are then placed in lever presses and the oil duction from these exposure tests to assert that thus extracted, boiling water being generally used in aluminium manufacturers have yet to prove the metal the process. These wooden presses, though powerful, a satisfactory and durable substitute for copper in bare are very slow, and it often happens that the olives overhead transmission lines, or for electrical work have to be stored until the presses are available, with which involves exposure to climates near the sea the result that fermentation sets in, and this naturally
us naturally | coast.
The demonstration in the Empress Theatre
will commence at 8.30 p.m. sharp. Journal of the Society of Arts, | The number of the party will be limited to
200. Not more than two tickets can be issued No. 2,654. VOL. LI.
to any one member. They will be issued in
order of priority of application. Members. FRIDAY, OCTOBER 2, 1903.
desiring to avail themselves of the invitation should apply at once to the Secretary of the Society, stating whether one or two tickets
will be required. All communications for the Society should be addressed to the Secretary, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C.
In all cases admission to the theatre will be provided as well as admission to the Exhibition.
EXHIBITION. The Committee of this Exhibition have invited a party of the members of the Society of Arts to visit the Exhibition at Earl's Court on Wednesday, October 14th (asternoon and evening), and inspect the exhibits, including those to which the Society of Arts medals will have been awarded.
The members accepting the invitation will also have an opportunity of seeing the historical pageant and modern fire service display known as “ Fighting the Flames.”
The members will assemble at 4 p.m. inside the Warwick-road entrance of the Earl's Court Exhibition.
A round of the exhibits will be made in three parties, and the exhibitors will be requested to be in attendance at their exhibits to explain or demonstrate their appliances or work.
Modern fire appliances will be demonstrated at the lake from 5 to 6 p.m. (long ladders from 5 to 5.30 p.m. and fire engines from 5.30 to 6 p.m.).
The three parties will start to view the exhibits respectively as follows:
Party “A.”—Ducal Hall, 4.5 p.m., going by way of Queen's Palace, to Imperial Court.
Party “B” will start viewing in Imperial Court, at 4.10, visiting the Lake, Queen's Palace, and end at Ducal Hall.
Party“C” will commence in the Queen's Palace, 4.10 p.m., visiting the Lake, Ducal Hall, and ending at the Imperial Court.
The London Salvage Corps, by kind permission of Lieut.-Col. Fox, will turn out and drill in the Western Gardens at 6.30 and at 7.30 p.m.
PRIZE FOR A DUST- ARRESTING
RESPIRATOR. The Council of the Society of Arts are prepared to award, under the terms of the Benjamin Shaw Trust, a Prize of a Gold Medal, or Twenty Pounds, for the best Dust. Arresting Respirator for use in dusty processes, and in dangerous trades.
The apparatus will be required to fulfil the following conditions: (1.) It must be light and simple in construc
tion. (2.) It should be inexpensive, so as to
admit of frequent renewal of the filtering medium or of the Respirator as a whole; or alternatively it should be of such construction that it can
be readily cleaned. (3.) It should allow no air to enter by the
nostrils or mouth except through the
filtering medium. (4.) It should not permit expired air to be
rebreathed. (5.) The filtering medium, though it should
be effective in arresting dust particles, should not offer such resistance as to impede respiration when worn for some hours under the actual con
ditions of work. (6.) It is desirable that it should be as little
unsightly as possible. It should be noted that the prize is offered for a Respirator intended merely to arrest dust, and not for a chemical Respirator designed to arrest poisonous fumes. The applications. of such chemical Respirators are more limited, and there are special requirements connectedi with them. The Council have, therefore, preferred to limit the range of their present offer to the simpler and more important cases of
Proceedings of the Society.
dust, either dust of all kinds or of some special character, e.g., iron or steel.
Inventors intending to compete should send in specimens of their inventions not later than 31st December, 1903, to the Secretary of the Society of Arts, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C. Such specimens must be accompanied by full descriptions, and in cases in which the apparatus has been put into actual use, the experience of such use should be given.
The Prize will be awarded on the report of judges appointed by the Council.
The Competition is not limited to British subjects.
The Council reserve to themselves the right of withholding the Prize, of extending the time for sending in, or of awarding a smaller Prize or smaller Prizes.
Further particulars will be found in previous announcements in the Journal. The last of these appeared on 14th August, 1903.
SECTIONAL COMMITTEE. The following is the list of the Applied Art Section Committee as appointed by the Council :-
APPLIED ART SECTION COMMITTEE. Sir William Abney, K.C.B., Hon. Sir Charles W.
D.C.L., D.Sc., F.R.S. Fremantle, K.C.B. (Chairman of the Council). J. Starkie Gardner Sir George Bird wood, William Gouland, F.S.A.
K.C.I.E., C.S.I., LL.D., Gerald C. Horsley.
Seymour Lucas, R.A.
Sir Walter S. Prideaux. Prof. A. H. Church, M.A., Halsey Ralph Ricardo, F.R.S., F.C.S.
Alexander Siemens. Sir Caspar Purdon Clarke, A. B. Skinner, B.A., F.S.A. C.I.E.
John Sparkes. Alan S. Cole, C.B.
R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A. Sidney Colvin, M.A.
Hugh Stannus, F R.I.B.A. Walter Crane,
H. H. Statham, F.R.I.B.A. Henry Hardinge Cunyng- Joseph Wilson Swan, M.A., hame, C.B.
D.Sc., F R.S. Cyril Davenport.
Carmichael Thomas. Lewis Foreman Day.
Sir John I Thornycroft, Alfred East, A.R A.
LL.D., F.R.S. Arthur Evans, F.R.S. Sir Thomas Wardle. Sir John Evans, K.C.B., Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A.
D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 1 (Secreta'y)
By Julius HÜBNER, F.C.S. (Director of the Dyeing, Frinting, and Paper - making
Department, at the Municipal School of Technology, Manchester.) Lecture IV.- Delivered February 23rd, 1903. Fourdrinier paper machine- Single cylinder and
other types of paper making machines-Finishing - Cutting - Paper-testing – Experimental paper. making.
We will now follow the pulp, as it comes from the strainers, on its journey through the Fourdrinier paper machine (Figs. 22 elevation, and 23 plan,* pp. 858-860), during which it is rapidly converted into a continuous web of paper.
A small box (d), provided with a stirrer, is generally placed between the strainer and the machine ; from this the pulp flows on to the machine over the so-called “apron,' a piece of sheet rubber the width of which is regulated according to the width of paper made. Froth is prevented from getting on to the paper and an irregular flow of the pulp, apt to cause unevenness, is aroided, by means of thin strips of brass which run across the full width of the machine, immediately above the wire, and close to the arron.
The length of these strips, which are termed “ slices,” as well as their distance from the wire, are adjusted according to requirements. From the “apron,” the pulp travels on to the endless wire on which the paper is actually made and which corresponds to the mould of the hand maker. A number of moulds are thus, practically speaking, placed closely together so as to form one endless mould.
The deckle placed on the hand mould, has also its counterpart in the two square rubber bands (e) which run on either side of the wire and so prevent the pulp from spreading beyond a certain width. The length of the wire naturally varies very considerably with the kind of paper made and also with the speed at which the machine is run. The mesh of the wire varies from 60 to 100 warp wires per inch. The endless wire is supported at the end nearest to the strainer by the “breast roll" ), whilst it returns at the other end of
I am indebted to Messrs. Bentley and Jackson, Limited, for the drawings of the Fourdrinier paper machine.
COVERS FOR FOURNAL. For the convenience of members wishing to bind their volumes of the Journal, cloth covers will be supplied, post free, for is. 6d. each, on application to the Secretary.