skill and tendency of Italian art which led to than the former, The garishness of present mosaics the gradual substitution of fresco for mosaic. He was due to the fact that nothing but vitreous thought most present would agree with him that paste was used, instead of following the wisdom of the the very skill of the modem mosaist was a ancients, and using the various marbles. He was in danger, that mosaic was fitted for decorative and possession of a small piece of mosaic taken from especially not fitted for pictorial work, and that just | St. Mark's, showing that the tessera were larger at so; far as mosaic was applied to pictorial art, it the top than at the bottom, a point distinctly in would cease to be an art. Delicate modelling was out favour of his contention that the work was done of place in mosaic, and was not wanted. Reference in situ. If it was done in situ it was an advantage had also been made to adherence to a very specially to have tessera with a point ; if not, there was prepared coloured cartoon, which left nothing to the not much advantage. He sully agreed with Mr. workman. That might easily be a danger. The Burton's reference to the extreme importance of the cartoon for the work in the church decorated by mastic showing between the tesseræ ; it gave a Sir Edward Burne-Jones was not the final general tone to the whole mosaic, out of which the scheme. Sir Edward at an early stage of the details of colour spårkled. work made a very careful selection of such colours of tesseræ as he thought should be used in the whole scheme of work. He disagreed with previous speakers

Mr. Philip NEWMAN congratulated the author in their remarks as to the advantage of the push on the excellent discussion his paper had evoked. given to the work ; he thought it would be mechani. Evidently, there was a very divided opinion as to the cal as compared with the individual placing of the method in which mosaic should be constructed. tesseræ. Expedition and cheapness were valuable,

The question was whether mosaic should be made on but they did not necessarily secure Art, and, he

the face or on the back. Arguments had been brought thought, had little to do with it. If Art was required forward showing that in ancient times mosaic could in anything they must cease to work for the time not have been made on the back, because there being for either expedition or cheapness.

was no paper. There was no paper also for the stained-glass workman, but he managed with a

board, and he had no doubt that if the mosaist Mr. R. F. CHISHOLM thought that mosaic should be

of those days worked, at all he worked on a treated from two points of view, external decoration

board. It was quite a mistake to suppose that and internal decoration. What might be good for

in working on the face it was impossible to internal use might be bad when used externally. As a

see in a church, because one was hampered by durable material, he thought the fat surface on the

scaffolding and absence of light, and that one worked exterior would be preferable to the in and out surface

from a cartoon very much better. He thought caused by the push-back. In regard to the question of

Mr. Matthew Webb had disposed of that question setting the mosaic on to paper, he had put it on

by referring to Sir Edward Burne-Jones's practice of to wood, tracing the design on the wood, floating

dealing with the cartoon. For the last three years the tesseræ with cement on the back. The mosaic was

he had been working in a church in the dark, becau:e put up much more easily in that way than when paper

there was no electric light or gas, but be had to use was used. It was quite possible that the ancients

paraffin lamps. The common-sense view of the used wood, or some other substance, not paper.

matter as it occurred to him was to begin with

the highest light and work down from that. He had Mr. HAMILTON Jackson thought the ancients did followed that practice, and the result had pleased not use paper. He believed that on the plaster into | most people. He was perfectly convinced it was a which the tessere were set, they sketched the colour,

far better way than working on a board or paper face because the tracings were still to be seen at a parti down, because one could see what was being done cular place, where they were discovered when the and modify the mosaic. With the method of beginmosaics were being restored. Notwithstanding the ning with the highest tone success could be achieved difficulties there must have been in selecting the in a way which could not be secured by working face tessere and matching the colours, no doubt, in

downwards on a board or a paper. view of the fact that the design was traced in colours upon the plaster the mosaic was executed in situ. The difficulties connected with selecting the

On the mo:ion of the CHAIRMAN, a vote of thanks tint would be nothing like so great as imagined,

was accorded to Mr. Hamilton for his paper. because it would be found in all Greek mosiacs that never more than three or four tints for each colour Mr. Hamilton, in reply, after thanking the were used; and yet a fine effect of colour was

meeting for the vote of thanks, said the Chairman obtained. Now-a-days nothing but metallic tessera and had asked why the tessere should not be fixed in vitreous paste was used; in the old days the greater trays in cement? That was done in some cases. part of the mosaic was done with natural stone, and It was very suitable where mosaics were intended to the effect of the latter was very much less garish cover flat surfaces, but they could not be fixed in such a

way if used on curves. In regard to the thickness of they would think of doing. Mr. Newman had
the tesseræ, it was not, as a rule, as much as half an stated that he succeeded in making mosiacs by
inch, being about a quarter of an inch, or a little more. artificial light. That was, no doubt, possible,
The coloured tessera bore the test of time very well. | but there must be attendant difficulties, because
Together with Mr. John Clayton, he visited the Albert it was obvious that a glass enamel would give
Memorial, a short time ago, and found that although out one tint in a yellow light and another in a
the golden tesseræ had suffered very considerably, the blueish light. If the mosaist' was working by
coloured tessera were as perfect as on the day they artificial light he must know his colour very well
were fixed, about 30 years ago, exposed as they had indeed before he placed it in position, otherwise the
been to the four winds of heaven at the height of colours would become somewhat mixed. The first
100 feet. It meant that the tesseræ were sufficiently point in connection with the new method was that
deeply imbedded in the cement to remain there as there was always a good light by which to work.
long as the cement remained. The Chairman had It had also been said that it was possible to
alluded to schools being established in the country for see the effect of mosaic even when it was
mosaics. That, no doubt, would be a very excellent shrouded. He had been making some experiments
thing, but it looked very far into the future. Attempts on the Albert Meinorial, and it was so impossible to
had been made in different countries to establish see from a distance, through the scaffolding, the effect
schools of mosaic, but none of them had met with of the experiments being made, that the panels had to
great success. There had always been mosaic ateliers be brought outside the scaffolding, in order to obtain a
in Rome for the purpose of doing the repairs good idea of the mosaic.
necessary at St. Peter's, and similar institutions
in Russia to repair many mosaic works there
in existence. One would have imagined that
those would have been very good schools ; and yet
the Government of Russia, when they wanted to

decorate the mausoleum of Alexander II., sent to
Venice to have the mosaics executed, and Cardinal
Rampolla sent to Venice when he wished to have

INDIAN INDUSTRIAL ART. his mosaics executed in Rome. That did not look as if the schools were altogether successful. Mr. It is disappointing to find the remarks of the Day had stated that although a little push could be Viceroy of India on native industrial art, copied in given he thought it was not often done. He thought the Journal from the Times, have passed without mosaists would agree with him that it was much easier comment from any of your numerous readers. to make the surface of a mosaic rough than smooth. Lord Curzon's almost despairing tone when speakThe tesseræ were placed in the moist cement, and ing of the present position and outlook, engenders unless they were beaten in very hard it was impossible the hope that the persistent policy of conservation is to get anything like a smooth surface. It was an ex- to be abandoned, that beaureaucratic conservatism is tremely difficult thing to get. When it was stated that to give place to the free and more vigorous policy of the mosaics which were executed by the new method, commercialism, that the arts and handicrafts of India were so Aat, it was because the artist who had de will be henceforth developed on lines different to signed the cartoon had requested that they should be those favoured by the band of well-meaning, but, in dat. For instance, the mosaics under the dome of St. my opinion, misguided enthusiasts who have hitherto Paul's were executed from the design of Mr. Alfred held the reins. The Government of India has Stevens and Mr. Watts, and in making the back| lavished honours on these gentlemen; and spared ground flat, his firm had followed the instructions of no expense in furthering their views, and the actual the artists. There was no flatness in the mosaics in result, long since foretold, is Lord Curzon tells us : the Houses of Parliament made from the cartoons of “ The progressive deterioration and decline of all arts Sir Edward Poynter, but in that case again his firm and handicrafts." followed the instructions of the artist. No in- With the salient features of the case, such as they structions were given to make them fat, in fact, are, could it have been otherwise ? On the one hand, quite the other way. It was possible to make a small band of purists armed with a knowledge of any surface one liked, and, of the two, it was the subject not altogether above suspicion, urging the easier to make a rough surface than a flat one. native artizan to keep to his old forms; to continue to In regard to Mr. Burke's challenge as to what his make teapots which will not hold hot water, and authority was for making a certain statement, he half-burnt rubbish of all kinds, because these thought if Mr. Burke would read the passage he articles exhibit the luscious blues of oxide of would find it was written in very tentative language. copper; shields which could not resist the poke of If there was any authority which could be relied upon a spike ; swords which would double up at the first to show that the ancients did use the paper method, thrust! and a host of articles once useful, but not he would be very readily convinced. His firm did not mere vehicles for artistic display! On the other cut tessera by machinery; it was the last thing hand, that irresistible body, the public, demanding

something useful for their money. The unfortunate struments, by means of which they , are rendered native artizan, thus torn in two, seeing meanwhile melographic, that is, capable of writing down any the actual markets flooded with English, American, music that is played upon them." The writer does German, and French goods, sought more lucrative not refer specially to the word or say whether it had employment, and left the solution of this impossible been previously used apart from the word phonoproblem to less skilful hands. If commercialism graphy. alone had ruled the Government policy, terrible mistakes would have been made, but the manipulative skill, the real valuable element worth conserving, MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY, would have been preserved, and nothing but a curious

ORDINARY MEETINGS. form of conceit on the part of those urging conserva

Wednesday evenings, at Eight o'clock :tion, justifies the assumption that the art instincts of the people, which produced such admirable works,

FEBRUARY II.-" The Port of London.” By Dr. would not, in process of time, again assert them

B. W. GINSBURG, ALDERMAN SIR JAMES selves, and more than recover lost ground.

THOMSON RITCHIE will preside. Here in England, in our midst, where a large section

FEBRUARY 18.-" Three-Colour Printing.” By of the public understand and appreciate beautiful

HARVEY DALZIEL. CARMICHAEL THOMAS will arts, it has been found impossible to conserve even

preside. the best of them. The beautiful art of etching on

FEBRUARY 25.-—“Tonkin, Yunnan and Burma." copper-plate succumbed to steel engraving, and this

By FRED. W. CAREY, late H.B.M.'s Acting-Consul in its tum died before etching, when the process of

at Szemao, China. steel facing copper was invented ; and both these arts Dates to be hereafter announced :have now passed to give place to photographic pro “Existing Laws, By-laws, and Regulations recesses. In the face of such facts as these the attempts

lating to Protection from Fire, with Criticisms and to conserve native Indian art industries by aesthetical Suggestions.” · By T: BRICE PHILLIPS. · (Fotherand poetical talk at art exhibitions seems eminently

gill Prize Essay.) unpractical.

“Oil Lighting by Incandescence." By ARTHUR I do not quite see why Lord Curzon alluded to KITSON. "Tottenham - court - road furniture.” Unless great ." The Use of Electrical Energy in Workshops and changes have recently taken place, the Government

Factories.” By ALFRED C. EBORALL, M.I.E.E. houses in Calcutta, in Madras, and in Bombay, would

“Modern Bee-Keeping." By WALTER FRANCIS be much improved by a few additions from Messrs.

REID, F.C.S. Maple or Shoolbred, and I can add with greater

“Education in Holland.” By J. C. MEDD. certainty, that, fortunately for the comfort of the

| “Preservation of the Species of Big Game in inmates, neither one of these three houses con

Africa.”. By E. NORTH BUXTON. tains a single' purely native-made bedstead, or

“Fencing as an Art and an Historic Sport.” By native-made chair ; either such things do not exist,

EGERTON CASTLE, M.A. or Government sets a bad example. Neither can

“ The River Thames and the Desecration of the I understand Lord Curzon's allusion to “cheap Picturesque." By J. ASHBY. STERRY. Italian mosaic.” Mosaic is one of the most ancient and beautiful arts the world has yet seen, it supplants

INDIAN SECTION. no purely native art ; it is admirably adapted to the thanipulative skill of the native workman, being closely

Thursday Afternoons, at 4.30 o'clock :allied to the Florentine Art which has found so firm

FEBRUARY 26. — “ Cleanings from the Indian a footing in Agra; but it certainly has not the merit

Census." By JERVOISE ATHELSTANE BAINES, C.S.I. of being “cheap!” The cheapest piece of this work MARCH 12.-" The Currency Policy of India." I executed in India, a floor measuring about 80 feet

By J. BARR ROBERTSON. SIR EDWARD A. by 54 feet, cost, in English money, £7,600!

SASSOON, Bart., M.P., will preside.

APRIL 23. — “ The Province of Sind.” By R. F. CHISHOLM.


MAY 14.-" The Province of Assam.” By SIR CHARLES JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., M.A., LL.D.

General Notes.

Tuesday Afternoons, at 4.30 or 5 o'clock :-

FEBRUARY 10, at 5 p.m.-“Women in Canada.” USE OF THE WORD PHONOGRAPH - In the By the COUNTESS OF ABERDEEN. The RT. Hon. number of the Journal for October 16th, 1863 (Vol. LEONARD H. COURTNEY, M.A., LL.D., will preside. XI., p. 747), there is a notice of a machine called MARCH 3, at 4.30 p.m.-" The Uganda of To-day.” the electro-magnetic phonograph, “ capable of being By HERBERT SAMUEL, M.P. Sir HARRY H. attached to pianofortes, organs, and other keyed in. | JOHNSTON, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., will preside.

MARCH 31, at 4.30 p.m._“British North Borneo."

Surveyors, 12, Great George-street, S.W., 8 p.m. By HENRY WALKER, Commissioner of Lands,

Mr. William Woodward, "Some of the Difficulties

which present themselves to the Architect and British North Borneo.

Surveyor Practicing in London " MAY 5, at 4.30 p.m.-" The Lagos Hinterland : its

Geographical, L'niversity of London, Burlington. People and its Products." By MAJOR J. H. EWART.

gardens, W., 8 p.m. London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 5 p.m.

Dr. W. H. S, Aubrey, “ Diseases and Doctors in APPLIED ART SECTION.

the Olden Time." Tuesdays, at 4.30 or 8 o'clock.

TUESDAY, FEB, 10...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street, FEBRUARY 17. 8 p.m.—“Heraldry in Decora

Adelphi, W.C., 5 p.m. (Colonial Section.į tion." By GEORGE W. EVE, A.R.E. LEWIS

Countess of Aberdeen, “ Women in Canada."

Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 5 p.m. FOREMAN DAY will preside.

Professor Allan Macfadyen, “ The Physiology of MARCH 17. 4.30 p.m.-“ Artistic Fans.” By

Digestion." (Lecture V.) Miss HANNAH FALCKE. Sir GEORGE BIRDWOOD),

Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W., K.C.I.E., C.S.I., will preside.

8 p.m. Mr. David Carnegie, “The Manufacture

and Efficiency of Armour-piercing Projectiles." MAY 19. 4.30 p.m.-“ The Mounting of a Play"

Photographic, 66, Russell-square, W.C., 8 p.m. (Stage Costumes and Accessories). By PERCY

Annual Meeting. MACQUOID, R.I.

Anthropological, 3, Hanover-square, W., & p.m. Messrs. James Powell and Sons have kindly invited

Colonial Institution, Whitehall-rooms, Whitehall.

place, S.W., 8 p.m. Mr. B. H. Morgan, “ The the Applied Art Section to visit the Whitefriars Glass

Trade and Industry of South Africa." Works, Tudor-street, E.C., on Tuesday evening,

Medical, 11, Chandos-street, W., 8. p.m. April 28th, from 7.30 to 10.30 p.m. A short paper

Asiatic, 22, Albemarle-street, W. 4 p.m. on “Modern Table Glass" will be read by Mr.

Pharmaceutical, 17, Bloomsbury-square, W.C., 8

p.m. Harry Powell, and the processes of glass blowing will

WEDNESDAY, FEB. 11...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street be explained in the glass house. The number of

Adeiphi, W.C., 8 p.m. Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, visitors will be limited to 100. Further particulars

"The Port of London," will be announced later on.

Sanitary Institute, 74a, Margaret-street, W., 8 p.m.

Discussion on “ The present Shortage of Water

available for Supply,” to be opened by Mr. W. CANTOR LECTURES.


Japan Society, 20, Hanover-square, S.W., 83 p.m. Monday Evenings, at Eight o'clock :

Mr. R. A. McLean, " The Finances of Japan." JULIUS HÜBNER, “ Paper Manufacture.”

Royal Literary Fund, 7, Adelphi-terrace, W.C., Four Lectures.

3 p.m.

Biblical Archäology, 37, Great Russell-street, LECTURE II.-FEBRUARY 9.-Soda recovery

W.C., 4. p.m. Manila

hemp-Jute and other raw materials-Me- THURSDAY, FEB, 12.... Royal, Burlington-house, W., 4. p.m. chanical wood pulp-Wood cellulose- Beating

Antiquaries, Burlington-house, W., & p.m. Sizing-Loading–Colouring.

London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 6 p.m. LECTURE III.-FEBRUARY 16.-Stuff-chest

Dr. C. W. Pearce, " The Songs of Schubert and

Schumann.” Regulator - Sand-tables - Strainer - Hand-made

Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 5 p.m. paper-Fourdrinier paper machine.

Sir Clements Markham, "Arctic and Antarctic LECTURE IV.-FEBRUARY 23.--Single cylinder

Exploration." (Lecture II.) and other types of paper-making machines- Finishing

Electrical Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W.,

8 p.m. Discussion on “ The Metric System," - Cutting--Statistics-Paper-testing-Experimental

and on Messrs. Scott and Esson's papers. paper making.

Mathematical, 22, Albemarle-street, W., 5. p.m. PROF. J. A. FLEMING, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., | Friday, FEB. 13...Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., “Hertzian Wave Telegraphy in Theory and

8 p.m. Weekly Meeting. 9 p.m. Professor Practice.” Four Lectures.

Sheridan Delepine, “ Health Dangers in Food."

Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W., March 2, 9, 16, 23.

8 p.m. (Students' Meeting .) Mr. H. A. Bartleti, W. WORBY BEAUMONT, Mem.Inst.C.E.,

“ The Construction and Setting-out of Tunnels in

the London Clay." “Mechanical Road Carriages.” Four Lectures.

Astronomical, Burlington-house, 5 p.m. Annual April 27, May 4, 11, 18.

Clinical, 20, Hanover-square, W., 8} p.m.
Physical, Chemical Society's Rooms, Burling,

ton-house, W., 5 p.m. Annual Meeting. dd.

dress by the President. MEETING FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.

SATURDAY, FEB. 14... Botanic, Inner Circle, Regent's-park, MONDAY, FEB. 9...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street,

N.W., 38 p.m.
Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. (Cantor Lectures.) Mr.

Royal Institution, Albemarle - street, W., ; p.m.
Julius Hübner, “Paper Manufacture.” (Lec-

Mr. A. B. Walkley, “Dramatic Criticisin." ture II.)

(Lecture II.)

Journal of the Society of Arts, Proceedings of the Society. No. 2,621. Vol. LI.


Tuesday, February 3, 1903, 4.30 p.m.; Professor WILLIAM GARNETT, M.A., D.C.L., in the chair.

All communications for the Society should be addressed to

the Secretary, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C. .

The paper read was-




MONDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 8 p.m. (Cantor

On every hand we hear of the necessity for Lectures.) JULIUS HÜBNER, “ Paper Manu

technical education. Education that is, that facture." (Lecture III.)

will fit men and women for the special work by TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 8 p.m. (Applied which they are to earn their living. Art Section.) GEORGE W. Eve, “Heraldry The necessity for this special education has in Decoration."

arisen through the death of the ancient craft WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 8 p.m. (Ordi traditions, with the old apprenticeship system, nary Meeting.) HARVEY DALZIEL, “ Three brought about by the great development of Colour Printing.”

machinery, and the consequent enlargement of workshops and factories, with the resulting division of labour.

Formerly a boy was apprenticed to a master CANTOR LECTURES.

who was a skilled worker in his trade, and who, Mr. JULIUS HÜBNER delivered the second while working himself, could personally train lecture of his course on “ Paper Manufacture" his apprentice. It was just this personal on Monday evening, 9th inst.

element that was of such value, and that is The Lectures will be printed in the Journal now so commonly lacking in the training of during the summer recess.

young workmen.

Now a boy is apprenticed to a trade, or, more commonly, not apprenticed at all. In either

case he is too often left to pick up his trade as COLONIAL SECTION.

best he can, being kept long at some one pro· TUESDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 10.

cess, as by that means his work becomes more

quickly of value., Workmen are turned out The Right Hon. LEONARD COURTENAY, M.A., LL.D., in the chair. The paper read

highly skilled in the mechanical side of some was “ Women in Canada." By the COUNTESS

one process of a trade, but with hardly any OF ABERDEEN.

conception of the work as a whole, or with any The paper and report of the discussion will

ideal other than machine-like precision. be published in a future number of the

When workshops were small, each work. Journal. :

man, although he might specialise to some extent, would have a general knowledge of the whole of his craft, and of the relation which his

part of the work bore to the work of his fellow LIST OF MEMBERS.

workmen in the shop. As, moreover, crafts The new edition of the List of Members of the were formerly carried on in accordance with Society is now ready, and can be obtained comparatively simple and slowly changing by members on application to the Secretary. I traditions, and with materials that had been

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