the coke is, on the whole, strong and suitable ments of Perin and Orenburg, but the profor blast furnaces. Coking coal, containing | duction is small and the industry is not 20 per cent. of volatile matter and 3 to 7 per important. cent. of ash, produces coke containing an (c) Government of Ekaterinoslay. - This average of 10'5 per cent. of ash and 1'125 per group which more nearly concerns the subject cent. of sulphur. Coppée coke ovens are of this paper, is situated near the town of largely used in this district, being supplied Nicopol, on the Dneiper river, and consists with modern coal-handling appliances, and of two groups :—The Nicopol group, and the giving a yield, or ratio of coke to coal charged, Richishche group, the latter being named of about 73 per cent. As a rule, the bye- | after a tributary of the Dnieper river. The products are not recovered from the gases, Nicopol group contains two principal mines, which are allowed to burn freely in the air. those of the Nicopol-Marioupol Company and The ovens are frequently built and financed by the Briansk Company. The ore requires the patentee, on a working agreement with cleaning, but owing to the scarcity of water, the company.

the process has to be performed dry, and the Flux.-No iron district can be considered resulting ore contains only about 44 per cent. complete without a supply of flux for mixing of manganese. The Richishche group conwith the coke and ore in 'blast furnaces, and tains only one mine now working, viz., the in this respect also, nature has been bountiful Horodishche mine, belonging to the Dnieproto South Russia. There are plentiful deposits vienne Company, as well as several others of limestone, not only near the Krivoy Rog idle or under development. The ore in this ore, but along the Ekaterine Railway and in group occurs in the form of a practically the Donetz coal basin. About half a ton of horizontal bed, about 9 feet thick, of granular limestone per ton of pig iron is required to peroxide of manganese, or pyrolusite. It is flux the Krivoy Rog ores. Limestone can be

contemporaneous with the over-lying beds, obtained in the open market for about 4s. 8d. having been deposited with them by aqueous per ton.

action, and forming the bottom layer OD Portland Cement.-An allied industry is account of its greater weight. It rests on a the manufacture of Portland cement, which is massive and somewhat uneven bed of granite, carried on to a considerable extent. The | which forms the subsoil of all this part of writer visited an open quarry, in which chalk | Southern Russia, being sometimes separated was obtained at one end and clay at the other, therefrom by a thin layer of kaolin or decomof a quality suitable for making cement. posed granite. The manganese ore is in These were conveyed about half a mile and grains between the size of a pea and a nut, manufactured into Portland cement in a well and is mixed with coarse sand, but sometimes equipped and modern factory, having a conglomerated into masses by a hard argillacapacity of 100,000 barrels a year.,

ceous cement and mixed with quartz grains. Manganese Ore.-Manganese ore, which | Frequently a thin layer of manganite or is essential for the manufacture of spiegel sesquioxide of manganese is found in the eisen and ferro-manganese, both of which lower part of the ore bed. Both the depth and are required for steel making, occurs in

the thickness of the bed are somewhat South Russia in large quantities. The mining irregular. districts in Russia are in three groups, viz. : The manganese ore is easily separated from (a) Caucasus, (6) Urals, (c) Government of the sand by washing. It is soft enough to be Ekaterinoslav.

extracted by pick and shovel, one miner getting (a) Caucasus.—The mining area is in the four cubic yards per twelve hours, weighing Sharapan region, on the Transcaucasian Rail. | about 74 tons. The roof is green clay, and way, the shipping port being Poti, on the the floor is granite or kaolin. The roof-boards Black Sea. From here it is shipped either to are supported by timber frames spaced about foreign countries, or to Marioupol or Nicolaief two feet apart. The vertical shafts usual in for Russian consumption. This district is the the district are seven feet square, well timbered. most important manganese ore producing , and divided into four compartments, two being centre in the world, the output at present

used for cages, one ascending while the other being about 4,500,000 tons a year, of which | descends, and the other two for pumping by about 10 per cent. is used in South means of ascending and descending buckets Russia.

which are filled below by hand. Such a shaft () Urals.-The mines occur in the Govern is worked by two “barabans ” or drums, each

worked by two horses. (Fig. 6.) In case of a and will afford a much cheaper carriage to 'small output, one baraban would suffice, pump Alexandrovsk than the present system of ing being done during intervals when no ore barges which yield high profits to the conisbeing raised. With such an appliance zo | tractors, and will enable transshipping at Alexbuckets of water per hour can be raised, each androvsk to be dispensed with. "containing 30 gallons, equal to 1,500 gallons Iron and Steel Works. Having now deper hour. This is a surprising performance scribed the raw materials, some mention may considering the primitive nature of the imple be made of the blast furnaces and steel works, ments.

where the finished article is produced. ApThe Richische ore is hardly developed, but pendix I gives a list of the 18 chief iron and is likely to play an important part, and to be steel works in the South, together with various one of the chief centres of production in South | particulars as to capital and nationality. From Russia. It corresponds, generally speaking, column 6, it will be noticed that most of these with Caucasian ore, and would very well take works have been built since 1892, and are there.

fore quite modern. Column 4 shows that Belgian FIG. 6.

capital largely preponderates. Although the first works in this district (the New Russia Company) was started in 1869 by an Englishman, Mr. Hughes, very little English capital has flowed in the same direction. It is different with Belgian capital. Since the establishment of the first Belgian company, the Dnieprovienne, or South Russian Company (associated with Messrs. Cockerill, of Seraing, Belgium), there has been a constant influx of Belgian capital. Out of the most important works enumerated, at least eight are partially or entirely Belgian capital, while out of the total number of 55 blast furnaces, 21 are Belgian.


Fig. 7.




its place in the manufacture of ferro-manga. nese and spiegeleisen. Comparing it with foreign ores, it is superior in manganese contents to New Brunswick ore, but inferior to Brazilian and Spanish ores. The analyses of different Russian and foreign manganese ores are given in Appendix V. The details of the cost of raising and washing Richische ore are given in Appendix VI.

The present outlets for the Nicopol and Richishche ores are :

1. Down the river Dnieper in barges to Kherson for shipment abroad.

2. Up the Dnieper in bargesto Alexandrovsk, the head of navigation, where it is put on the railway and despatched to the various Russian centres of consumption, chiefly the blast fur. naces situated along the Ekaterine Railway

The railway now under construction from Nicolo-Koselsk to Alexandrovsk via Nicopol, which is expected to be running in a year or two, will pass through the Richische group,


The author personally visited five of these works, viz. :-Briansk, Donetz-Urievka (Fig. 7), Gdantseyski, Almaznaia (Fig. 8), and Bielaia (Fig. 9), and was much struck by the good, substantial, and well constructed nature of the work. Generally speaking, the structural portions of the works have been built in Russia,

and the machinery in Belgium, Germany, or cheapness of manual labour, there are France, or to a small extent in England and sufficient reasons for the avoidance as far as America.

possible of all complicated machinery. There is, perhaps, an absence of labour- Generally speaking, a proper mean course has saving appliances in the blast furnaces, been followed between too much mechanism notably in the handling of materials between on the one hand and too wasteful an expendi

ture of labour on the other hand. After Fig. 8.

making due allowance for these conditions, the design and workmanship of some of the most modern blast furnaces and accessory appliances leaves little to be desired, and bears comparison with some of the best plants in Europe. The personnel are as a rule of the nationality of the owners. Thus in works of Belgian or French capital the director and departmental managers are Belgians or Frenchmen respectively. In Russian works, on the other hand, positions of responsibility are largely occupied by Poles. The workmen are in all cases Russian.

It will be seen that of the eighteen important works in South Russia enumerated in

Appendix I, all make pig iron, in a total of 55 ALMAZNAIA BLAST FURNACES.

blast furnaces, and i1 are steel makers in

addition. The works are not concentrated in The stock piles and the furnace top. But it

| manufacturing centres, but scattered along must be remembered that Russia is different

| the Ekaterine Railway. The whole country is from Western Europe and America, in the

what is known as Steppes, viz., extensive scarcity of skilled mechanics for the mainten

undulating plains, entirely treeless, except by ance of machinery. Mechanical instinct is

the edges of streams and rivers. Every not a conspicuous quality among Russians,

eminence is crowned by a tumulus, said to and the care and foresight exercised by those

have been erected in olden times, either to

repel the Tartar invasions or as a burial place Fig. 9.

for chiefs. The scattered nature of the works and the comparative scantiness of population, as well as the want of enterprise of private builders, makes it necessary for each company, whether mining or metallurgical, to erect colonies for their workpeople, which generally consist of comfortable houses, varying in accommodation from the eight-roomed house, containing four unmarried men per room, to the sumptuous mansion of the director. (Fig. 10.) The rainfall is small, being about 11 inches per annum, due to the treelessness of the land. This necessitates elaborate ard expensive arrangements for water supply at most works. At one blast furnace plant

visited by the author, an artificial lake has BIELAIA BLAST FURNACES.

been made, 97 acres in area, holding 143

million gallons of water, and situated 200 feet in charge of machinery is too often regulated below the blast furnaces to which water is solely by the amount of supervision and pumped in two stages by electrically driven discipline to which they are subjected. Con pumps. sequently there is not only a great liability for Blast Furnaces.— Fig. II gives a half machinery to go wrong, but great difficulty profile of a typical modern blast furnace in the in repairing it. If to this be added the Donetz district, such as would be suitable for


the production of Bessemer or foundry pig Steel ingots and plates, £5 1&s. per ton ; iron, or, by the addition of manganese ore, of merchant iron, £5 18s. per ton ; steel sheets, spiegeleisen, containing 20 per cent., and 68 gs. to 69 18s. per ton. ferro-manganese, containing 80 per cent., of Government Control. – The Government manganese. The furnace would have a pro exercises a very real and somewhat paternal ductive capacity alternatively of:

control over the mining còmpanies for the Pig iron.. .. .. 150 tons per 24 hours. protection of the workpeople, employing an Spiegeleisen .. .. 100 „ „, 24 , army of officials for the purpose. All comFerro-manganese.. 70 „ „ 24

FIG. 11. The cost of manufacture and profits derived from these three varieties of pig iron are given in detail in Appendix VII.

Import Duties. There is an import duty into Russia on ordinary pig iron by way of Biack Sea ports of £2 195. 5d. per ton, which is sufficient to keep out foreign competition.

Charging Platform An excise duty of 2s. per ton of Russian-made pig iron was abolished by the Government in

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1901, in order to afford some relief to the harassed trade. On account of the heavy import duties pig iron has been imported in but small and decreasing quantities, as follows :- 1900, 51,000 tons ; 1901, 29,700 tons; 1902, at the rate of 14,520 tons.

The import duty on ferro-manganese and spiegeleisen is £4 195. per ton, which is sufficient to keep out English-made spiegeleisen, but not sufficient to keep out Englishmade ferro-manganese, which latter can be sold in South Russia at about £2 per ton below market price, and which is sent regularly from England by way of Black Sea ports at the rate of about 4,250 tons per annum. At the present time, spiegeleisen and ferro-manganese are being made in Russia at five of the works enumerated in Appendix I. The import duties on finished steel products are as follows:

jBottom of Die Crucible DIA. 9-1017"


Scale of Feet
3 5 10 15 20 25 30


panies are obliged to supply a Government mining engineer, and are subject to periodical visits by Government inspectors. The companies are obliged to provide proper accommodation for the operatives in the way of houses, hospitals, churches, &c., and the slightest accident resulting in injury to any workman is the subject of Government inquiry. The employers appear to live in dread of


accidents, on account of the troublesome in- Since 1899 the Russian Government has vestigations which invariably follow. . gradually bought up private railways, and

Steel Works.-The eleven steel works in amalgamated into a few large com South Russia are, as a rule, well equipped those not so bought up. It has thus got rid of with modern machinery. Both the open hearth large liabilities for guaranteed dividends, and and Bessemer processes are used for conver has turned an annual loss into a profit. Railsion of pig iron into steel. The finished pro way concessions are no longer granted on the duct may be classified as follows : - .

easy terms which were once obtained.

Owing to the relatively small amount of Per cent. of total steel production.

private enterprise and capital in Russia, the Railway materials (rails, fish plates, tyres

general demand for finished steel and iron and axles) ........................


products for industrial purposes is small, while Merchant bars, sheets, columns .........

exports to foreign countries are negligible. Miscellaneous...


The iron and steel irdustries, therefore, look

to the Government as their chief customer, and 100.0

are dependent principally on orders from it for The present market prices of finished steel

railway materials. About 40 per cent. of all products are :-Rails, £8 55. per ton; rolled

the free pig iron (i.e., not sold as finished

steel) made in the south is purchased by the joists, £5 155. 6d. per ton ; merchant iron,

Government. The prospects of these industries £8 5s. Railways.—The abnormally large propor

thus depend largely on the programme of railtion of railway materials indicates that railway

way construction being carried out by the

Government at the time, which in turn construction absorbs about half the steel pro

depends on the funds at its disposal for duction of the south. This is due to the fact that Russia has been, and is still, going

this purpose. The Government, on the other

hand, has fostered and to a great extent through a period of great railway construction,

brought into existence the southern iron entered upon with a view of developing the resources of her empire, both European and

industries by heavy import duties and by

distribution of orders. The general demand Asiatic. The new mileage opened within the last few years is as follows :

for steel from the public has not grown apace with the productive capacity of the works,

and, indeed, increases very slowly, while the RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION.

Government requirements have, until 1900,

increased very rapidly. The result is that the Year. Opened for traffic. Existing railway

south is practically dependent on one large

customer, viz., the Government.

Trade Depression. As is well known, 1898 1,897


| Russia has been for the last two or three years 1899 3,296


passing through a grave commercial crisis 1900 (1st half) 543

which seriously effects all industries, and

notably the southern iron industries. About two-thirds of the Russian railways are After an unusually active year of railway owned by Government and one-third by private construction in 1899, the Government, precompanies as follows:-

sumably on account of insufficient means,

suddenly stopped or almost stopped further OWNERSHIP OF RAILWAIS.

expenditure thereon in 1900, while orders for

railway building materials underwent a great Government Private

and sudden decrease, with results which were railways. | companies.


most keenly felt by the Southern iron industry. Miles. Miles. Miles. ! The price of foundry pig iron, which in In full operation 21,697


31,815 i 1899 had been about £5 5s. per ton, rapidly In partial operation 1,014 585


declined until March and April :901, when Under construc

it touched $3 per ton, since which it has 1,110 3,394 4,504 recovered somewhat. The cause of the Authorised to be

scarcity of money in the State coffers has built .........1

1,557 2,026

been variously assigned to the stringency 1 24,290 1.15,654 | 39,944 of the money market caused by the Trans


tion .......


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