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ties will be able to impress on the authorities spirit with all matters which could affect the spread of their needs. The large majority of those whose science. Again, there is a hostility to great and rapid views I share in this matter are not opposed to or changes in the minds of those whom such changes distrust the good effects of those parts of education affect. which date from ancient times. The great men who The policy must always be to progress as much as have come under their sway are living proofs that is possible without rousing too great an opposition they can be effective now as they have been in times | from any quarter, and I think it will be seen that the past, but we look to the production of greater men progress made during the last twenty-five years has, by the removal of the limitations which tradition sets. by the various annual increments, been perhaps more I myself gratefully acknowledge what the public than could have been hoped for, and gives a promise school at which I had my early education did for me, for even more rapid advances in the future. but I think my gratitude would be more intense had I been given some small elementry instruction in that natural knowledge which has had to be picked up here and there in after life. There is one type of college which I have not
CUSTOMS REPORT. alluded to before, and that is the technical institutes. The forty-seventh report of the Commissioners of
These have been fostered by the localities in which His Majesty's customs for the year ended 31st March, they are situated, and been largely supported by the 1903, lately published, contains the following parwhisky money, supplemented by Government aid. I ticulars :am glad to see that in the last regulations of the The Gross Imperial Customs Revenue collected in Board of Education these colleges will receive grants the year 1902-3 amounted to £35,499,723, or, after for higher scientific instruction, and I have no doubt deduction of Drawbacks and Repayments, to that in the near future such institutions and schools £34,460,685. This is £3,414,125 more than the of science will receive a block grant, which will give produce of 1901-2, and £739,315 less than the them even still greater freedom than they now enjoy. Budget Estimate for the year. The Customs These are colleges to which students from secondary Revenue has thus brought in 2:1 per cent. less than schools will gradually find their way, where they wish was anticipated, but nearly II per cent, more than it for higher education of a type different from that to produced in 1901-2, and very much more than was be gained at a university.
ever raised in this country before, by Customs duties, I have endeavoured to give a brief historical sketch in any one year. of what the State has done in helping forward instruc The amount which was paid to the Exchequer in tion in natural knowledge amongst the industrial 1902-3 was £34,433,000, which compares with classes, adults and children, and how gradually its £30,993,000 in 1901-2, showing an increase of financial aid has been extended to secondary schools. £3,440,000. I have also endeavoured to indicate the steps by The gross and net receipts from the duty on which practical instruction has been fostered by it. I exported coal, culm, coke, and cinders in the two have done this because I am confident that ninety. years since its imposition were :--nine educationists out of every hundred have but little idea what the State has been doing for the last
1902-3 fifty years. Some connected with secondary schools -I have personal knowledge--were till lately ignorant that the State had offered advantages to them of a Gross receipts ....
1,859,410 2,266,163 financial nature. I may say that the work of the late
Net receipts .............. 1,311,706 | 1,991,767 Science and Art Department was largely a missionary work. It was abused, sometimes rightly but more often wrongly, for this very work, and it had more | The increase of £680,061 in the net receipts in abusers at one time probably than any other 1902-3 is chiefly due to the lessened quantities of Government Department. Even friends to the coal exempted from duty, or on which the duty was movement of modernising education found fault remitted, under the pre-duty contract clause. with it as antiquated and slow, but I can The duty upon foreign chicory produced £53,012 assure you that no greater mistake can be in 1902-3, a small decrease as compared with the premade in pressing forward any movement by any ceding year. hurried change of front or by endeavouring to push Cocoa of all sorts yielded in duty £225,816, a forward matters too rapidly. In the first place, the decrease as compared with 1901-2, of £29,485, or Treasury naturally views untried changes with II.5 per cent. suspicion, and this fact has to be dealt with more! The falling off has occurred principally in connecparticularly when there is no great expression of tion with raw cocoa, the clearances of which were public opinion to reckon with. At the same time it 8,041,652 lbs. smaller in 1902-3 than in 1901-2. The cannot be stated too strongly that the Treasury has larger clearances of 1901-2 took place in January and in recent years dealt in a friendly and enlightened February, 1902, and were chiefly due to War Office demands for the South African campaign, and to The crops of 1902 were not so large as was originBudget anticipations.
ally expected, and prices, which during the summer The gross receipts from the duty upon coffee in and autumn had been at a very low level, rose in con1902-3 were £194,152, and the net receipts £178,628. sequence. Between July, 1902, and February, 1903, The gross receipts show a decrease of 426,749, or the rise in price may be put at 1}d. per lb., the London 12.1 per cent., whilst the net receipts show an in sales of Indian tea in the latter month averaging ;jd. crease of £4,286, or 2-5 per cent., as compared with per lb., and of Ceylon tea 7 d. per lb. 1901-2, the cause of these movements being due The exports of tea from the United Kingdom largely to the reduced quantities sent away on draw. during the financial year 1902-3 have been about back, owing to the cessation of the South African 4,000,000 lbs. in excess of those of the preceding war.
year, and this has also helped to raise the price. The net yield of the cor duties amounted to Of the total revenue in 1902-3, tea from India con£2,346,796, of which wheat and wheat four con tributed 57.8 per cent.; tea from Ceylon, 34-2 per tributed 58.6 per cent.
cent.; tea from China, 4:6 per cent.; and tea from The imports of wheat in the financial year 1902-3! all other countries, 5:4 per cent. were 8.1 million cwts., and were the highest yet. The duties upon tobacco realised £12,451,473 in recorded, but the imports of wheatmeal and flour 1902-3, as compared with 4, 10, 5667,705 in the year were lower than they have been for some years. 1901-2, an increase of £1,883,768, or 17.8 per cent. Partly owing to the failure of the North American This large increase is not, however, wholly due to maize crop of 1901, the imports of maize in 1902-3 greater consumption, for the clearances of 1901-2 were lower than they have been since the year were considerably reduced by the forestalments which 1895-6.
were made at the end of 1900-1 in anticipation of a The currant crops of 1902 were both good in rise in the duties. It is probable that, if allowance quality and quantity, and the receipts from the duty be made for those forestalments, the increase in 1902-3 have exceeded those of 1901-2 by £14,585, or 14:4 would be about 3 to 3 per cent. per cent. The amount received in 1902-3, viz. The wine duties yielded £1,523,856 in 1902-3, an £115,524, is not, however, equal to the receipts o increase of 674,169, or 5'1 per cent., as compared 1898.9 and 1899-1900-the two years preceding the with the receipts of 1901-2. The consumption of unfavourable crop of 1900, which was so much | wine showed a downward tendency during 1900 and damaged by peronosporos. Prices of currants were 1901, and the improvement of 1902-3 may to some much lower than in 1901.
extent be attributed to the cessation of the war. Duties upon sugar, glucose, molasses, saccharin, and articles manufactured with or preserved in sugar, were imposed by the Finance Act of 1901, and the year 1902-3 was consequently the second during which the duties have been in force. The duties upon glucose were originally fixed at
General Notes. 25. the cwt. for liquid glucose, and 2s. 9d. the cwt. for solid glucose, but in consequence of the imposition of the Corn Duties, it became necessary to add AN EARLY PURPLE FISHERY.—The island of to these amounts in order that the home manufac Leuke, off the south-east coast of Crete, an im. turer should not be placed at a disadvantage as com portant fishing-station in antiquity, has recently been pared with his foreign competitor. The Finance Act explored by Mr. C. T. Currelly and Mr. R. C. of 1902 accordingly raised the rates to 2s. 6d. and Bosanquet. Among sand-hills on the north shore 55. 3d. respectively.
they found a bank of shells, some whole but mostly The net receipts from the Sugar duties in 1902-3 crushed, of the variety Murex trunculus, which is were £4.478,707, as against £6,399,228 in 1901-2, a known to have been used in the manufacture of the decrease of £1,920,521, or 30 per cent. This very | purple dye. Scattered through the heap were fraglarge reduction is due chiefly to forestalments or post ments of pottery and of a stratile bowl, which marked ponement of clearances in enticipation of changes of it as not only præ-Hellenic but præ. Phænician. duty. These operations resulted in an abnormal Further digging within a few yards of the heap reduction of the revenue of 1902-3 by about brought to light characteristic Cretan vases of the £1,500,000.
Kamáres type and the foundations of a house. The The revenue from the tea duty in the last financial evidence shows that the extraction of the purple-juice year was £5,975,483, as against £ 5,792,967 in 1901-2, | was practised in Crete at least as early as 1600 B.C. an increase of £182,516, or 3-2 per cent. Towards Hitherto the Phænicians have been credited with the the end of the year 1902-3 it was generally anticipated discovery of “ Tyrian purple.” It appears, however, in the trade that the duty, which had been increased That in this matter, as in the art of writing, and per. from 4d. to 6d. per pound in 1900, would be reduced, haps in other inventions attributed to the Phoenicians and clearances were postponed. Had this not occurred by Greek authors, the Minoans of Crete were the real the increase would have been somewhat greater.
Journal of the Society of Arts,
No. 2,653. Vol. LI.
The demonstration in the Empress Theatre will commence at 8.30 p.m. sharp.
The number of the party will be limited to 200. Not more than two tickets can be issued to any one member. They will be issued in order of priority of application. Members desiring to avail themselves of the invitation should apply at once to the Secretary of the Society, stating whether one or two tickets will be required.
In all cases admission to the theatre will be provided as well as admission to the Exhibition.
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1903.
All communications for the Society should be addressed to
the Secretary, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C.
The following is the list of the Colonial SecINTERNATIONAL FIRE
tion Committee as appointed by the Council : EXHIBITION.
COLONIAL SECTION COMMITTEE,
Sir William Abney, K.C.B., Sir Alfred L. Jones,
D.C.L., D.Sc., F.R.S.: K.C.M.G. vited a party of the members of the Society of
(Chairman of the Council). Sir Chas. Malcolm Kennedy, Arts to visit the Exhibition at Earl's Court on Sir Westby B. Perceval, K.C.M.G., C.B. Wednesday, October 14th (afternoon and K.C.M.G. (Chairman of Hon. Henry Bruce Lefroy,
the Committee). evening), and inspect the exhibits, including
Agent General for Western
Earl of Aberdeen, G.C.M.G. | Australia. those to which the Society of Arts medals will
Lord Belhaven and Stenton. Sr Ne vile Lubbock,K.C.M.G have been awarded.
Lord Brassey, K.C.B.
Chairman of the West India
Hon. Sir John A. Cockburn, Committee.
Charles Prestwood Lucas, also have an opportunity of seeing the his
Hon. Henry Copeland, C.B. torical pageant and modern fire service dis Agent-General for New Admiral Sir Erasmusplay known as “ Fighting the Flames.”'
H. Bertram Cox, C.B. Sir Montague F. Ommandey, The members will assemble at 4 p.m. inside
K.C.M.G. the Warwick-road entrance of the Earl's Court Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Went. Sir E. Montague Nelson, Exhibition.
worth Dilke, Bart., M.P. K.C.M.G. A round of the exhibits will be made in
Hon. Alfred Dobson, Agent- Sir Walter Peace, K C.M.G.,
General for Tasmania. Agent General for Natal. three parties, and the exhibitors will be re
Hon. Sir Charles W. Fre. Hon. W. Pember Reeves, quested to be in attendance at their exhibits to mantle, K.C.B.
| Agent General for New explain or demonstrate their appliances or
Hon. Thomas E. Fuller, Zealand.
C.M.G., Agent-General for Alexander Siemens.
the Cape of Good Hope, Sir Jobn Smalman Smith, Modern fire appliances will be demonstrated Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, MA. at the lake from 5 to 6 p.m. (long ladders from Bart., G.C.M.G.
Earl of Stamford.
Sir Robert Giffen, K.C.B., Lord Strathcona and Mount 5 to 5.30 p.m. and fire engines from 5.30 to
Royal, G.C.M.G , LL.D., 6 p.m.).
Right Hon. Sir George High Commissioner for the :. The three parties will start to view the Goldie, K.C.M.G.,D.C.L., Dominion of Canada.
LL.D. exhibits respectively as follows:
Sir Thomas Sutherland, J. G. Gordon.
G.C.M.G. Party “A.”—Ducal Hall, 4.5 p.m., going
H Allerdale Grainger, Agent-Hon. Sir David Tennant, .by way of Queen's Palace, to Imperial Court. Generalfor South Australia. | K.C.M.G. - Party“B” will start viewing in Imperial
Robert Kaye Gray.
Hon. Sir Horace Tozer, W. L. Griffith.
K.C.M.G., Agent-General Court, at 4.10, visiting the Lake, Queen's
Sir John J. Grinlinton.
for Queensland. Palace, and end at Ducal Hall.
Major General Sir William Sir Charles Kivers Wilson, Party“C” will commence in the Queen's Henry Rhodes Green, G.C.M.G., CB.
K.C.S.I., C.B. Palace, 4.10 p.m., visiting the Lake, Ducal
Sir John Wolfe - Barry,
Sir Charles Hartley, K.C.B., F.R.S. Hall, and ending at the Imperial Court.
Sir James Arundell Youl, The London Salvage Corps, by kind per- | Hon. Sir Robert G. w.K.C.M.G. mission of Lieut.-Col. Fox, will turn out and Herbert, G.C.B., D.C.L., | Sir Frederick Young,
K.C.M.G. drill in the Western Gardens at 6.30 and at
Sic Clement LI. Hill, S. Lighy (Secretary). 7.30 p.m.
ing, that is, splitting into fibrillæ, whilst Proceedings of the Society.
short fibres, such a hose of straw, esparto, &c., simply require separating without further disintegration. Cutting of the fibres should,
however, in any case be avoided as far as CANTOR LECTURES.
practicable. These considerations lead to the PA PER MANUFACTURE.
conclusion that it is inadvisable to treat fibres
possessing widely different structures at the By Julius HÜBNER, F.C.S. same time in the beater. (Director of the Dyeing, Printing, and Paper - making The beating engine (Fig. 12), is similar in Department, at the Municipal School of Technology, construction to the breaker, but variations are Manchester.)
frequently made in the number and in the Lecture III.- Delivered February 16th, 1903.
arrangement of the knives in the roll and in
the bed plate. To avoid the injurious action Beating — Sizing - Loading - Colouring – Stuff
of iron in the manufacture of certain classes of chest-Regulator- Sand tables-Strainer, Hand
papers, such as photographic papers, &c., the made paper.
knives should be made of either bronze or The treatment of the rags or other raw gun-metal. materials has now been considered up to the Beater rolls made of stone have also been stage at which the half-stuff enters the
used, and quite recently Schmidt patented a potcher or the steeping chest. The half roll and bed plate made of a special kind of stuff still contains fibre bundies, and further, basalt-lava, into which the knives are cut. the fibres are not present in lengths con- Owing to the porous nature of the lava, the venient for the manufacture of the various beating surface is considerably increased classes of paper. The final treatment which and the time of beating correspondingly the half-stuff has to undergo, as also various reduced. auxiliary processes such as the loading, the The time occupied by the beating varies dyeing, and the sizing, are conducted in the very considerably according to the structure “beater." The operation of beating forms of the fibres and to the result required; if it is one of the most important links in the chain desired to preserve the fibrous nature of the of processes constituting the manufacture of pulp, it is necessary to extend the beating paper through which the fibres have to pass,
over as long a time as possible and to use and is one which largely influences the pro. blunt knives, both in the roll and in the bed perties of the finished product. Prior to the plate. Some beaters are provided with stuff invention and introduction of the Hollander, propellors-a kind of paddle-wheel-to accelerags were disintegrated in the so-called rate the circulation of the pulp. stamping or hammer-mill; the process of Considerable attention has been paid by disintegration as carried on in this apparatus engineers to the construction of modern being accomplished either by hammering or beaters, the objects being the saving of time and squeezing the pulp, it resulted in the splitting of power, and in order to achieve these ends up of the filaments into single fibres and in engines have been constructed with two and a further disintegration of the single fibres, even more beater rolls. by splitting them lengthways, into fibrillæ.
Apart from the beating, the circulation of the The action of the Hollander roll, though pulp in the Hollander has to be maintained by similar, is, however, not the same as this, for the roll, and a considerable amount of power in addition to the squeezing or breaking, a is thus consumed quite apart from that ex. cutting or tearing of the fibres, mostly cross pended in the actual beating. The credit of ways, also takes place. Micro-photographs designing a beater in which the roll is excluof papers which were made before and after sively used for the beating is due to the the introduction of the Hollander show quite engineers Debiè, Granger, and Pasquier; a plainly the difference in the fibrous structure. | roll of considerably smaller diameter and less The beating is necessarily varied according weight, placed above the level of the pulp, is to the nature of the fibrous material and used in this beater, whilst the circulation of according to the properties desired in the the pulp is produced by means of a large finished paper.
paddle-wheel placed immediately in front of Long fibres, such for instance as those of the roll. A considerable number of patents flax and cotton, require breaking and brush. have been taken for beaters similar in principle
to the one just mentioned, but more or less im- | trough, has been also devised by Debié, proved upon in details of construction.
Granger, and Pasquier. In the Umpherston The question of saving space has also beater the circulation of the pulp through a occupied the inventive mind. Thus, for in- channel underneath the back-fall, is caused stance, we find in Forbes' beater two rolls in by the roll. To ensure rapid circulation of the