bearing strata is full of springs. The springs lie Honour H. Hesketh Bell writes :-“Pines in barrels between 700 and 1,000 feet below Johannesburg, and are a by-word in Covent Garden market.” from 15 to 30 miles from the Rand. They discharge That the fault lies with the packer and not with the between them about 70 or 80 cubic feet per second. fruit, the recent very successful shipments of oranges, If half the water of each spring were taken for the bananas, and pine-apples from Dominica and Barmines and the other half left for agriculture the bados sufficiently prove. quantity would suffice for the mines. The existing The situation is exactly the same with regard to agriculture in the valleys sed by the springs would sweet potatoes in the United States. One set of not, in the end, be allowed to suffer, even in area, producers save some 50 cents per barrel in labour, because the losses could be compensated by digging &c., in their packing, and, as a result, obtain about suitable channels through the reedy marshes, which 1.00 dol. per barrel less than those who pack carefully. are to-day fertile sources of loss, and by gradually | The question of packing is one demanding the making suitable reservoirs for storing the waste water careful attention of every exporter of fruit or vegeof the springs, and as much of the surface flow of the tables from the West Indies, for if bad methods of ground as was considered necessary. The agricul. packing are persevered in, their produce will fail to tural wealth of the valleys would increase with the gain the confidence of the market and their industry future increase of the wealth of the mines, just as in fall to the ground. - The Agricultural News (Barbathe past it has been more than quadrupled by the dos). presence of the mines themselves.

FRUIT PACKING FOR EXPORT. Throughout the West Indies, an increasing number of people, year by year, take some part in raising and packing perishable produce for distant markets. All alike, whether interested in oranges, bananas, pineapples, onions, or sweet potatoes, have the same object, the placing of their produce on the market in a sound condition. It is no easy task to accomplish this off-hand. We must know the exact stage at which each kind of fruit or vegetab:e must be gathered in order to keep sound during its long journey, and arrive in England or America in the best state. We also have to learn how to treat the produce between picking and packing ; the conditions necessary to allow “ripening” to proceed during voyage, and to prevent chilling and rotting. On all these points knowledge has in the past been gained by experience, and the general precautions necessary for the successful export of fruit and vegetables are now fairly well known, although, unfortunately, not always acted upon.

One point the experience of the past has clearly brought out, and that is, the absolute necessity of careful packing. A man may raise the finest oran yes or pin :-apples in the West Indies, he may gather them at the right moment, and handle them caresully, but, unless they are well packed, his trouble is to a great extent thrown away, for they are practically certain to arrive on the market in poor condition.

At the last agricultural conference the question of regulating the quality of exported fruit was brought forward by the Honourable Sydney Olivier, C.M.G., Colonial Secretary of Jamaica. He pointed out that bad packing was responsible for the disrepute into which some West Indian fruit was falling in the English market. “ All the buyers have been frightened off Jamaica oranges and will not touch them on any account." Similarly with regard to pine-apples, His


Briquettes made with petroleum have been manufactured in various ways in different countries, notably in Russia, France, and the United States, as a combustible for steam-ships and for certain industries where rapid production of heat is desirable. The advantages of such a substitute for coal are readily apparent-less storage room, complete combustion, &c. It is surprising, says Consul Brunot, of St. Etienne, that petroleum has not been utilised more generally in this form. The objections are that the briquettes injured the boilers after a short time by reason of some chemical action produced by combustion ; further, the blocks did not keep their form under the action of the heat, but fell through the fire-box in a liquid state, and the price is said to be two-thirds more than that of coal. A company has recently been formed at St. Etienne for the manu. facture of petroleum briquettes which claims to have obviated all the objections except that in regard to price. The advantages of the product are set forth as follows:- The briquette is composed of 97 per cent. of petroleum and 3 per cent of hydro-carbon. The volume being equal, it weighs only half as much as coal, and gives but from 2 to 3 per cent. of residue ; it produces no slag; it does “run ” when lighted, and keeps its form, like coal ; it burns without odour and without smoke; it may be wetted with impunity, losing none of its properties; it consumes without explosion or sparks, and yet with a bright and long flame; it may be kept indefinitely without deteriora. tion. By this process, a degree of saponification is obtained, by which the briquettes are rendered unchangeable even to the extent that if a projectile should enter a ship's bunker filled with this fuel, there would be no danger whatever of explosion, the effect being the same as in the case of ordinary coal. The average heating power is from 12,000 to 14,000 calories, and the briquettes can be employed in any fire-box or in any grate for domestic purposes. The manufacture of these briquettes is very simple, and was educated at Eton and Christchurch, Oxford. He requires but little machinery. If necessary, the graduated in 1842, and soon afterwards was elected a petroleum contained therein can be recovered with a Fellow of Merton. He studied painting in Rome, loss of only 5 to 7 per cent. The same company and during the tenure of his fellowship he painted the manufactures what are called mixed briquettes-half roof of the chapel. In 1857 he co operated with coal and half petroleum-but if these are cheaper Rossetti and Burne Jones in the decoration of the than the former, they present less advantages from building of the Union. Mr. Pollen took orders, and the fact that the density is greater and the heating after leaving Oxford he went to St. Saviour's, Leeds. power is only 9,000 calories. A steamer carrying After he joined the Roman Catholic Church he was 8,000 tons of coal would require 3,500 tons of mixed Professor of Fine Arts in the Catholic University briquettes, and only 2,500 of the pure petroleum sounded by Cardinal Newman in Dublin. He was briquettes.

official editor of the “Universal Catalogue of Books on Art,” and the “ Art Handbooks,” published by the Science and Art Department, South Ken

sington, and for some years acted as private ROYAL DANISH PORCELAIN.

secretary to the Marquis of Ripon. Mr. Pollen was The Royal Porcelain Manufactory was established

elected a member of the Society of Arts in 1870. in 1779, at which time the three blue waved lines He delivered a course of Cantor Lectures in 1885 on were adopted as the trade mark ; later a crown and “Carving and Furniture," and read papers on “ The the word “Denmark” or “Royal Copenhagen". Present Condition of the Art of Woodcarving in were added in green. Until the close of the 18th | England,” - Ornamental Glass,” and “Renaissance century the manufactory chiefly imitated the works of

Woodwork in England,” for which last paper he Meissen, Berlin, and Fürstenberg. From the be. received the Society's silver medal. He was also a ginning, according to a Danish review, it produced

member of the committee of the Applied Art the blue mussel painted china, so called from the

Section. shell which serves as a handle to the covers. The pattern is painted by hand, whereby it obtains the individual stamp, with cobalt colour; it is afterwards glazed and finally burnt. The decoration which is

General Notes. covered by the glaze is absolutely imperishable. This china now includes two qualities of finer make, namely, “lace edge” and half “lace edge." In Ellis's MUSICAL SCALES. – Mr. A. J. Hipkins 1883 the manufactory was established in new has printed, for private circulation, a pamphlet, enpremises, and steps were taken to gain new markets. titled “Dorian and Phrygian from a non-harmonic The same underglazing wbich was applied in the first point of view,” which forms a supplement to the late manufacture of the mussel painted china was con- | Mr. Alexander J. Ellis's paper “On the Musical tinued, but in addition to the blue colour, green and Scales of Various Nations" (see Journal, Vol. tints of red were included; later on, other less import. xxxiii., 485, 1102). Mr. Hipkins expresses bis willingant colours were added. In 1898 the manufactory was ness to send a copy to any member of the Society inenlarged, enabling it to produce half as much again. terested in the subject, who will apply to him at It has been represented at all of the various exhibi 100, Warwick-gardens, Kensington, so far as the tions, and was awarded the Grand Prix de Paris in edition printed will suffice. 1900, and also placed as number two of the competitors. At the Paris Exhibition besides having a wide selection of patterns of porcelain with liquid glaze, the manufactory had also an exhibit of modelled

MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY. animals. The manufactory has established branch

ORDINARY MEETINGS. depôts in Paris, London, and New York.

Wednesday evenings, at Eight o'clock :

DECEMBER 17. — “The South Russian Iron Industry.” By ARCHIBALD P. HEAD, Mem. Inst.C.E.

MR. WILLIAM EGERTON HUBBARD will preside. Obituary.

Papers for Meetings after Christmas:

“Industrial Trusts.” By PROF. W. SMART, John HUNGERFORD POLLEN, M.A.-Mr. Hunger- | LL.D. Sir ROBERT GIFFEN, K.C.B., LL.D., ford Pollen, a member of the Society of long-stand- F.R.S., will preside. ing, died at his residence in Pembridge-crescent on “Oil Lighting by Incandescence.” By ARTHUR Tuesday, the 2nd inst. He was the second son of Kitson. Richard Pollen, of Rodbourne, Wilts, who was the | “The Metric System.” By A. SONNENSCHEIN. second son of Sir John Pollen, the first baronet. “The Cost of Municipal Trading." By Dixon Born on November 19, 1820, Mr. Hungerford Pollen H. DAVIES.

“Stage Costumes and Accessories.” By Percy Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W., MACQUOID.

8 p.m. Mr. Stephen Martin-Leake, “The Rupna.

ryan-bridge, Bengal-Nagpur Railway." “The Principles of Applied Art.” By G. F.

Pathological, 20, Hanover-square, W., 83 p.m. BODLEY, R.A.

Photographic, 66, Russell-square, W.C., 8 p.m. “Modern Movements in Decorative Art.” By Wednesday, Dec. 17...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street, CHARLES HOLME.

Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. Mr. Archibald P. Head, “ British North Borneo.” By HENRY WALKER,

" The South Russian Iron Industry."

Meteorological, 23, Great George-street, S.W., Commissioner of Lands, British North Borneo.

7 p.m. 1. Mr. C. V. Bellamy, “ The Climate of “ Three Colour Printing." By HARVEY DALZIEL.

Cyprus." 2. Mr. H. Helm Clayton, “ The Eclipse “ The Port of London.” By Dr. B. W. GINSBURG,

Cyclone of 1900." “ Tonkin, Yunnan and Burma.” By FRED. W.

Geological, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m.

Microscopical, 25, Hanover-square, W., 8 p.m.. CAREY, late H.B.M.'s Acting-Consul at Szemao,

1. Mr. F. R. Dixon-Nuttall and Rev. A. Freeman, China.

“The Genus Diaschiza.” 2. A demonstration by “ The Indian Census." By JERVOISE A. BAINES,

Mr. E. R. Turner on “A New Arrangement for C.S.I.

taking Photomicrographs in Colours." “The Province of Sind.” By HERBERT M.

Chemical, Burlington-house, W., 51 p.m. 1. Mr.

H. J. H. Fenton, “A Reagent for the IdentifiBIRDWOOD, C.S.I., LL.D.

cation of Carbamide and of certain of other “Women in Canada.” By the Countess of

Nitrogen Compounds." 2. Messrs. Cain and F. ABERDEEN.

Nicoll, “ The Rate of Decomposition of Diazo. “The Province of Assam.” By Sir CHARLES

compounds." Part II.-Diazo-compounds of tbe JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., C.I.E.

Naphthalene Series. 3. Mr. Walker, “ The state

of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution." 4. Mr. "The Use of Electrical Energy in Workshops and

J. Walker, “ Qualitative Separation of Arsenic, Factories.” By ALFRED C. EBORALL, M I.E.E.

Antimony and Tin." 5. Messrs. J. Walker and “Methods of Mosaic Construction.” By W. L.

W. A. Fyffe, “ The Hydrates and Solubility of H. HAMILTON.

Barium Acetate.” 6. Messrs. J. F. Thorpe and
W. J. Young, “The y B Dimethylgluteric Acids,

and the Separation of Cis and Trans Forms of CANTOR LECTURES.

Substituted Glutaric Acid."

THURSDAY, Dec. 18...Antiquaries, Burlington house, W., Monday Evenings, at Eight o'clock :

63 p.m. PROF. Vivian B. LEWES, “The Future of

Linnean, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m. 1. Mr. W

Thos. Scott, “Notes on Copepoda from the Faroe Coal Gas and Allied Illuminants.” Four

Channel.” 2. Mr. Alfred A. Walker, "Amphipoda Lectures.

of the Southern Cross' Antarctic Expedition." LECTURE IV.—DECEMBER 15.—Lighting by oil

3. Dr. H. J. Hansen, “The Deep Sea Isopod,

Anurus branchiatus, Bedd." and the advances of the past fifty years—The use of

London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 6 p.m. oil in incandescent mantle lighting-Vapour burners

Mr. F. J. Melville, “ Postage Stamps with Stories." and their future-Air gas and its latest developments

Electrical Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W.. - The present position and future of acetylene.

8 p.m. Mr. W. B. Esson, “Notes on recent

Electrical Designs."

Historical, Clifford's inn-hall, Fleet-st., E.C., 5 p.m. JUVENILE LECTURES.

'The Right Rev. F. A. Gasquet, "The Premon

stratensian Order in England." · Wednesday afternoons, at Five o'clock :

Numismatic, 22, Albemarle-street, W., 7 p,m. Professor EDWARD B. POULTON, M.A.,

Optical, 22, Hanover-square, W., 8 p.m. Dr C.V. D.Sc., F.R.S., “ Means of Defence in the

Drysdale, "Some Points in the Design of Optical

Instruments." Struggle for Life among Animals.”

Camera Club, Charing-cross-road, W.C., 84 p.in, Lecture I., December 31. Lecture II., January 7.

Mr.Conrad Beck, "A New Apparatus for Testing

Mining and Metallurgy, in the Rooms of the Geo.

logical Society, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m.

1. Messrs. S J. Truscott and N. Samwell, “ Notes MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.

on the Ivory Coast, West Africa," 2. Mr. A. MONDAY, DEC, 15... SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street,

Mervyn Smith, “Electric Power at the Kolar Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. (Cantor Lectures.) Prof.

Gold Field.” 3. Mr. F. J. Stephens, “Note on Vivian B. Lewes, “The Future of Coal Gas

the occurrence of Asbestos in the N.W. Provinces and Allied Illuminants." (Lecture IV.)

of India," British Architects, a, Conduit-street, W., 8 p.m. | FRIDAY, DEC, Ty...Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, Mr. Arthur J. Evans, “The Palace of Knossos,

S.W., 8 p.m. (Students' Meeting.) Mr. P. Crete."

R. Wray, “ Electricity Supply from Double
Camera Club, Charing-cross-road, W.C., 87 p.m.

Current Generators."
Mr. Cato Worsfold, “ French Stonehenge.”

Mechanical Engineers, Storey's-gate, S.W., 8 p.m.
London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 5 p.m.

Mr. J. N. S. Williams, “Recent Practice in the Mr. Henry Norman, "Russia of To-day."

Design, Construction, and Operation of Raw Cane Tuesday, Dec. 16...Statistical (at the HousE OF THE SOCIETY

Sugar Factories in the Hawaiin Islands."
OF ARTS), John-street, Adelphi, W.C., 5 p.m.

Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover-square,
Mr. W. M. Acworth, " Railway Statistics."

W.C., 8 p.m.

CANTOR LECTURES. Journal of the Society of Arts, On Monday evening, 15th inst., PROFESSOR No. 2,613. Vol. LI.

VIVIAN B. LEWES delivered the fourth and last lecture of his course on “ The Future

of Coal Gas and Allied Illuminants.” FRIDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1902, On the motion of the CHAIRMAN, a vote of

thanks to the lecturer for his course of lectures All communications for the Society should be addressed to was passed. the Secretary, John-street. Adelphi, London, W.C.

The first lecture will be published in the next

number of the Journal.


The usual short course of lectures adapted The Council, acting on the recommendation for a juvenile audience will be delivered on of the judges appointed by them-Sir William | Wednesday afternoons, December 31st and Preece, K.C.B., F.R.S., Mr. Robert Kaye | January 7th, at 5 o'clock, by Professor Gray, and Mr. Alexander Siemens — have | EDWARD B. POULTON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. awarded the prize of fifty pounds, together on the “Means of Defence in the Struggle with a silver medal, offered for an essay on for Life among Animals.” * Existing Laws, By-laws, and Regulations Each member is entitled to a ticket admitrelating to Protection from Fire, with Criticisms ting two children and one adult. As the full and Suggestions," to Mr. T. Brice Phillips, | number of tickets has not yet been distributed, Sanitary Inspector to the Uckfield Rural Dis members applying can still be supplied. trict Council, of 4, Aylesford-terrace, Uckfield, for his essay, bearing the motto, “ Fiat Lux."

The Council have also awarded a prize of Proceedings of the Society. ten pounds with a bronze medal to Mr. George H. Paul, Lydford, Cyprus-road, Finchley, N.,

FIFTH ORDINARY MEETING. for his essay bearing the motto, “ Ariston

Wednesday, December 17, 1902 ; WILLIAM Metron ;” and a similar prize to Mr. W.

EGERTON HUBBARD in the chair. Craig Henderson, D.Sc., 1, Brick - court, Temple, E.C., for his essay bearing the motto, The following candidates were proposed for “ Sola Virtus Nobilitat,” these two essays | election as members of the Society :being considered to be equal in merit..

Bale, Hon. Sir Henry, K.C.M.G., K.C., Ingleside, They also consider the essay sent in by

Pietermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa. Captain Arthur W. C. Shean, 18, Finsbury- | Causton. Harry. Clive-street. Tunstall. Stoke-oncircus, E.C., bearing the motto “Fuego” to

Trent, Staffordshire. be worthy of honourable mention.

Chambers, Walter Ashbridge, I, Medow-street, The judges reported that the essays were on Fort, Bombay, India. the whole of a meritorious character, and, FitzSimons, F. W., F.Z.S., The Museum, Pietergenerally, of a high class.

maritzburg, Natal, South Africa. It is proposed that the prize essay should be Halse, Sidney Joseph, A.R.I.B.A., 60, Margaretread as a paper at one of the Ordinary Meet street, Cavendish-square, W. ings of the Society.

Mudaliar, P. Ramanatha, B.A., Manônmani Vilas, In all twelve essays were received in response

Chintadripet, Madras, India. to the offer.

Pears, Francis, Lanadron Estate, Muar, viâ Singapore,

Straits Settlements.

Perkins, Charles Clifforde, M.I.Mech.E., On BickenINDIAN SECTION.

hall-mansions, W.

Powell, Edmund, Cambria, Claremont, Cape Town, Thursday afternoon, December 11, 1902,

South Africa. EARL PERCY, M.P., in the chair. The paper

Sadler, Lieut.-Colonel James Hayes, C.B., H.M. read was “ Domestic Life in Persia,'' by Miss

Commissioner for the Uganda Protectorate, ELLA C. SYKES.

Entebbe, Uganda, British East Africa. The paper and report of the discussion will Stoneham, Herbert S., 70, Cornhill, E.C. be published in a future number of the Tudman, Albert Richard, A.M.I.E.E., Electricity Journal.

| Works, Colwyn Bay, North Wales.'

Waddom, Thomas, Knowestone, Gosforth, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

The following candidates were balloted for and duly elected members of the Society :-Edwards, Reginald William, Brooklands, Church

lane, Aldershot. Niles, Marston, 140, Nassau-street, New York City,

U.S.A. Saenz de Zumaran, Alfonso, Chargé d'Affaires de

l'Uruguay, Legation Office, 104, Victoria-street,

Westminster, S.W. Vigor, Rupert H., 15 and 17, King-street, West

India Dock-road, Poplar, E. Visick, Charles, A.M.I.Mech.E., Messrs. W. Visick

and Sons, Basset Works, Devoran, Cornwall. Wyatt, T. G., North Clifton Plumbing and Engineer

ing Works, Guernsey, Channel Islands.

For comparison :

in 1899.

United States .......... 13,620,703
United Kingdom ........ 9,300,000

Germany ................ 7,900,000 Fig. I shows the same facts in graphic form. It will be seen that the Ural district, which is generally supposed to be the great Russian iron centre, has now lost its supremacy. The more rapid progress made by the Southern district is shown by the fact that whereas the increase of production of pig iron in the Urals between 1895 and 1899 was 45 per cent., that of the South was 130 per cent. during the same period.

In the production of finished steel, the South shews a still greater supremacy over all other districts, as follows:

The paper to be read was—

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In August, 1901, the author visited the South Russian iron district to report on certain iron, coal, and manganese mines and blast furnaces, and enjoyed exceptional facilities for examining these industries from a metallurgical as well as from a commercial standpoint. The present paper is founded on the result of his investigations.

The production of iron in South Russia has made rapid strides in recent years, and this region is now by far the most important of the eight iron-producing districts in Russia, both European and Asiatic. The following Table shows their relative importance, on the basis of the production of pig iron :


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Topography. Having now established the fact that the Southern iron industry is by far the most important in Russia, the genera} topography of that district may be considered.

This is shown in Fig. 2, which gives a general view of the section of Russia lying immediately to the north of the Sea of Azov. Most of this district is included in the Government of Ekaterinoslav, the town of that name being the most important of the district and the centre of the iron industry.

The various works, as enumerated in Appendix I., may be said to lie on the Ekaterine Railway, which joins the Krivoy Rog iron mining region in the west, to the Donetz coalfield in the east, the distance being about 260 miles. In some cases the works are situated near the iron ore, carrying their coke and coal long distances. In other cases, and these form the majority, the works are situated on the coalfield, drawing their ore supplies from a distance. In other cases again, the works are between the two, dividing the total distance of 260 miles, over which the raw material must be hauled, between the ore and the coke.

1,241,150 772,926 291,588 258,596 31,696 25,794 4,814 2,946


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Total ....



• The figures for 1900 show that while the total annual production only advanced to 2,850,256 tons, the South produced 51*7 per cent. of the total, and the Ural district remained practically stationary.

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