done, in the way Mr. Watkins had, one could leave and this introduced a small error into the factorial the metol strip in for half a day without getting the method of development. It was, however, a very same intensity or gradation as with the ortol. That much smaller error than the advantages obtained by was a matter of experiment, and without fog appear compensating for temperature and the amount of ing in either. From the strips on the screen alkali. The difference in the high light was very he would have expected to find that gradation little in under-exposure compared with over-exposure. would be the same in both cases. Perhaps Mr. Generally those who followed the timing development Watkins would explain why that was not always the used an actinometer for getting the exposures. In case; as it was not. With regard to the question of practice he did not find it a difficult matter. His the dilution of the developer, looking at the matter experience was that in an under-exposed snapshot from a chemical standpoint, he thought it would be one must cut the development short. seen that chemical action was always considerably

On the motion of the CHAIRMAN, a hearty vote altered in effect by dilution, and, whatever happened

of thanks was passed to Mr. Watkins, and duly ackin ordinary chemical operations, one would expect to

nowledged by him, and the procetdings terminated. happen also in the chemical operation of development. He did not propose to enter into arguments, nor to give a history of any experiments

A collection of developers and developing appathere might be, but he might say generally that Mr.

ratus was exhibited by the following manufacWatkins was right in his conclusions, but although

turers :generally he must allow a little more scope for those

Bayer and Co.- Developers in liquid powder and who held contrary views. He could quite support

cartridge form. the remark made by Mr. Gear as to sodium citrate,

Burroughs, Wellcome and Co.- Developers in tabloid and, moreover, the addition of citric acid was a well

form. known way by which one could retard the action of

could retard the action of Fuerst, Bros.- Developers and other photographic an over-exposed plate. He believed Mr. Warnerke chemicals in powder and cartridge form. was very strong on the different materials with which | Griffin and Sons.—“M. Q.” devoloper in cartridge an over-exposed plate could be saved, even after the and other forms. developer had been on. Mr. Watkins bad almost Hinton and Co.-“ Hintokinone" developer and convinced him that there was not much use rocking apparatus. in putting a large quantity of bromide on Houghton and Son.—“Wyndham and Volvo" film during development; but if the developer were

developing apparatus. washed off before the action had got very far, and if Kodak Limited.—Daylight developing machines for the development were restrained by means of a very | films, and developer cartridges. dilute solution of hydrochloric acid, there was J. E. Lockyer.-Concentrated liquid developers. obtained a decent negative from a very much over. E. Merck.-Developers in powder and cartridge exposed plate. A remark had been made about form. developers and single solutions. A friend of his used

| Paul Metz.-"Brilliant” concentrated one solution to employ those one-man solutions, and to buy them in liquid developer. cartridges. He came to him (Sir W. Abney) in Penrose and Co.-Safe night filter and lantern for trouble one day, though he had used half a cartridge; developing room. but it appeared that he had used the top half and Sanger, Shepherd and Co.- Latest pattern of Hurter left the bottom half behind.

and Driffield speed determinator apparatus, photo

graphic developers, &c. Mr. Watkins in reply, reminded his hearers Watkins Meter Co.—“ Eikronometer” and exposure that he had not attempted to traverse the meters. whole ground, and that his paper was entitled, “Some Aspects of Photographic Development." He had not asserted that no control existed. He

Miscellaneous. would not wish to argue with Sir William Abney the points raised by that gentleman, because of his large experience. He admitted that the question

THE ST. LOUIS EXHIBITION. of colour was a very important one, and that it had A correspondent sends to the Times the following to be provided for and allowed for, but tbat must be | account of the progress of the St. Louis Exbibition :done in exposure, not in development. He had not the preparations for the Universal Exhibition, been able, in experiments, to find that any control which is to be opened at St. Louis, on May 1st, existed by adding bromide after the tones bad 1904, are going steadily forward. It is generally appeared. He had not experimented with sodium known that it will commemorate the centenary of the citrate, the substance mentioned by Mr. Gear. Mr. acquisition of the million square miles included in Lambert's question touched a weak point. The the Louisiana purchase, and now divided into 12 high light of an under-exposure appeared in slightly States and territories, with a population of nearly 15 different time to the high light of an over-exposure, millions.



The Government of the United States has appro- The expenditures at international exhibitions, like priated 6,308,000 dols., the City of St. Louis that to be held at St. Louis, are best illustrated by 5.000,oco dols., and the Exposition Company, which those at Chicago. For the principal Governments, manages the undertaking, has raised 5,000,000 dols. they were on that occasion as follows:-Brazil, more. About 25 States have signified their acccpt. £120,000 ; Costa Rica, £ 30,000 ; Ecuador, £25,000 ; ance, and have arranged for special exhibits of their France, £143,000 ; Germany, £170,000 ; Great history and resources. These are headed by the Britain, £60,000 ; Japan, £126,000 ; Holland, State of Missouri, in which the Exhibition is to be £20,000 ; Paraguay, £20,000 ; Spain, £43,000 ; held, with a grant of 1,000,000 dols. The remaining and Sweden, 622,000. While the detailed reports States, very likely without exception, will appropriate are not available, as a whole the countries named inmoney at the sessions of their Legislatures during the curred approximately the same expense at the Paris coming winter.

Exhibition of 1900.* Building operations are well under way, and it is The following Table illustrates the extent to which the intention of the management that the five princi. Great Britain has participated in former international pal buildings shall be ready nearly a year before the exhibitions, and gives the amount expended on each opening of the gates. Every effort will be made to since 1867, and also, in square feet, the space occuhave each department and building actually ready pied. The latter part of the Table, in all cases, with its exhibits by May ist, 1904. The floor space includes the colonies, while, with regard to that dealof all the buildings for the Exposition proper, and of ing with expenses, it should be mentioned that it has those erected by the various States, will cover an recently been customary for the colonies to defray area of about 200 acres. As most of the structures their own :will be single storied, these, of themselves, will occupy about one-sixth of the 1,200 acres in the site. In

a Paris. addition, there will be the buildings erected by


• delphia.

1870. 1889.

1900. foreign Governments and by the various societies, and

1893. those for the amusement concessions.

Amornt £ L £ £ ! £ ' £ / Negotiations to obtain the co-operation of foreign expended 125,592 | 39,981 | 66,983 | 29,422 60,000 125,000 countries are going on with all due haste. Those, Space oc-1 large and small, which have already accepted, number cupied | 280,604 194,381 363,018 | 232,845 517,161 294,612 about 25, and include Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Japan, China, Korea, Brazil, the Argentine Republic and some of the other principal countries of South America, Mexico, and

MEEZINGS OF THE SOCIETY. one or two of the leading countries of Central America. To this list must also be added Canada

ORDINARY MEETINGS. which has set aside 125,000 dols. as a preliminary Wednesday evenings, at Eight o'clock :grant, which, it is thought, will be doubled before the

DECEMBER 10.-“ French Rural Education and Exhibition opens.

| its Lessons for England.” By CLOUDESLEY BREREFrance, as the first country to accept the in- ||

TON. LORD REAY, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., Chairman vitation, mainly by reason of its close relations to

of the London School Board, will preside. : the cession of Louisiana in 1803, has made a pre

DECEMBER 17. — “ The South Russian Iron liminary appropriation of 650,000 francs. It is

Industry.” By ARCHIBALD P. HEAD, Mem. Inst.C.E. believed that this will be doubled or trebled during | MR. WILLIAM EGERTON HUBBARD will preside. the next year. The German Commissioner is now in St. Louis for the purpose of choosing a site for

INDIAN SECTION. the building to be erected by that Government. Both Germany and France have pledged them

Thursday afternoon, at 4.30 o'clock :-selves to make larger and finer exbibits than at any

DECEMBER 11.-“ Domestic Life in Persia.” By previous exhibition, other than those held in Paris. Miss ELLA C. Sykes. EARL PercY, M.P., Under Italy will make a distinctive art exhibit, Japan has Secretary of State for India, will preside. made an initial grant of 800,000 yen (about £80,000), while Korea and China will be more completely Papers for Meetings after Christmas :represented than upon any previous occasion. The “Industrial Trusts." By Prof. W. SMART, same is true of Mexico and Canada. It is expected LL.D. SIR ROBERT GIFFEN, K.C.B., LL.D., that many of the remaining countries will announce F.R.S., will preside. their decision within the next three months. The “Oil Lighting by Incandescence." By ARTHUR British Government will be asked to enlarge the KITSON. scope of its acceptance, which is limited thus far

• The cost of the British Section åt Paris, 1000, was more to the assurance that complete exbibits will be made

than double the cost at Chicago. The figures are given in in art and education, and facilities afforded to the Table at the end of the article.-ED. Sociсty of Arts industries,



“The Metric System.” By A. SONNENSCHEIN.

Surveyors, 12, Great George-street, S.W.. 4 p.m. “The Cost of Municipal Trading.” By Dixon

· Mr. James W. Tyler, “Estate Duty Valuations and

Agricultural Property." H. DAVIES.

Geographical, l'niversity of London, Burlington, “Stage Costumes and Accessories.” By PERCY

gardens, W., 8} p.m. Dr. Sven Hedin, “Three MACQUOID.

Years' Exploring Work in Central Asia." “The Principles of Applied Art.” By G. F.

Medical, 11, Chandos-street, W., 8} p.m. BODLEY, R.A.

London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 3 p.m.

Sir Wyko Kaylis, “The Bogey in the Studio : an “Modem Movements in Decorative Art.” By

address to lovers of art on vexed questions of the CHARLES HOLME.

day." “ British North Borneo.” By HENRY WALKER, | TUESDAY, Dec. 9...Medical and Chirurgical, 20, Hanover. Commissioner of Lands, British North Borneo.

square, W., 8p.m. “Three Colour Printing.” By HARVEY DALZIEL.

Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W., 8 “ The Port of London.” By Dr. B. W. GINSBURG.

p.m. Discussion on Mr. T. H. Minshall's paper, “ Tonkin, Yunnan and Burma." By FRED. W.

“ High Speed Electrical Generating Plant."

Photographic, 66, Russell-square, W.C., 8 p.m. CAREY, late H.B.M.'s Acting.Consul at Szemao,

Dr. R. Norris Wolfenden, “Photography in

Marine Zoology.“ The Indian Census.” By JERVOISE A. BAINES,

Anthropological, 3, Hanover-square, W., & p.m. C.S.I.

Colonial Institute, Whitehall-rooms, Whiteball“The Province of Sind.”

place, S.W , 8 p.m. Mr. Hugh Clifford, “British By HERBERT M.

and Siamese Malaga." BIRDWOOD, C.S.I., LL.D.

Pharmaceutical, 17, Bloomsbury-square, W.C., 8 “Women in Canada.” By the Countess of


Asiatic, 22, Albemarle-street, W. 3 p.m. “ The Province of Assam.” By SIR CHARLES Wednesday, Dec. 10...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street. JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., C.I.E.

Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. Mr. Cloudesley Brereton'
“French Rural Education and its Lessons for


Sanitary Institute, 74a, Margaret-street, W., 8 p.m. Monday Evenings, at Eight o'clock :

Dr. Louis Parkes and Messrs. J. Osborne Smith,

and W. C. Tyndale, “ Drain Testing." Prof. VIVIAN B. LEWES, “The Future of Central Chamber of Agriculture (at the House Of Coal Gas and Allied Illuminants.” Four


Biblical Archäology, 37,. Great Russell-street Lectures.

W.C., 43 p.m. LECTURE III.-DECEMBER 8.—The relation of

Japan Society, 20, Hanover-square, S.W., 8} p.m. the candle-power and calorific value of gas to its use

Mr. St. John Dixon, “Some Japanese Artists of with the incandescent mantle—The incandescent


Royal Literary Fund, 7, Adelphi-terrace, W.C.. mantle and the directions in which it will be im.

3p.m. proved— The probable future of coal gas.

United Service Institution, Whiteball, S.W., 3 p.m. LECTURE IV.- DECEMBER 15.—Lighting by oil

Mr. F. T. Jane, “A Scheme for the Absolute Pro

tection of Commerce in the next Naval War." and the advances of the past fifty years—The use of oil in incandescent mantle lighting—Vapour burners

THURSDAY, Dec. 11...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street,

Adelphi, W.C., 43 p.m. (Indian Section.) Miss and their future-Air gas and its latest developments

Ella C. Sykes, “ Domestic Life in Persia," - The present position and future of acetylene.

Royal, Burlington-house, W., 4) p.m.
Antiquaries, Burlington-house, W., &} p.m.
Photographic, 66, Russell-square, W.C., 8 p.m.

Traill Taylor Memorial Lecture, Prof. H. H.

Turner, “The Great Photographic Star Map.”. Wednesday afternoons, at Five o'clock :

London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 6 p.m.

Mr. Josiah Booth, " Tone Painting in Song.” Professor. EDWARD B. POULTON, M.A., Electrical Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W., D.Sc., F.R.S., “ Means of Defence in the

8 p.m. Dr. J. A. Fleming, “ The Photometry of

Electric Lamps." Struggle for Life among Animals.”

Mathematical, 22, Albemarle-street, W., 5. p.m. Lecture I., December 31. Lecture II., January 7.

Camera Club, Charing-cross-road, W.C., 8} p.m.

Mr. Sanger Shepherd, “Colour Photography on


Friday, Dec, 12...North-East Coast Institute of Engineers MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEER.

and Shipbuilders, Sunderland, 71 p.m. Mr. J. Monday, Dec. 8...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street,

Hamilton Gibson, “ Large Stop Valves for High Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. (Cantor Lectures.) Prof.

· Pressure Steam."
Vivian B. Lewes, “The Future of Coal Gas and

Astronomical, Burlington-house, 5 p.m.
Allied Illuminants." (Lecture III.)

Clinical, 20, Hanover-square, W., 8p.m.
Farmers' Club, Salisbury-square Hotel, Fleet-street,

Physical, Chemical Society's Rooms, Burlington-
E.C., 6 p.m. I. Annual General Meeting. 2. Mr.

house, W., 5 p.m. A. D. Hall, “ Soil Analysis and Soil Maps: Wbat SATURDAY, DEC. 13...Botanic, Inner Circle, Regent's-park, Ioformation can they give the Farmer?"

N.W., si p.m.

CANTOR LECTURES ON " GLASS Journal of the Society of Arts, FOR OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS.” No. 2,612. Vol. LI.

Dr. Richard T. Glazebrook's Cantor Lectures i on “ Glass for Optical Instruments" have

been reprinted from the Journal, and the FRIDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1902. pamphlet (price One Shilling) can be obtained

on application to the Secretary, Society of

Arts, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C. All communications for the Society should be addressed to

A full list of the Cantor Lectures which have the Secretary, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C.

been published separately and are still on sale

ca: be obtained on application to the Secretary. Notices.

MONDAY, DECEMBER 15, 8 p.m. (Cartor

Proceedings of the Society. Lecture.) PROFESSOR VIVIAN B. LEWES, ** The Future of Coal Gas and Allied Illuminants." (Lecture IV.)


Wednesday, December 10, 1902 ; SIR (Ordinary Meeting.) ARCHIBALD P: HEAD,

Philip MAGNUS in the chair.
M. Inst.C.E., “ The South Russian Iron

The following candidates were proposed for · Further details of the Society's meetings will

election as members of the Society :be found at the end of this number.

Acland, Miss Sarah Angelina, Cleveden-house, Park.

town, Oxford.

Dallin, Cyrus Edwin, 89, Oakland-avenue, Arlington JUVENILE LECTURES.

Heights, Massachusetts, U.S.A. The usual short course of lectures adapted i Dangerfield, James, Artillery-mansions, Westminster, for a juvenile audience will be delivered on S.W. Wednesday afternoons, December 31st and Dunham, Andrew Allen, care of Casein Company of January 7th, at 5 o'clock, by Professor America, 11, Broadway, New York, U.S.A. EDWARD B. POULTON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. Dunnicliff, H. B., 5, Kestrel-avenue, Herne-hill, S.E. (Hope Professor of Zoology in the University Gibson, James Glen S., F.R.I.B.A., 27A, Old Bondof Oxford), on the “ Means of Defence in the

street, W. Struggle for Life among Animals."

Giddons, John Harcourt, Austral, near Liverpool,

New South Wales, Australia. Special tickets are required for these lectures,

Hopkins, John Guthrie, Alberene, Albermarle County, which can be obtained on application to the

Virginia, U.S.A. Secretary. A sufficient number of tickets to

Judd, Walter, 5, Queen Victoria-street, E.C. fill the room will be issued to members in the

Kinealy, John Henry, 1108, Pemberton-building, order in which applications are received, and

Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. . the issue will then be discontinued. Subject

Livesey, David Thomas, Luxville, London-road, to these conditions, each member is entitled to East Grinstead. a ticket admitting two children and an adult. McCormack, Joseph Nathaniel, M.D., LL.D.,, The cards are now in course of issue.

Bowling-green, Kentucky, U.S.A.
McLusky, William B., City of Perth Gas Depart-

ment, Perth, N.B.

Scantlebury, Captain Vincent John, Assoc. Inst.N.A.,

21, St. Petersburgh-place, Bayswater, W. PROFESSOR VIVIAN B. LEWES delivered the

Scott, Percy Gilbert, 34-37, Dobson's-road, Howrah, third lecture of his course on “The Future

India. of Coal Gas and Allied Illuminants," on Silberrad, Dr. Oswald, Hill-top, Shooter's - hill, Monday evening, 8th inst.

Kent. The lectures will be printed in the Journal | Spencer, Frank Barnes, Ovenden, Kingswood-road, during the Christmas recess.

I Wimbledon, S.W.

Wall, J. W. Russell, Raglan Villa, Holly-park, culum. Or, to use another figure, if each New Southgate, N.

new subject represents a new force, all the West, George F. Myddleton, J.P., 35A, Great' subjects are so converged that though the Cumberland-place, W.

direction of the resultant or aim may be West, Mrs. George Comwallis, 35A, Great Cum

altered, the aim itself remains unimpaired. berland-place, W. Woollan, Miss Helen A., 28, Brook-street, Grosvenor

Hence, to limit one's survey of rural educa

tion to what passes within the four walls of square, W.

the village school, would seem to be as inThe following candidates were balloted for / structive as to present one's audience with and duly elected members of the Society :- . an elephant's tooth, and leave them to Aitken, Thomas, Assoc. M. Inst.C.E., Surveyor's

imagine the jaw that supplied it with driving Office, County-buildings, Cupar, Fife, Scotland.

power, not to mention the animal itself and Baker, George Samuel, “ Frontenac," Donnington,

its habits which have evolved it into its road, Willesden, N.W.

present condition. French primary educaBarber, René R., Messrs. William Barber and Bros.. tion, in fact, is so highly centralised, SO Georgetown, Ontario, Canada.

much of the energy manifest in the schools Cole, Charles Henry, Assoc.M. Inst.C.E., H.M. I appears to come from the central power Dockyard, Malta.

station, that it seems needful for anyone Connett, Albert Newmann, M.Am.Soc.C.E., Tyn. who wishes to comprehend any large section dale-lodge, Bromley, Kent.

of it, to obtain a bird's-eye view of the whole Eborall, Alfred Cecil, M.I.E.E., 115, Tulse-hill, S.W. ' machinery. Foot, Herbert, B.A., F.I.A., 13, Marlborough

Yet at the outset a word of warning is place, St. John's-wood, N.W.

requisite. This centralisation, however uniHardcastle, Edward, Rose cottage, New-road side,

form it may appear in Blue-books and Horsforth, near Leeds. Hardy, William Eversley, St. Oswald, Alexandra

Government publications, depends for its road, Norwood.

administration on the character of the per. Northcott, James, 12, Herne-hill, S.E.

sonnel who run the machine - the officials, Pearson, Captain James Bruce, care of Managing

the inspectors, and the teachers, and how these Agents, British India Steam Navigation Co., Ltd., naturally differ in energy, views, and aims Calcutta.

need not be dilated on here. The mere fact Simpson, Percy, “ Ocean Wave," St. Ives, Cornwall. of whether stress is laid on one part of the

programme or another is bound to produce a certain decentralisation that itself is aided

by the nature of the programme, which is The paper read was

not so inelastic as is popularly supposed.

Another element of differentiation is introFRENCH RURAL EDUCATION. duced by the racial differences between the

| inhabitants in the various departments. EduBY CLOUDESLEY BRERETON.

cation in the Nord, with its affinities with. BelIn order to understand the problems of gium, and education in Alpes Maritimes, with the French rural school, it would seem its strong Italian proclivities, are evidently essentially necessary to look at them from working on very different materials. One the French point of view, especially if we must, therefore, not only enter a caveat are to appreciate the value of the solutions against one's audience taking too uniform a adopted. Now, to the French mind, a view of French education, but one must also part of any system only finds it full and be careful oneself to guard against making complete explanation in its relation to the too sweeping generalisations. whole. It is in harmony with this theory The territorial character of the population. that the whole educational organisation of to which allusion has just been made, is, the country has been built up. Even when | however, not merely an element in promoting a new subject has been introduced into the decentralisation, it is also an item to be taken time-table of the primary school so appar- into account when appraising the success or ently unconnected with the rest as the failure of the rural school. Who speaks of enseignement agricole (agricultural instruct. character, speaks of home, the religious intion), it has never been allowed to remainfluence, the social milieu — three powerful long in its isolation, but has been speedily | factors that can do much to help or hinder woven into the fabric of the school curri- ; the school's endeavours. The two first-named

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