collected, the Imperial Government had decided to Administration. He is also of opinion that the hear not only the opinions of the representatives of Government should, further, be empowered in the the principal Trusts, but also those of independent public interest to demand the alteration of any authorities on the subject. The Government wishes obnoxious rules in the organisation of the Trusts, to be accurately informed of the influence of the and in case of necessity to abolish certain Trusts Trusts upon the normal development of industry altogether. and trade, with special reference to their action In some cases the exaggerated demands of some during periods of industrial depression. The final i Trusts has led to the formation of opposition Trusts. results will be made known in a special official publi. For example, the beetroot cultivators formed a Trust cation, and are eagerly expected by the interested | to protect themselves against the sugar manufacturers. parties on both sides.

Some of the Rhenish ironworks combined together Although it is generally unknown, the origin of and acquired coal mines in order to procure fuel at a Trusts may be traced back to very early times. The lower rate. The Association of German Publishers Justinian Code, for instance, forbade, in the public | intends to establish works for the manufacture of interest, certain combinations of merchants and printing paper, in order to render itself independent artisans, and in the Middle Ages the Trust movement of the paper market. The formation of these opposi. had attained such a development that certain com tion Trusts is, however, fraught with a certain element binations of merchants were able to decree the l of danger, as they undergo the risk of being undersoid sinking of whole cargoes of spices into the sea in by the older and more experienced organisation. order to diminish the supply and thus maintain or In the meanwhile the principal German Trusts are raise the level of prices. The organisation of the taking steps to form a combination of all the Trusts Trusts during and after the Middle Ages was fairly in the empire, which is, for the present, to be affiefficient, taking into consideration the difficulties of liated to the Association of German Manufacturers. communication in those days, but declined in course To this end, a meeting was held at Berlin, in April, of time, and was finally abolished by the French 1902, and a commission appointed, which has already Revolution, which went so far as to forbid the invited all the Trusts in Germany to take combined assemblage of citizens of the same calling. The action. The first step of the Trusts' Association will politicians of the Revolution held it to be the duty of probably be to influence any State legislation which it the State to suppress the formation of all corporations may deem inimical to its interests.- British Consol with private interests not shared by the people in Frederick Rae in Mining Journal. general.

Shortly after the grave commercial crisis which occurred in Germany during the years following immediately upon the Franco - German War, the

THE DIAMOND INDUSTRY. Trusts were again revived, at first principally in the The Amsterdam Chamber of Commerce, in its coal, salt, chemical, petroleum, sugar, and spirit voluminous and locally valuable annual report (printed branches. At the beginning of 1902 Germany pos in English), reviews the diamond industry-an imsessed about 389, of which about 300 were organised portant one in the Dutch city. Unfortunately the by manufacturers and the remaining 80 by dealers. report is somewhat belated, relating mainly to the Since then the total number has risen to 400, of year 1901, but some particulars are interesting. It which the chemical industries contribute propor mentions, for instance, the change effected in the tionately the largest number. At the present moment diamond workers' trade by the application of the negotiations are taking place in Germany for the mechanical cutting or sawing process to the rough formation of a Central European Electrical Trust, diamonds. Several parts of the stone, which were and in spite of the many obstacles to be overcome, it cut off gradually or ground away according to the old is most probable that its appearance is only a question method, are now sawn to any desired size from the of time.

rough stone and converted into small brilliants. From many quarters public opinion has appealed to "The advantage of this proceeding is so obvious," the State to take action with regard to the Trusts, says the report, “that it will require no further but as yet no suitable or practicable proposals have explanation. The London syndicate immediately been formulated. The annual congress of German availed themselves of this new invention, by raising lawyers discussed the question this year, and proposed the price of all stones fit for the operation of the that the Trusts should be compelled to give any mechanical saw. This resulted, as usual now and information regarding their transactions to the ! then, in temporary obstruction to the trade.” The Government, if such were deemed necessary, in the report goes on to say that “one of the causes for general interests of the nation. Dr. Steinbach, slackness of trade in ground diamonds was the fact formerly Austrian Minister of Finances, seems also that since the prices have become 100 per cent. to advocate the intervention of the State for the higher in the course of two years, the speculative prevention of the abuses called into being by Trusts, trade in the article has entirely subsided and the sale and proposes that they should be compelled to fur. 1 is limited to replenishing of stock.” A source of nish exact details of all their transactions to the State much disquiet in the market was the selling of great quantities of polished diamonds at low rates. This | first since 1889. The profits accruing from the would have produced a panic in 1901 had not the St. Louis coins are to be devoted to the erection on market“ been supported by a stern confidence in the the Exhibition grounds of two heroic statues of London rough syndicate.” In 1902 it transpired that Thomas Jefferson and William McKinley. The those sales below the market value emerged from offices of the St. Louis Exhibition for the United some untrustworthy merchants and agents.” It | Kingdom are at Sanctuary House, Tothill-street, appears that for some years there has been a decline Westminster, S.W. in the diamond working industry in Europe. The report, whilst describing the unfavourable state of affairs in Amsterdam, says circumstances were last year just as bad in other places. “In Hanau, St. Claude and environs, Geneva, London, &c., are fewer

Correspondence. men at work than a few years ago. The Hanau manufacturers are trying to obtain an import duty of 25 per cent. ad valorem on polished diamonds as a

METHODS OF MOSAIC CONSTRUCTION. means to improve their business. In this sense they

I am at present engaged upon the production of bave sent a petition to the German Government.

cartoons and the filling in of incised monumental But the jewellers strongly oppose their movement. work at Harrow-on-the-Hill. In the first case I had New York alone makes an exception. There the

no difficulty, the motif from my design having been work is carried on pretty regularly, without showing

produced in faïence by Theodore Deck, of Sèvres any retrogression. The United States are still the

though the faïence was in a much brighter key than principal buyers of our product.”The Times.

the mosaic.

The obstacle that I have had to encounter is the use of silver to find graduation of tone in so bright a

substance; aluminium does not tarnish, but then it ST. LOUIS EXHIBITION, 1904.

fuses at a low temperature, as does also lead. Thus

I think that I shall have to use tin. The United States Mint is striking special souvenir

I think it not at all unlikely that at Pompeii linen gold dollars to commemorate the centenary of the

was used for the tesseræ, as it answers all the purpurchase of Louisiana from the French in 1803, and

poses of paper. as a souvenir of the Universal Exposition, St. Louis,

JOHN LEIGHTON. 1904. By Act of Congress, the issue is limited to 250,000. The face of the coin bears the lettering " Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1803-1903, One Dollar," whilst, on the reverse of half the number, is

THE ETYMOLOGY OF BOOKS," impressed the head of Thomas Jefferson, the states.

ET CÆTERA. man who negociated the treaty with Napoleon for In my remarks in the discussion on Mr. Douglas the purchase. On the remaining 125,000 is the head Cockerell's paper on Technical Education in conof William McKinley, among whose last official acts nection with the Book-producing trade, I ventured on as President was the signing of the proclamation of an etymological digression in illustration of the the Exhibition. Around the portraits are the words | origins of the prevailing present form of books. As “ United States of America.” The first 50,000 this point may prove suggestive to future students of dollars, 25,0co of each design, are ready and will be the subject, I now submit what I then said with offered for subscription through bankers and banking some further etymological particulars. houses at three dollars each, none to be sold at a We may pass by writings (cuneiform) on bricks, lower figure. The first coin struck was for President and on rocks.--- although it is interesting to note Roosevelt; the second has been handed to Mr. | by the way the passage in “ the Book of Job,” Shaw, the Secretary of the Treasury. Some estimate xix., 23, 24, referring explicitly to the latter :of the sale value of this small issue of souvenir coins “ Oh that my words were now written! That can be formed from the present price of the ordinary they were inscribed in a book! That with an United States gold dollars, which, if at all in iron pen and lead they were graven in the condition, readily fetch two dollars each, while, if rock for ever!” Possibly as ancient was the they belong to the smaller issues, they command as use of writing on strips from the stem of the much as twenty-five or fifty dollars.

Nilotic sedge the Egyptians called by a name which The first gold dollars were issued in 1849. Between in the mouths of the Greeks and Romans became 1849-1890, 19,499,337 coins were struck. Up to " papyrus," and in ours, “paper." The actual por1858, 16,762,701 dollars were made-an average of tion of the pellicle of this sedge used for writing, the 2,000 a year. In 1853, 4,384,149 coins passed Egyptians called by a name which in the mouths of between the dies. The smallest issue in any one the Greeks became byblos, and biblos, specifically year was in 1875, when the total reached only 420. “a book,” and biblion, “ a little book ”; in Latin The present issue of gold of this denomination is the “ biblia,” meaning collected “writings," whence was directly derived the French and English Bible.” Lahoul, and other of the sub-Himalayan States. * Another Egyptian name for the pellicle became the The use of it for this purpose in India must Greek word chariés, whence our words “chart," be very ancient, for it is explicitly mentioned in one “ card," &c. The Greeks also called the separate of the dramas of Kalidasa [? 6th century, A.D.). strips of the papyrus selis, a “leaf,” (cf. Greek, Like the palm leaves used in Southern India, the lepein "to scale' ], which gummed together formed strips of bhoja-patra are not gummed together, and what we call a “ page,”- this word coming to us rolled up, but are laid separately one orer the through the Latin “pagina,” [“ pangere,” to fasten), other, in ordered pages, the whole being bound from the Greek pégnuein,“ to make fast," pégma, a between two thin boards, held together either by “ bookcase,” &c. [cf: “pact,” “ peace,” &c., and a wrapper of cotton or other cloth, or a tum or Sanskrit pacas, “a band,” Zend pacaiti, “ bonds,” | two of tape or twine, or by a peg, or somepacu, “catile”; and again Latin “ pecus" “cattle," times a wide, gaping ring, on which the leaves “ pecunia" “money,” &c.] The Romans called this' were, one by one, turned away from the reader as he pellicle “liber," i.l., “bark," whence our word ! completes their perusal. Possibly the collected "library.” But the book formed of strips of papyrus was I writings of the Saxons were preserved in a similar not of the form with wbich we are now familiar, but a form. It would be handier than the Roman "codex," roll, generally single but often double, called by the and this may serve to explain the supersession throughGreeks kylindros, and by the Romans “volumen”. out the Teutonic countries of Europe of the Roman (from " volvere" cf: Russian valih, “a cylinder," word "codex” by the Saxon word “book.” The great Sanskrit, vala yata, sets rolling," and our “worm," evolution throughout Europe in the production of col. * whelm," " wallow," " whelm," " wile," " willow," lected writings as books was due, not so much to the &c.), the term now wrongly applied by us to a sepa. invention of printing. [“ Speculum Humanae Salva. rate section of one of our cuboid books. What we tionis,'' 1438; in China block printing, 6th cent.: erroneously call a volume the Greeks called tomos moveable types, 10th cent.), as to the invention [cf: “anatomy," "tonsure,” &c., and again the early 14th cent. : in China, of cotton, 6th cent.) Greek temenos, and Latin “temenum” or “tem- of linen paper, which in the binding naturally plum,” a “temple ") i e., a "section" of a work of took, not the form of the “volume," but of the several “cylinders ” or “rolls," the tome of the more " code," with the Saxon name of “ book.” accurate French. When about the 7th century parch

GEORGE BIRDWOOD. ment (from Pergamon) entirely superseded the use of papyrus, it was rolled up in the same way; and writings on parchment continued to be rolled up in this way long after the introduction of the separated “ leaf” form of book; and, indeed, the use

Obituary. of “ rolls," in the case of manuscript records, and legal documents, continues to this day. The modern

FIELD-MARSHAL SIR JOHN LINTORN SIMMONS, form of the book has probably two origins. Ancient, G.C.B.. G.C.M.G. – Sir John Lintorn Arabin writings were not only on rocks, bricks, sheets

Simmons died at his residence, Hawley-house, Blackof lead, or copper, papyrus, skins, but on

water, Hants, on Saturday morning, 14th inst. He planks or tablets of wood, as in China to this

was born at Langford, Somersetshire, February 12, day [compare also the pata of the Hindus]. These

1821, and after being educated at Elizabeth College, tablets were cut from the trunk of a tree, called

Guernsey, and at the Royal Military Academy, in Latin "codex," 1.2., “caudex ;” a term the Ro

Woolwich, he obtained his first commission as a mans applied to “account books," " recipe books,"

second Lieutenant, Royal Engineers, in December, “law books,” and books generally ; the “codex”. *

1837. His early service was in North America, and or, as we say, code, not having its leaves joined

for the first portion of his professional career he together, and rolled up from one end or both,

devoted his attention largely to railway work, holding as were those in the “ volume," but arranged sepa

successively the appointment of Inspector of Rail. rately, as in the modern book. Two planks of wood,

ways; Secretary to the Railway Commission, and or two tablets of wood, ivory, or metal, hinged to.

Secretary to the Railway Department of the Board gether, received, both among the Greeks and

of Trade. From 1854 to 1856 he was H. M.'s Romans, the name of diptycha, and the written

Commissioner with the Ottoman Army, and subse. (with style on wax] diptych was the first separately

quently he took part in the siege of Sebastopol. leaved book of our type. When the word “book"

From 1857 to 1865 he was Consul-General at Warsaw, first took the place of such words as “ volume,

and in the latter year he, commanded the Royal and “code,” is not known. But it has now been

Engineers at Aldershot. From 1865 to 1868 he was made clear that it is the Saxon word boe; and it refers to the beech tree, the inner bark of which This bark has various uses, and is regarded as sacred (bhoja. patra] is still used for writing in Thibet,

all over India. The jars of Ganges water, brought to this

country by the illustrious Maharaja of Jepore, were covered * The "codicillus " was a diminutive tablet for writing over with it; and it should be thrown also into every funera: memoranda. Cf: “libellus" and "cartula."

pyre of a twice-born Hindu.

Director of Military Engineers, Chatham, and in 1871 he published a pamphlet on “ The Military Forces of Great Britain,” which is specially referred to in the Obituary notice of the late Field-Marshal in The Times. From 1870 to 1875 he was Governor of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; In. spector-General of Fortifications from 1875 to 1880, and Governor of Malta from 1884 to 1888. Sir John Lintorn Simmons attained the rank of Field-Marshal in 1890. He was one of the senior members of the Society of Arts, having been elected so far back as the year 1853.

employed, and the arrangement of type and spacing. Complementary design upon the diploma, though it must be simple in style and suitable for a university document, is not strictly excluded ; nor, subject to the conditions stated, are designs employing colour. Competitors may insert the arms of the University, or omit them, as seems most congruous with the design as a whole. Room for the seal of the

Univer-ity, measuring 2 inches in diameter, is to be | left. Designs must be sent in to the Academic Registrar, University of London, S.W., from whom further particulars can be obtaired, on or be ore April ist, 1903.



Wednesday evenings, at Eight o'clock :ACROSS ICELAND. By W. Bissiker. London: FEBRUARY 25.-" Tonkin, Yunnan and Burma.” Edwin Arnold. 1902.

By Fred. W. CAREY, late H.B.M.'s Acting-Consul In the summer of 1900, Mr. Bissiker and a party at Szemao, China. of friends crossed Iceland from the north-east to the MARCH 4.-" Education in Holland.” By J. C. south-west, traversing the comparatively little known

MEDD. volcanic region of the island. The present volume MARCH 11.-“Existing Laws, By-laws, and Regugives an account of the trip and of the country lations relating to Protection from Fire, with Criticisms crossed. The information given will be very service and Suggestions.” By T. BRICE PHILLIPS. (Fotherable to any who contemplate a like excursion, which, gill Prize Essay.) SIR WILLIAM H. PREECE, K.C.B., according to Mr. Bissiker's account, can be made F.R.S., will preside. without much difficulty, and in a reasonable amount

Dates to be hereafter announced :of time, if suitable preparations are made beforehand. The book is illustrated with a number of excellent

“Oil Lighting by Incandescence." By ARTHUR photographs, taken by the author and his friends, and

KITSON. can be recommended to those interested in Iceland,

“ The Use of Electrical Energy in Workshops and or desiring information about it.

Factories." By ALFRED C. EBORALL, M.I.E.E.

“Modern Bec-Keeping.” By WALTER FRANCIS ALBRECHT DÜRER. By Lina Eckenstein. London: | REID, F.C.S. Duckworth and Co.

“ Preservation of the Species of Big Game in FREDERICK WALKER. By Clementina Black. Africa." By E. North BUXTON, London : Duckworth and Co.

“ Fencing as an Art and an Historic Sport.” By These are two additional volumes of the series of EGERTON CASTLE, M.A. little books on great artists, published by Messrs. Duckworth ; previous volumes of which series have

INDIAN SECTION. already been noticed. The subjects of these two Thursday Afternoons, at 4.30 o'clock :books illustrate the wide extent of ground covered FEBRUARY 26. — “Gleanings from the Indian in the several volumes from the 15th to the 19th Census.” By JERVOISE ATHELSTANE BAINES, C.S.I. centuries. These monographs are fully illustrated.

SIR ROBERT G. C. MOWBRAY, Bart., M.P., will preside.

MARCH 12.—“The Currency Policy of India.”'


SASSOON, Bart., M.P., will preside.

APRIL 23. — “ The Province of Sind.” By


MAY 14.-" The Province of Assam.” By Sir LONDON.- The University of London offers a prize

CHARLES JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., M.A., LL.D. of five guineas to the students of the Art Schools of London and others, for an original design for

COLONIAL SECTION. degree diplomas granted by the University to

Tuesday Afternoons, at 4.30 or 5 o'clock :internal students. The design should be simple MARCH 3, at 4.30 p.m.-"The Uganda of To-day." and dignified in cbaracter, and should depend in By HERBERT Samuel, M.P. Sir HARRY H. the main for its artistic effect upon the leitering | JOHNSTON, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., will preside.

MARCH 31, at 4.30 p.m.-"British North Borneo.” 1 W. WORBY BEAUMONT, Mem.Inst.C.E.,
By HENRY WALKER, Commissioner of Lands, | “Mechanical Road Carriages.” Four Lectures.
British North Borneo.

April 27, May 4, 11, 18.
MAY 5, at 4.30 p m.-" The Lagos Hinterland : its
People and its Products.” By MAJOR J. H. EwArt.

APPLIED ART SECTION. Tuesdays, at 4.30 or 8 o'clock. MARCH 17. 4.30 p.m.-“ Artistic Fans.” By Miss HANNAH FALCKE. SIR GEORGE BIRDWOOD, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., will preside.

Monday Evenings, at Eight o'clock :-

JULIUS HÜBNER, “Paper Manufacture.” Four Lectures.

LECTURE IV.–FEBRUARY 23.-Single cylinder and other types of paper-making machines-Finishing - Cutting—Statistics-Paper-testing—Experimental paper making. . PROF. J. A. FLEMING, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., “ Hertzian Wave Telegraphy in Theory and Practice.” Four Lectures.

LECTURE I.-MARCH 2. - General Principles. The Theory of the Radiator or Aerial.-Introductory remarks—The production of an electric wave—The theory of the aerial or radiator-Comparison between organ pipes and Hertzian wave radiators— The propagation of an electric wave over earth or water surface -Fundamental and harmonic electrical oscillations in radiators—The Marconi radiator—The Braun radiator

--The Slaby radiator-Oscillation transformers and multiplicators.

LECTURE II.-MARCH 9.-Transmitting Ar. rangements and Transmitters.—The various elements in a Hertzian wave transmitter—The induction coil — Various forms of coil-- Various forms of breakAlternating current transformers – The primary circuit interruptor—The discharger and condensers, The simple radiator-Marconi's syntonic radiator-Braun's inductive system - Multiple transformation system, Production of powerful æther waves.

LECTURE III.-MARCH 16.-Receiving Arrangements and Receivers.-The function of the receiving aerial -- Electric wave detectors or responders — Classification of responders-Hughes's metallic microphone-Branly-Lodge coherer-Marconi receiverAnticoherers-Magnetic receivers—Marconi's magnetic receiver-Thermal and electrolytic respondersVarious forms of receiving arrangement.

LECTURE IV.-MARCH 23.-Syntonization and possible Improvements.-The problem of syntonyTime period of an electric circuit-Syntonic arrange. ments of Lodge, Marconi, Slaby, and others-- The difficulties of the problem-Suggested substitute for syntony-Arrangements of Blondel and Anders Bull -Problems awaiting solution—The limitations and utilities of Hertzian wave telegraphy—The future of the new telegraphy,


Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. (Cantor Lectures.) Mr.
Julius Hübner, “Paper Manufacture.” (Lec.
ture IV.)
Surveyors, 12, Great George-street, S.W., 8 p.m.
Mr. Henry Lovegrove, “Regulations for Protection

from Fire."
Geographical, Burlington.gardens, W., 84 p.m.
Actuaries, Staples-inn Hall, Holborn, 5 p.m.
Camera Club, Charing-cross-road, W.C., 81 p..
Mr. T. Hepworth, " Some Curiosities of the


Medical, 11, Chandos-street, W., 83 p.m. TUESDAY, FEB. 24...Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W.,

5 p.m. Sir William Abney, “ Recent Advances

in Photographic Science." (Lecture 1.) Hellenic Studies, 22, Albermarle-street, W., 5 p.m. Medical and Chirurgical, 20, Hanover-square, W.,

8} p.m. Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W.,

8 p.m. Mr. George Frederick Zimmer, “Ne

chanical Handling of Material."
Photographic, 66, Russell-square, W.C., 8 p.m.

Anthropological, 3, Hanover-square, W., 81 p.in, WEDNESDAY, FEB. 25...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street,

Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. Mr. Fred. W. Carey,

“Tonkin, Yunnan and Burma." Geological, Burlington-house, W., 3 p.m. British Astronomical, Sion College, Victoria

embankment. E.C., 5 p.m. Royal Society of Literature, 20, Hanover-square, W.,

81 p.m. THURSDAY, FEB. 26...SOCIETY OF ARTS, Jobn-street,

Adelphi, W.C., 4$ p.m. (Indian Section.) Mr.
Jervoise Athelstane Baines, “Gleanings from the

Indian Census."
Royal, Burlington-house, W., 45 p.m.
Antiquaries, Burlington-house, W., & p.m.
Royal Institution, Albemarle - street, W., 5 p...

Prof. L. C. Miall, “Insect Contrivances." (Lec-
ture I.)
Electrical Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W.,
8 p.m. 1. Mr. J. Stöttner, “ The Nernst Lamp."
2. Messrs. A. D. Constable and E. Fawssett,
“ Distribution Losses in Electric Supply Systems."
3. Mr. M. Field, “A Study of the Phenomenoa
of Resonance in Electric Circuit by the aid of

Camera Club, Charing-cross-road, W.C., 81 p.o.

Mr. Carmichael Thomas, "Odds and Ends from

an Editor's Portfolio." FRIDAY, FEB. 27... Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W.,

5 p.m. Weekly Meeting, 9 p.m. Prof. Adolph Liebmann, "Perfumes : Natural and Artificial." Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W..

8 p m. (Students' Meeting.) Mr. E. Falk, “ The relative advantages of Single Screws, Twis Screws, and Triple Screws, for Marine Propule

sion." Clinical, 20, Hanover-square, W., 84 p.m. Physical, Chemical Society's Rooms, Burling

ton-house, W., 5 p.m. SATURDAY, FEB. 28...Royal Institution, Albemarle-street,

W., 3 p.m. Lord Rayleigh, “Ligbt : its Osigin and Nature." (Lecture I.)

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