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and made his home in New Zealand. As a examples of architecture of the city of the Prince financier he enjoyed the confidence of the commer. Bishop will be seen. The Exhibition will be treated cial community in India, and when four years after as a bonded warehouse, foreign goods intended for his retirement he was induced to return to India for exhibition being allowed provisional duty free impor. the purpose of succeeding Sir David Barbour as Fi. tation, subject to being afterwards re-exported. nance Minister, the appointment gave general satisfaction. He resigned his position as a member of Lord Curzon's Government in March, 1899, and shortly afterwards was appointed to a seat in the Council of MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. the Secretary of State for India. Sir James West. ! MONDAY, MAY 25... Farmers' Club, Salisbury.square Hotel, land joined the Society in 1897, and was amongst
Fleet-street, E.C., 4 p.m. those who took part in the discussion on Mr. J. Barr
Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 3 p.m. Robertson's paper on Currency at a meeting of the
5 p.m., General Monthly Meeting.
Engineers, in the Theatre of the United Scrvice Indian Section a few weeks ago.
Institution, Whitehall, S W., 73 p.m.
Scottish Society of Arts. 117, George-street, EdinCOLONEL EDMUND ARMITAGE HARDY.-Colonel
burgh, 8 p.m. Hardy, who acted for some years as Secretary of the
Chemical Industry (London Section), BurlingtonIndian Section of the Society, died on the 12th inst.,
house, W., 8 p.m. Messrs. J. H. Coste and E. T. at Clifton, in his 8oth year. Colonel Hardy's con
Shelbourn, (1) “Neatsfoot Oil." (2) " The Nitric nection with the Society commenced in 1873, and
Acid Test for Cotton Seed Oil."
Linnean, Burlington-house, W., 3 p.m. Anrual continued to 1884, when he was obliged to give up
Meeting. the work in consequence of his leaving London. Tuesday, MAY 26... Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., During these years, many valuable papers were read
5 p.m. Prof. E. J. Garwood, “The Work of Ice in the Section, which profited greatly by Colonel
as a Geological Agent.” (Lecture I)
Medical and Chirurgical, 20, Hanover-sq., W., 8 p m. Hardy's energy and ability. He was educated at
Photographic, 66, Russell-square, W.C., 8 p.m. Rugby, and joined the Indian Army in 1841. As
Zoological, 3, Hanover-square, W., 8} p.m. 1. Mr. a lieutenant, he served with credit under Sir
W. Bateson, "The Prisent State of Knowledge as Charles Napier, in Sind. In 1848-9 he served in
to the Inheritance of Colour in Fancy Rats and the Mooltan campaign, for which he received the
Mice." 2. Mr. G. A. Boulenger, “ List of the
Batrachians and Reptiles collected by M. A. medal and clasp. He served with distinction
Kobert at Chapadá, Matto Grosso." (Percy through the Mutiny, and was strongly and specially
Sladen Expedition to Central Brazil.) 3. Mr. recommended for his services at Nusserabad,
Edgar A. Smith, “Note on some Bulimulida from where the command of the regiment (Ist Bombay
Matto Grosso.”' (Percy Sladen Expedition to Cavalry) devolved on Captain Hardy after his senior
Wednesday, May 27... Geological, Burlington-house, W., officers had been killed. He himself was severely
8 p.m. wounded, but, in the words of the official report,
Royal Society of Literature, 20, Hanover-square, W., “he continued to command his regiment with great
83 p.m. tact and judgment during a most trying period.”
British Astronomical, Sion College, Victoria. After the Mutiny be commanded the 4th Regiment
embankment, E.C., 5 p.m. of Sind Horse, and later joined the 21st Hussars (now
THURSDAY, MAY 28 Royal, Burlington-house, W., 48 p.m.
Antiquaries, Burlington - house, W., 8} p.m. 21st Lancers). His services in India continued until
Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 5 p.m. 1870, when he retired with the rank of Honorary
Professor J. A. Fleming, “ Electricel Resonance Colonel.
and Wireless Telegraphy." (Lecture I.) Electrical Engineers, 92, Victoria-street, S.W.,
5 p m. Annual Meeting.
FRIDAY, MAY 29...Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W.. General Notes.
8 pm. Weekly Meeting, op.m. His Serene Highness Albert, Prince of Monaco,' The Pro
gress of Oceanography.”
SATURDAY, MAY 30 .,Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, LIÈGE EXHIBITION, 1905.-Information has been
W., 3 p.m. Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, “The received from the Board of Education respecting a
De Magnete' and its Author. '(Lecture I., “The
Book.'') Universal and International Exhibition, under the patronage of the King of the Belgians, which will be opened at Liège, in the month of April, 1905, and will continue for at least six months. The Exhibition Society OF ARTS JOURNAL.-The executors of a will include artistic, scientific, industrial, commercial, deceased member have offered to present to the and Colonial sections. The Colonial section will | library of any institution connected with this Society include an exhibition of the Congo Free State. A a set of Journals (unbound) from 1870 to 1903. The park will surround the buildings, and the Exhibition sets are nearly complete, and any deficiencies will as will occupy a total area of 45 hectares (111 acres). far as possible be made good by the Society. Appli. It is proposed to reserve a portion of the site for a cations to be made to the Secretary of the Society of reproduction of Old Liège, when the monuments and Arts,
Journal of the Society of Arts, Proceedings of the Society. . No. 2,636. Vol. LI.
Thursday afternoon, April 23, 1903; Sir
WILLIAM LEE-WARNER, K.C.S.I., in the All communications for the Society should be addressed to
chair. the Secretary, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C.
The CHAIRMAN expressed his regret that the Earl
of Lytton, who was announced to take the chair, was Notices...
unable to be present owing to illness. It seemed altogether superfluous in that Society to introduce
any Birdwood, for members regarded the family as THE ALBERT MEDAL.
part of themselves, and especially was it unnecessary The Albert Medal for the year 1903 has, with to introduce Mr. H. M. Birdwood, as he had prethe approval of His Royal Highness the Prince viously addressed the Society on the subject of of Wales, President of the Society, been plague. Mr. Birdwood had served in the Province awarded to Sir Charles Augustus Hartley, of Sind in the highest capacity possible in his branch, K.C.M.G., in recognition of his services, i.e., as Judge of the Sadar Court and Judicial extending over 44 years, as Engineer to the
Commissioner. Wherever he had served he had left International Commission of the Danube,
behind him the truest regrets at his departure. which have resulted in the opening up of the navigation of that river to ships of all nations, The paper read wasand of his similar services, extending over 20 years, as British Commissioner on the International Technical Commission of the Suez THE PROVINCE OF SIND. Canal.
BY H. M. BIRDWOOD, C.S.I., M.A., LL.D.
CONTENTS :- Area and Population of SindCONVERSAZIONE.
Physical Features and Rainfall – The IndusThe Society's Conversazione will take place
Origin of the names « Sind,” “Hindu," and at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's-park,
“ India ” — Irrigation Canals and Colonisationon Tuesday evening, June 30th, from 9 to
· Vegetation and Scenery -- Fauna - Railways
and Imperial Defence-Aryan Influence in Sind 12 p.m.
-Invasion of Alexander the Great-Prevalence The programme of arrangements will be
of Buddhism ; Arab Invasion-Spread of Mohamannounced later.
medanism; Turki and Afghan Invasions-SubEach member is entitled to a card for him
sequent History-The Buried City of Brahmanabadself (which will not be transferable), and a
Birth of Akbar at Umarkot ; First employment of card for a lady. These cards will be forwarded
Sepoy troops in India--- British Rule. in due course. In addition to this, a limited number of tickets will be sold to members of It will not be possible for me, within the the Society, or to persons introduced by a time at our disposal, to present a detailed member, at the price of 5s. each, if purchased description of the province of Sind, of its before the date of the Conversazione. On that physical features, its flora and fauna, its day the price will be raised to 75. 6d.
people, its literature, its history, its arts Members can purchase these additional and manufactures, and its progress during tickets by personal application, or by letter British rule. I can only offer a few conaddressed to the Secretary. In all cases of tributions towards the illustration of this application by letter a remittance must be many-sided subject in some of its aspects, a few enclosed. Each ticket will admit one person, personal impressions-my own, or those of either lady or gentleman. ,,
others—and a few facts more or less obvious. · Tickets will also be supplied to non-members Some good photographs of scenes and objects on presentation of a letter of introduction from of interest, for which I am indebted to friends, a member.
will also be thrown on the screen; and these, Light refreshments (tea, coffee, ices, claret | I hope, will be appreciated by all now cup, &c.) will be supplied.
present, whether they have visited Sind or not.
AREA AND POPULATION OF SIND. soon, which freely waters the country to the Relatively to other Indian provinces, Sind west of the Khirthar mountains, similarly occupies a small space on the map, as will be fails at Karachi. The average annual rainapparent from the forest map of British India, fall for the Karachi district does not exceed now on the screen, the shaded parts of which 8 inches, and this is a higher rate than for show the forests on the great mountain ranges any other district in Sind, though it is exceeded and on the banks of some of the great rivers.
sometimes in particular places.* In some Thus the course of the Indus through Sind is places there is no rain for two or three years indicated by the dark curved line on the successively, and then there is a whole season's extreme west; but that line is only one third
fall in two or three days. of the whole distance travelled by the Indus from its source on the northern slopes of the
THE INDUS. Himalayas to the sea. The Sind section of the For agricultural purposes, however, all such Indus, if all its windings be reckoned, is 580 defects and irregularities are made good by miles long, but, as the crow flies, the distance the waters of the Indus on all lands from Kashmor, where the Indus enters Sind, to which can be reached by irrigation. So the southernmost point of its delta, is only long as the overflow is duly controlled 360 miles, or a little more than the distance, the food-crops are assured. The inundabetween London and Glasgow. The average tions are indeed irregular, but they never breadth from east to west is 170 miles. In- | fail everywhere at the same time, and cluding the Native State of Khairpur, the area widespread famine is, therefore, unknown of Sind is 53,166 square miles. It is a little in Sind. The conditions suggest those of smaller than Assam, and a good deal smaller Egypt and the Nile; and strangely than the Panjab, or the United Provinces of enough, the ancient poets and geographers Agra and Oudh, or the Central Provinces, or believed that the continent of India was Burma. Its area is about one thirty-third of in some way connected with Egypt, and the whole area of India, including the Native | even Alexander the Great, whose naviga. States, and about one-twentieth of the area of tion of the Indus has been described as rather British India. That is, it is about as large as a geographical expedition than a campaign, † England, with a third of Wales added to | when he saw crocodiles in Sind, was convinced it. Its population, including that of Khairpur, that a voyage down the Indus would bring his is 3,410,223, or about twice that of Wales. army to Egypt and the Nile, because there are
crocodiles there also !| The argument would PHYSICAL FEATURES AND RAINFALL.
have appealed to Fluellen, and helped to The rough sketch map which will now be
relieve him of any doubt as to the corthrown on the screen shows that a considerable rectness of his famous comparison of the part of the country to the west of the Indus is river Wye with the river in Macedon, for, covered by parallel ranges of the Khirthar or as he said, “there is salmons in both.” But, Hala Mountains, which rise to a height of certainly, the Indus is to the Sindhis what 7,000 feet above the sea, and the Pabb hills, the Nile is to the people of Egypt. It which meet the sea at Cape Monze to the west means life, and competence, and content. It of Karachi and rise to a height of about 2,000 fertilises the land, and is itself well stocked feet. All this part of Sind is rocky and with wholesome fish, the best known being the barren. In the eastern districts, there is a pala, or Indus salmon,—the hilsa of the wide tract of sand-hills, which are outlying
Ganges. For many centuries it has afforded a portions of the Thar or “ Indian Desert” of highway for navigation. After receiving the acRajputana ; and between the two unfertile cumulated waters of the Panjab, near Mithankot, regions there is a rich alluvial plain, through at a distance of 490 miles in a direct line from which the Indus forces its way.
the sea, its width extends to several miles, and The rainfall is scanty throughout Sind, as it occupies a neutral zone between two extensive • “Annual Irrigation Revenue Report, Sind, 1900-1901," monsoon areas, and derives no appreciable rain p. 58.
+ Professor Mahaffy's “Alexander's Empire," p. jó. supply from either. The south-west monsoon
Sir H. M. Elliot's “History of India," Vol. I., p. 514. current, which carries with it an annual rain In quoting the authorities for this statement, Sir Henry Elliott fall of 280 inches to the Western Ghâts of the considers it fair to remark that “such ignorance is not recon
cilable, either with the general arrangement of Alexander's Malabar coast, ceases to be rain-producing at
plans, or with the real geographical knowledge which his Lakhpat, in Cutch; and the north-west mon- | inquisitive mind must have imbibed.”
is seldom less than 2,000 yards. Thencefor Like to a dappled mare, beautiful, fair to see.
Rich in good steeds is Sindhu, rich in cars and robes, ward, it is not fed by any great tributary, but, on
Rich in gold, nobly fashioned, rich in vigorous mares. the contrary, is tapped by many canals (the courses of some of which are shown on the So have I praised its power, mighty and unrestrained, map), and becomes narrower as it flows on. Of independent glory, roaring as it runs.". But even in Sind its average width, in the low The Indus has lost none of its “independent season, is one-third of a mile, and its depth glory” and “ mightiness” since these lines varies from 4 to 24 feet. Its delta covers were written, possibly 3,000 years ago ; and, to 3,000 square miles, and its mouths extend this day it is no light matter to restrain its along the coast for 125 miles.
“ endless vigour" and vagaries, and to apply Those who know the river best can soonest its “ample volumes," as completely as may understand the fascination it has for centuries | be, to the public use and service. But the exercised on the minds of the people. And task has been attempted by the officers of the indeed for others, beyond the limits of Sind, Irrigation Department, to the great gain of the ourselves included, whose claims to an Aryan people, as we shall presently see. descent are not too indistinct, its traditions must always possess a reasonable interest. It
ORIGIN OF THE NAMES “SIND," was the steady supply of water by the rivers of
“ HINDU,” AND “ INDIA.” the Panjab and of Upper India which led the
With such a wealth of song to spread its wandering pastoral Aryans to settle there as
fame, it is not to be wondered at that the Indus agriculturists; and so the great rivers which achieved the distinction, not only of giving its induced this process, “perhaps the most im- | name to Sind, but of originating the word portant step,” as the late Sir W. Hunter has “Hindu " also, the letters “s” and “h” in said, “in the progress of a race,” were praised
the two words being interchangeable ; and it by the Vedic poets. For a like reason, Sind l was probably also one of the seven rivers --the was invaded by the Aryans, probably from the
“ Sapta Sindhavas*"' of the Rigveda-from north, but possibly also from the south-west,
which “ the land of the seven rivers"by a route to the south of the Baluchistan | the “. Bharata varsha,” or Bharat's Condeserts; and on the banks of the Indus tinent-took the name of “India" by which itself some of the hymns of the Rig Veda | it became known to the Persians, the Greeks, were undoubtedly composed. In some of the Romans, the Jews in Babylon, and the these, the Indus, under the name of “Saras
modern world. The late Professor Cowell vati” (which Mr. Ralph Griffith, in these
described the Persian word “Hindustan," particular hymns, identifies with the Indus),
which was introduced from the same source by is described as “the mightiest” and “most
the Mohammedans, as “an interesting relic of divine of streams.” “ laden with sweets and Vaidik times,” and pointed out that the land dropping oil,” a “sure defence," and a “fort
| of the “ Sapta Sindhavas” re-appears as the of iron,''* and as “rich in mares,”'t as Upper
“Hapta-Hendu" of the Zend, as the “ India" Sind still is. And elsewhere, under its usual
of the Greeks, who obtained the word from name of “ Sindhu,” the Indus is spoken of as
the Persians and passed it on to the Romans, a mother, “animating all,”I and yet, once
and as the “Hoddu” or “ Hondu” of chapter more, we are told of the Sindhu, the “lord and
I., verse 1, of the Book of Esther, where, leader of these moving floods,” that
according to the Authorised Version, it is
written that Ahasuerus reigned “from India “ His roar is lifted up to heaven, He puts forth endless vigour with a flash of light.
even unto Ethiopia.†” Like floods of rain that fall in thunder from the cloud,
It is remarkable, however, that both in Ara: So Sindhu rushes on, bellowing like a bull.
bic and Persian the word “Hindu" means Like mothers to their calves,
“ black” and “a robber," and in these senses Like milch-kine with their milk, So, Sindhu, unto thee the roaring rivers run.
it is certainly inapplicable to the fair-skinned
Aryan householders and cultivators of the soil. Flasbing, and whitely gleaming in her mightiness,
An Indian friend, an accomplished orienShe moves along her ample volumes through the realms,
talist, explains this perverted use of the word Most active of the active, Sindu unrestrained,
by the circumstance that the Kerks, a hardy Griffith's " Hymns of the Rigveda,” Vol. III., pp. 117, Laboriginal race from Sind, who found their way 116, 118. + 16. Vol. II., p. 410.
• See Griffith's “Hymns of the Rigveda," Vol. II., p. 140. • 16. Vol. IV., p. 229.
-- + Note to Professor Cowell's Edition of Elphinstone's À 16. Vol. IV., pp. 251, 252.
“History of India," p. 147.