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du choix des lignes à créer, la France n'ait pas d'autre were up hill and down dale, long, tedious, shaky, and préoccupation que celle de servir utilement les uncomfortable. A new and most important * intérêts supérieurs' du pays."
principle in piercing high and long mountains had A Genève nous avons été heureux de recevoir been introduced, viz., the construction of two tunnels ce témoignage emanant d'un millieu d'une instead of one. The great trouble in all long tunnels autorité et d'une compétence telles. Le fait was the question of ventilation, which was very much d'être à la fois une Chambre française et de
exaggerated by two trains running in opposite représenter des intérêts français à Londres
directions through the tunnel. With two tunnels and donne à ce jugement la valeur d'une sanc
one train always running in the same direction that tion décisive. Il vient d'être confirmé d'ailleurs
problem would be considerably diminished. One point
touched on which would probably attract much par une délibération judicieusement motiveé de la Chambre de Commerce française de
attention was the high temperature experienced in
piercing the tunnel, i.e., 50° C. or 122° Fahr. Milan.
The possibility of having to travel through such a Messieurs,—Vous avez en Angleterre des
temperature made one perspire at the very idea. Foréconomistes distingués, aussi, si cette confér tunately this temperature was only experienced while ence, quoique très imparfaite, pouvait mettre the tunnel was being constructed, and with good en lumière l'importance de ce nouveau projet ventilation and cold water, of which there was a great de ligne internationale, et trouvait quelque abundance, the probability was it would not prove a écho dans ce pays où l'on possède à un si haut serious difficulty, especially if, as suggested in the degré l'intelligence des affaires, je n'aurai
paper, the line was worked by electric traction. The qu' ame féliciter de la bienveillante attention
great trouble in long tunnels at the present time was not que vous avez bien voulu m'accorder.
so much the temperature but the fact that the air was saturated with the products of the combustion from the coal of the locomotive, and there were cases on record of drivers being asphyxiated by the nauseous
atmosphere through which they had to pass. Electric DISCUSSION.
traction, amongst its other immense advantages, The CHAIRMAN, on behalf of the members, ex. would sweep away all such difficulties, with the pressed their admiration of the clear and lucid result that not only would passengers have a way in which the author had brought the subject shorter journey, but the comfort of travelling forward. Colonel Turrettini, whose photograph would be considerably increased. It bad been had been shown, was well known in London, stated that in the station at Rome there was a baving been a member of the Commission appointed tablet erected to the memory of George Stephento determine the advisability of constructing the great son, who asserted that, in days of old, it was engineering works at Niagara. The paper was an the motto of every Roman that all roads led to illustration of what might be called the peaceful war Rome, implying that now that Stephenson bad of nations. All the nations on the Continent were shown what a railway could do the end would be that vieing with each other, and doing all they possibly engineering science would again lead all roads to could to expedite the transit between the West and Rome. He was afraid, from wbat was said in the the East. Not only would passengers save two very paper, that the Swiss would disappoint the Italians, valuable hours, and travel in greater comfort, but the for all roads would not lead to Rome, but away from gigantic and increasing commerce between the East | Rome, and if they led anywhere it would be to and West would be benefited by the shorter route,
Egypt. and India, Burma, Siam, China, and Japan would offer improved markets in the future to the Western Prof. LE NEVE FOSTER, F.R.S., enquired whether manufacturers. A few of the novelties mentioned Dr. Goegg was strictly correct in asserting that the by Dr. Goegg were extremely interesting from an rate of progress in driving the tunnel was seven, eight, engineering point of view. The designers of the or ten mètres a day. From his recollection of some work had gone back to first principles. The figures he had seen at the Düsseldorf Exhibition, he first principle enunciated in this country by the believed the rate last year at the north end was great engineer who projected the railway about 6} metres, or 21 feet a day, a splendid rate system, George Stephenson, was that a line of progress, but not so large as that mentioned. should be constructed, not as straight, but as level as It was most interesting to notice from a mining possible, the reduction of gradients, even at the point of view that one scourge of mining, silicious expense of distance, meaning often speed. All the dust, a scourge which had produced dire effects in lines laid out by George Stephenson, the London and the Transvaal, had been remedied by the method of Brighton, the London and Birmingbam, the Liverpool driving employed in the Simplon tunnel. By the and Manchester, and others possessed that | use of a drill driven by hydraulic power, with a characteristic, while the other lines of the country current of water continually running through it, no constructed during the great railway mania of 1845-6 dust whatever was produced. He did not mean
to assert that it would necessarily be advisable com- metres. The speaker pointed out that the new line mercially to employ the same method of driving in was not merely, as was then claimed to be, the most the Transvaal, because that matter would have to be direct and rapid route between Paris and Milan, but investigated on the spot, but it was well to know that that in reality it represented, as Dr. Goegg had . a remedy had been found for so great an evil. Dealing self pointed out, a shortened route between the wiih temperature, he thought Dr. Goegg would be extreme points, Calais and Brindisi. able to state that 50° C. was not the temperature of the air in the tunnel in which the men were working, | Mr. LEON GASTER inquired what was the nature but that of the rock on the sides of the tunnel, the of the rock through which the tunnel was pierced, temperature in which the men worked being because it was a well-known fact that that had an considerably less than that figure. There need influence on the temperature. not be the slightest apprehension of travelling through the tunnel on that score, because in Dr. GOEGG said that the rock was a species or India, the temperature in the railway cars often granite known as Antigorio gneiss. In acknowledg. exceeded 100° Fahr. He thought civil engineers ing the vote of thanks, he said that he had known of might be reminded that in ventilating by means of old how strong a tie of sympathy there had always two separate tunnels, they were simply copying the existed between England and the town of Geneva, old plan adopted by coal miners who, when they and that whenever it should be in his power to were driving their tunnels from the bottom of the strengthen that bond of friendship he should always shaft, drove two tunnels, thus obtaining ventilation. feel happy to take every opportunity of so doing.
Dr. GOEGG, replying to Dr. Le Neve Foster in French, stated that, at the present moment, the average advance, taking both sides—the Italian and Swiss-together, was at the rate of 12 metres per
Obituary. day. The rock on the Italian side was, however, harder, and the rate of progress on that side was necessarily less, sometimes not exceeding three or four SIR WILLIAM CHANDLER ROBERTS-AUSTEN, metres per day, thus reducing the average. With K.C.B., F.R.S.-The Society has again to record respect to the sanitary and other arrangements the loss of one of its most eminent and valued made for the welfare of the working population at members in Sir William Roberts - Austen, who the seat of the works, he stated that elaborate | died on November 22nd, at his official residence sanitary and hygienic appliances were pro. in the Royal Mint, at the age of 59. He had vided, owing to which the general condi- been a member of the Society of Arts since 1890, tion of health had lately improved in a remarkable and had served on the Council from 1891 till degree. The ankylostomiasis which had been preva- 1898, and again from 1900 up to the present time. lent among the workers in the St. Gotthard tunnel was Chandler Roberts, as he was then named, before he quite unknown among those of the Simplon. Strict | took the name of Austen in 1885, entered the Royal rules as to cleanliness, baths, &c., were enforced, School of Mines in 1861, obtaining the Associateship and excessive fatigue avoided; the men being ex. in 1865. His first work was in association with pected to work only four hours a day.
Thomas Graham, the Master of the Mint, whose
assistant he was from 1865 to 1869. He assisted Mr. JOHN LEIGHTON contrasted the inconve Grabam very ably in his later researches, niences suffered by travellers in the heavy diligences, a and commenced at this period the imporfew years ago, with the shorter and more comfortable tant investigations in physical metallurgy which journey which would be possible by the new route. have only been interrupted by his death. In
1870 he was appointed chemist to the Mint, and in M. EUGÈNE PAYART (speaking in French) said that capacity he was responsible for the standard that the scheme which Dr. Goegg had described fineness of over £117,000,000 of gold coin. In 1880 commanded his fullest sympathies and best wishes. he succeeded Dr. Percy as Professor of Metallurgy at Whilst cordially supporting Dr. Goegg he called the Royal School of Mines, an appointment he conattention to the fact that the scheme had already been tinued to hold till the time of his death. The referred to at the International Congress of Economic discharge, however, of the duties of these two and Commercial Geography, which met at Paris, appoiotments, laborious as they were, did not between August 27th and August 30th, 1900, by prevent his carrying on a long series of scientific M. de Claparède, President of the Geneva Geo investigations connected with physical metalgraphical Society, who described this new Simplon lurgy, of which the most important were his line as being “the shortest route between Paris and researches into the structure of metals and alloys, Milan.” The line was to extend through the Jura many researches having a most important bearing by two tunnels, 11,400 metres and 15,200 metres in on their industrial uses. His experimental work length, respectively, the maximum altitude being 559 | on the diffusion of metals was equally brilliant
He was the first to determine quantitatively the rate re-issue these in the form of a book. He also read and amount of diffusion of one metal in another in a two papers before the Society on “Alloys in Art series of classical experiments on gold and lead. | Metal Work," and on “Rare Metals," besides one This formed the subject of the Bakerian lecture of the in association with Mrs. Lea Merritt on “Mural Royal Society in 1896. The results of this work were Painting." also published in a series of reports to the Institution He was greatly liked by a large circle of friends, of Mechanical Engineers, for it was at the instance of and his intimate associates will long miss the kindly the Alloys Research Committee of that Institntion genial humour which-especially in years before the that he first began, in the year 1890, to investigate the pressure of work began to tell on a somewhat excit. effects of small admixtures of certain elements on ths able and eager nature-brightened and enlivened all mechanical and physical properties of metals.
their intercourse with him. It was while he was engaged in this research that he invented the Recording Pyrometer, an instrument which has proved of great value, not only for scientific investigation, but also for practical metallurgy. It is used in metallurgical works, not only for laboratory
ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE experiments, but for recording the temperature of
SESSION. flues, of annealing and other furnaces, and of the blast for blast furnaces.
ORDINARY MEETINGS. His capacity for work also led him to be constantly DECEMBER 3.4" Some Aspects of Photographic nominated as a member of departmental and other Development.” By ALFRED WATKINS. Sir Committees. Amongst others, he served as Chairman WILLIAM ABNEY, K.C.B., D.C.L., D.Sc., F.R.S., of the Inland Revenue and Customs Laboratoriee | will preside. Committee, as a member of the Board of Trade DECEMBER 10.—“ French Rural Education and Committee on the Deterioration of Steel Rails in its Lessons for England.” By CLOUDESLEY BRERE1896, and of the National Physical Laboratory Com TON. LORD REAY, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., Chairman mittee in 1897; besides undertaking such public work of the London School Board, will preside. as was implied by being a member of the Executive DECEMBER 17. — “ The South Russian Iron Committee of the Inventions Exhibition in 1885, of Industry.” By ARCHIBALD P. HEAD, Mem. Inst.C.E. the Council of the British Section of the Paris Exhibi
MR. WILLIAM EGERTON HUBBARD will preside. tion in 1889, and of the Royal Commission for the Chicago Exhibition in 1893. Indeed there can be little doubt that it was his devotion to this and other
INDIAN SECTION. public duties which broke down his health, and
DECEMBER 11.—" Domestic Life in Persia." By uutimately caused his death.
Miss ELLA C. SYKES. EARL PERCY, M.P., Under He was made a C.B. in 1890 and a K.C.B. in
Secretary of State for India, will preside.
For Meetings after Christmas :the Chemical Society and of the Physical Society, of which he was one of the founders, Honorary “Industrial Trusts.” By PROF. W. SMART, Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers and of LL.D. SIR ROBERT GIFFIN, K.C.B., LL.D., the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. In 1893 F.R.S., will preside. he was elected by the Committee a member of the “Oil Lighting by Incandescence." By ARTHUR Athenæum Club for distinguished eminence in science, Kitson. and in 1890 he received the Legion of Honour from | “The Metric System.” By A. SONNENSCHEIN. the French Government. He was the author of an “The Cost of Municipal Trading.” By Dixon **Introduction to the Study of Metallurgy,” and of H. DAVIES. many papers published in the Philosophical Transac “ Stage Costumes and Accessories." By Percy tions, the Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, MACQUOID. the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, | “The Principles of Applied Art.” By G. F. and the Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical BODLEY, R.A. Engineers.
“Modern Movements in Decorative Art.” By The Society of Arts has benefited no less than the CHARLES HOLME. other Institutions with which he was connected from “ British North Borneo.” By HENRY WALKER, his energy and public spirit. His work on Alloys is Commissioner of Lands, British North Borneo. ully recorded in the five series of Cantor lectures on “Three Colour Printing.” By HARVEY DALZIEL. that subject, of which the first was given in 1884 “The Port of London.” By Dr. B. W. GINSBURG, and the last in 1901, and in a somewhat more “ Tonkin, Yunnan and Burma.” By FRED. W. popular and less technical shape than in his various CAREY, late H.B.M.'s Acting Consul at Szemao, papers and lectures. He had it in contemplation to China,
Tuesday, Dec. 2....Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, The meetings of this Section will take place
S.W., 8 p.m. Mr. Thomas Herbert Minshall,
“High Speed Electrical Generating Plant." on the following Thursday afternoons, at 4.30
Pathological, 20, Hanover-square, W., 83 p.m. o'clock :
Zoological, 3, Hanover-square, W., 8} p.m. 1. December 11, January 22, February 12, March 12,
Dr. Hans Gadow, “ Features of Animal Life in
Southern Mexico. 2. Dr. Einar Lönnberg, “The April 23, May 14.
Variation of the Elk.” 3. Mr. W. F. Lanchester,
“The Crustacea collected during the “Skeat COLONIAL SECTION.
Expedition to the Malay Peninsula," (Part II.) The meetings of this Section will take place | WEDNESDAY, Dec. 3...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street, on the following Tuesday afternoons, at 4.30
Adelphi. W.C., 8 p.m. Mr. Alfred Watkins, o'clock :
". Some Aspects of Photographic Development."
Geological, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m. January 13, February 24, March 31, May 5.
Royal Archäological Institute, 20, Hanover-square,
W., 4 p.m. 1. Mr. C. R. Peers, “Benedictine APPLIED ART SECTION.
Nunnery at Little Marlow." 2. Messrs. F. W.
Reader and A. S. Kennard, “ Pile Structures near The meetings of this Section will take place
London Wall." on the following Tuesdays, at 4.30 or 8
United Service Institution, Whitehall, S.W., 3 p.m. o'clock:
Mr. H. N. Sulivan, “The Use of Vertical Fire
from the Sea against Ships and Dockyards." January 20, February 3, 17, March 17, April 21,
Entomological, 11, Chandos-street, W., 7 p.m. May 19.
Archæological Association, 32, Sackville-street, W.,
8 p.m. CANTOR LECTURES.
Obstetrical, 20, Hanover-square, W., 8 p.m. The following course of Cantor Lectures
THURSDAY, Dec. 4...Royal, Burlington-house, W., 43p.m.
Antiquaries, Burlington-house, W., 83 p.m. will be delivered on Monday Evenings, at 8
Linnean, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m. 1. Mr. G. o'clock :
C. Bourne, “New and rare Corals from Funafuti." PROF. VIVIAN B. LEWES, “ The Future of
2. Mr. E. A. Newell Arber, " The Morphology of
the Flowers and Fruits of the Xylosteum section of Coal Gas and Allied Illuminants.” Four
Lonicera. 3. Mr. C. B. Clarke, “Note on Carex Lectures.
Tolmiei, Boott." 4. Mr. C. With, “New and
Old Phalangiodes from the Indian Peninsula." LECTURE 11.-DECEMBER 1.-The dilution of
Chemical, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m. 1. Mr. coal gas by gases cheaply produced by other pro.
W. N. Hartley, “The Absorption Spectra of cesses—The effect of lowering candle power on the
Metallic Nitrates." (Part II.) 2. Mr. H. calorific value of the gas—The photometry of low
Crompton, “The Specific Heats of Liquids." 3.
Mr. M. 0. Forster, “Studies in the Camphane grade gas and the conditions under which its illum.
Series.” (Part X.) “The constitntion of Enolic inating power is best developed.
Benzoylcamphor." 4. Mr. M. O. Forster, “. Note on the Isomeric Benzoyl Derivatives from Isomtrosocamphor." 5. Messrs. J. B. Cohen and H. D. Dakin, “The constitution of the Products
of Nitration of Meta-acetoluidide." MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEER.
London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 6 p.m. Monday, Dec. 1...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street,
Mr. R. Kerr, "Colour Photography.”
Electrical Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W.,
8 p.m. Inaugural Address by the President, Allied Illuminants." (Lecture II.)
Civil and Mechanical Engineers, Caxton-hall, West-
minster, S.W., 8 p.m. Mr. A. W. Manton, Engineers, in the Theatre of the United Service In
“Some Notes on Tunnelling." stitution, Whitehall, S.W., 74 p.m. Mr. Charles Friday, Dec, 5...Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, H. W. Biggs, “ Depreciation of Plant and Works
S.W., 8 pm. (Students' Meeting.) Mr. A. under Municipal and Company Management."
Reynolds, “ The Erection of Steel Bridges, Chemical Industry (London Section), Burlington
Sheffield Extension of the London and Northhouse, W., 8 p.m. 1. Mr. Arthur Marshall, “ The
Geologists Association, University College W.C.,
8 p.m. 1. Miss Catherine A. Raisin, “ The and J. E. Linder, “The interaction of Sul
Formation of Chert.” 2. Mr. A. K. Coomarasphurous and Nitrous Acids as affecting various
wamy, “A List of the Fish Remains from the Absorbents employed in Testing the Gases escaping
Middle Bagshot Beds of the London Basin." from Vitriol Chambers.” 3. Mr. Arthur Marshall,
Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover-square, “ Note on the Determination of the Strength of
W.C., 8 p.m.
SATURDAY, Dec. 6... Waterworks Engineers, Geological
Society's Rooms, Burlington-house, W., 10 a.m. Mr. Cutliff Hyne, “ Arctic Lapland.”
1. Mr. W. H. Humphreys, “The Coating of Cast Victoria Institute, 8, Adelphi-terrace, W.C., 43
Iron Water Pipes.” 2. Mr. T. Molyneux, “ Dep.m. Dr. T. G. Pinches, “The Babylonian Story
scription of Softening Plant at Wilmslow: Stockof the Creation."
port Corporation Works.” 3. Mr. John Shaw, London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 5 p.m.
“ The Detection and Prevention of Underground Pro . Silvanus P. Thompson, "The Magic Mirror."
Journal of the Society of Arts,
No. 2,611. Vol. LI.
CANTOR LECTURES. PROFESSOR VIVIAN B. LEWES delivered the second lecture of his course on “ The Future of Coal Gas and Allied Illuminants,” on Monday evening, ist inst.
The lectures will be printed in the Journal during the Christmas recess.
FRIDAY, DECEMBER 5, 1902.
All communications for the Society should be addressed to
the Secretary, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C.
Proceedings of the Society.
THIRD ORDINARY MEETING. Wednesday, December 3, 1902 ; SIR
WILLIAM ABNEY, K.C.B., D.C.L., D.Sc., NEXT WEEK.
F.R.S., Vice-President of the Society, in the
chair. MONDAY, DECEMBER 8, 8 p.m. (Cantor Lecture.) PROFESSOR VIVIAN B. LEWES,
The following candidates were proposed for “The Future of Coal Gas and Allied Illumin
election as members of the Society :ants." (Lecture III.)
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 10,8 p.m. (Ordi Edwards, Reginald William, Brooklands, Churchnary Meeting.) CLOUDESLEY BRERETON, lane, Aldershot. “ French Rural Education and its Lessons for Niles, Marston, 140, Nassau-street, New York City, England.”
U.S.A. THURSDAY, DECEMBER II, 4.30 p.m.
Saenz de Zumaran, Alfonso, Chargé d'Affaires de (Indian Section.) Miss ELLA C. SYKES,
l'Uruguay, Legation Office, 104, Victoria-street,
Westminster, S.W. “ Domestic Life in Persia.”
Vigor, Rupert H., 15 and 17, King-street, West Further details of the Society's meetings will
India Dock-road, Poplar, E. be found at the end of this number.
Visick, Charles, A.M.I.Mech.E., Messrs. W. Visick
and Sons, Basset Works, Devoran, Cornwall. Wyatt, T. G., North Clifton Plumbing and Engineer
ing Works, Guernsey, Channel Islands. JUVENILE LECTURES. The usual short course of lectures adapted
The following candidates were balloted for for a juvenile audience will be delivered on
and duly elected members of the Society :Wednesday afternoons, December 31st and Aldrich, Orlando Wesley, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., January 7th, at 5 o'clock, by Professor Ph.D., Room 11, Wesley Block, Columbus, Ohio, EDWARD B. POULTON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. U.S.A. (Hope Professor of Zoology in the University
| Allen, F. Bowen, M.A., B.Sc., Director, School of of Oxford), on the “Means of Defence in the
Mines, Coolgardie, Western Australia. Struggle for Life among Animals.".
Argollo, Miguel, M.Inst.C.E., San Francisco Rail
way, Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brazil, South America. LECTURE I.-" The Methods by which Animals
Armstrong, M. F., 8, Upper Wimpole-street, hide in order to escape their Enemies and catch their
Aronson, Adolph, 39, Foster-lane, E.C. LECTURE II.-" The Ways in wbich Animals
Bandinel, J. J. Frederick, B.A., Newchwang, North warn their Enemies and signal to their Friends."
China. Members who desire tickets for the course | Barr, Mark, 25, Kensington-court-gardens, W. are requested to apply for them at once. | Beauchamp, Earl, K.C.M.G., Madresfield.court,
Each member is entitled to a ticket admitting two children and an adult.
Beck, Isaac, M.I.Mech.E., Haymarket-chambers, 17, A sufficient number of tickets to fill the Haymarket, Sheffield. room will be issued to members in the order Begbie, Ernest, De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., in which applications are received.
P.O. Box 195, Salisbury, Rhodesia, South Africa.